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Low Ribosomal Rna Genes Copy Number Provoke Genomic Instability And Chromosomal Segment Duplication Events That Modify Global Gene Expression And Plant-Pathogen Response, Ariadna Picart-Picolo, Stefan Grob, Nathalie Picault, Michal Franek, Thierry Halter, Tom R. Maier, Christel Llauro, Edouard Jobet, Panpan Zhang, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Thomas J. Baum, Lionel Navarro, Martina Dvorackova, Marie Mirouze, Frederic Pontvianne Jan 2020

Low Ribosomal Rna Genes Copy Number Provoke Genomic Instability And Chromosomal Segment Duplication Events That Modify Global Gene Expression And Plant-Pathogen Response, Ariadna Picart-Picolo, Stefan Grob, Nathalie Picault, Michal Franek, Thierry Halter, Tom R. Maier, Christel Llauro, Edouard Jobet, Panpan Zhang, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Thomas J. Baum, Lionel Navarro, Martina Dvorackova, Marie Mirouze, Frederic Pontvianne

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Among the hundreds of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies organized as tandem repeats in the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), only a portion is usually actively expressed in the nucleolus and participate in the ribosome biogenesis process. The role of these extra-copies remains elusive, but previous studies suggested their importance in genome stability and global gene expression. Because the nucleolus is also a platform for nuclear organization, we tested the impact of a decreased amount of rRNA gene copies on the Arabidopsis thaliana 3D genome organization and stability, using an A. thaliana line only containing 20% of rRNA gene copies (20rDNA ...


The Rna Of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus - The Essential Virus In Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease - Is Translated Via A Panicum Mosaic Virus-Like Cap-Independent Translation Element, Elizabeth Carino, Kay Scheets, W. Allen Miller Jan 2020

The Rna Of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus - The Essential Virus In Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease - Is Translated Via A Panicum Mosaic Virus-Like Cap-Independent Translation Element, Elizabeth Carino, Kay Scheets, W. Allen Miller

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) combines with a potyvirus in maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND), an emerging disease worldwide that often causes catastrophic yield loss. To inform resistance strategies, we characterized the translation initiation mechanism of MCMV. We report that, like other tombusvirids, MCMV RNA contains a cap-independent translation element (CITE) in its 3’ untranslated region (UTR). The MCMV 3’ CITE (MTE) was mapped to nucleotides 4164-4333 in the genomic RNA. SHAPE probing revealed that the MTE is a variant of the panicum mosaic virus-like 3’ CITE (PTE). Like the PTE, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) indicated that eukaryotic translation ...


De Novo Transcriptome Of Phakopsora Pachyrhizi Uncovers Putative Effector Repertoire During Infection, Manjula G. Elmore, Sagnik Banerjee, Kerry F. Pedley, Amy Ruck, Steven A. Whitham Jan 2020

De Novo Transcriptome Of Phakopsora Pachyrhizi Uncovers Putative Effector Repertoire During Infection, Manjula G. Elmore, Sagnik Banerjee, Kerry F. Pedley, Amy Ruck, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Phakopsora pachyrhizi, which causes Asian soybean rust (ASR), secretes effector proteins to manipulate host immunity and promote disease. To date, only a small number of effectors have been identified from transcriptome studies. To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of P. pachyrhizi candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs), we sequenced the transcriptome using two next-generation sequencing technologies. Short-read Illumina RNA-Seq data was used for reducing base-calling errors for long-read PacBio Iso-Seq. After initial de novo assemblies for RNA-seq and error correction of transcripts for Iso-Seq followed by filtering, we obtained 8,528, 27,647, 26,895, and 17,141 non-plant, non-soybean transcripts ...


Community-Driven Metadata Standards For Agricultural Microbiome Research, J. P. Dundore-Arias, E. A. Eloe-Fadrosh, L. M. Schriml, Gwyn A. Beattie, F. P. Brennan, P. E. Busby, R. B. Calderon, S. C. Castle, J. B. Emerson, S. E. Everhart, K. Eversole, K. E. Frost, J. R. Herr, A. I. Huerta, A. S. Iyer-Pascuzzi, A. K. Kalil, J. E. Leach, J. Leonard, J. E. Maul, B. Prithiviraj, M. Potrykus, N. R. Redekar, J. A. Rojas, K. A. T. Silverstein, D. J. Tomso, S. G. Tringe, B. A. Vinatzer, L. L. Kinkel Jan 2020

Community-Driven Metadata Standards For Agricultural Microbiome Research, J. P. Dundore-Arias, E. A. Eloe-Fadrosh, L. M. Schriml, Gwyn A. Beattie, F. P. Brennan, P. E. Busby, R. B. Calderon, S. C. Castle, J. B. Emerson, S. E. Everhart, K. Eversole, K. E. Frost, J. R. Herr, A. I. Huerta, A. S. Iyer-Pascuzzi, A. K. Kalil, J. E. Leach, J. Leonard, J. E. Maul, B. Prithiviraj, M. Potrykus, N. R. Redekar, J. A. Rojas, K. A. T. Silverstein, D. J. Tomso, S. G. Tringe, B. A. Vinatzer, L. L. Kinkel

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Accelerating the pace of microbiome science to enhance crop productivity and agroecosystem health will require transdisciplinary studies, comparisons among datasets, and synthetic analyses of research from diverse crop management contexts. However, despite the widespread availability of crop-associated microbiome data, variation in field sampling and laboratory processing methodologies, as well as metadata collection and reporting, significantly constrains the potential for integrative and comparative analyses. Here we discuss the need for agriculture-specific metadata standards for microbiome research, and propose a list of “required” and “desirable” metadata categories and ontologies essential to be included in a future minimum information metadata standards checklist for ...


Protein Expression And Gene Editing In Monocots Using Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vectors, Yu Mei, Bliss Beernink, Evan E. Ellison, Eva Konečná, Anjanasree K. Neelakandan, Daniel F. Voytas, Steven A. Whitham Nov 2019

Protein Expression And Gene Editing In Monocots Using Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vectors, Yu Mei, Bliss Beernink, Evan E. Ellison, Eva Konečná, Anjanasree K. Neelakandan, Daniel F. Voytas, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Plant viruses can be engineered to carry sequences that direct silencing of target host genes, expression of heterologous proteins, or editing of host genes. A set of foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) vectors was developed that can be used for transient gene expression and single guide RNA delivery for Cas9‐mediated gene editing in maize, Setaria viridis, and Nicotiana benthamiana. This was accomplished by duplicating the FoMV capsid protein subgenomic promoter, abolishing the unnecessary open reading frame 5A, and inserting a cloning site containing unique restriction endonuclease cleavage sites immediately after the duplicated promoter. The modified FoMV vectors transiently expressed green ...


New Methods Of Removing Debris And High-Throughput Counting Of Cyst Nematode Eggs Extracted From Field Soil, Kalwa Upender, Christopher Legner, Elizabeth Wlezien, Gregory Tylka, Santosh Pandey Oct 2019

New Methods Of Removing Debris And High-Throughput Counting Of Cyst Nematode Eggs Extracted From Field Soil, Kalwa Upender, Christopher Legner, Elizabeth Wlezien, Gregory Tylka, Santosh Pandey

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is the most damaging pathogen of soybeans in the United States. To assess the severity of nematode infestations in the field, SCN egg population densities are determined. Cysts (dead females) of the nematode must be extracted from soil samples and then ground to extract the eggs within. Sucrose centrifugation commonly is used to separate debris from suspensions of extracted nematode eggs. We present a method using OptiPrep as a density gradient medium with improved separation and recovery of extracted eggs compared to the sucrose centrifugation technique. Also, computerized methods were developed to automate ...


Candidate Effectors From Uromyces Appendiculatus, The Causal Agent Of Rust On Common Bean, Can Be Discriminated Based On Suppression Of Immune Responses, Mingsheng Qi, Yu Mei, James P. Grayczyk, Luana M. Darben, Martin E. G. Rieker, Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele, Steven A. Whitham, Tobias I. Link Oct 2019

Candidate Effectors From Uromyces Appendiculatus, The Causal Agent Of Rust On Common Bean, Can Be Discriminated Based On Suppression Of Immune Responses, Mingsheng Qi, Yu Mei, James P. Grayczyk, Luana M. Darben, Martin E. G. Rieker, Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele, Steven A. Whitham, Tobias I. Link

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Rust fungi are devastating pathogens for several important crop plants. The biotrophic lifestyle of rust fungi requires that they influence their host plants to create a favorable environment for growth and reproduction. Rust fungi secrete a variety of effector proteins that manipulate host target proteins to alter plant metabolism and suppress defense responses. Because of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle of rust fungi, direct evidence for effector function is difficult to obtain, and so suites of experiments utilizing expression in heterologous systems are necessary. Here, we present results from a yeast cell death suppression assay and assays for suppression of PAMP-triggered ...


A Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Vector For Gene Expression In Maize, Yu Mei, Guanjun Liu, Chunquan Zhang, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham Aug 2019

A Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Vector For Gene Expression In Maize, Yu Mei, Guanjun Liu, Chunquan Zhang, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Zea mays L. ssp. mays (maize) is an important crop plant as well as model system for genetics and plant biology. The ability to select among different virus‐based platforms for transient gene silencing or protein expression experiments is expected to facilitate studies of gene function in maize and complement experiments with stable transgenes. Here, we describe the development of a sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) vector for the purpose of protein expression in maize. An infectious SCMV cDNA clone was constructed, and heterologous genetic elements were placed between the protein 1 (P1) and helper component‐proteinase (HC‐Pro) cistrons in ...


Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta Jun 2019

Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Background

Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays L.) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return on fungicide investment (ROI) across multiple locations.

Objective

Compare yield response of fungicide application timing across multiple fungicide classes and calculate the probability of ...


Re‐Targeting Of A Plant Defense Protease By A Cyst Nematode Effector, Gennady V. Pogorelko, Parijat S. Juvale, William B. Rutter, Marion Hütten, Thomas R. Maier, Tarek Hewezi, Judith Paulus, Renier Al Van Der Hoorn, Florian Mw Grundler, Shahid Siddique, Vincenzo Lionetti, Olga A. Zabotina, Thomas J. Baum Jun 2019

Re‐Targeting Of A Plant Defense Protease By A Cyst Nematode Effector, Gennady V. Pogorelko, Parijat S. Juvale, William B. Rutter, Marion Hütten, Thomas R. Maier, Tarek Hewezi, Judith Paulus, Renier Al Van Der Hoorn, Florian Mw Grundler, Shahid Siddique, Vincenzo Lionetti, Olga A. Zabotina, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Plants mount defense responses during pathogen attacks, and robust host defense suppression by pathogen effector proteins is essential for infection success. 4E02 is an effector of the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing the effector‐coding sequence showed altered expression levels of defense response genes, as well as higher susceptibility to both the biotroph H. schachtii and the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, indicating a potential suppression of defenses by 4E02. Yeast two‐hybrid analyses showed that 4E02 targets A. thaliana vacuolar papain‐like cysteine protease (PLCP) ‘Responsive to Dehydration 21A’ (RD21A), which has been shown to function ...


The Effects Of Ilevo And Votivo On Root Penetration And Behavior Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Augustine Q. Beeman, Zach L. Njus, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka Mar 2019

The Effects Of Ilevo And Votivo On Root Penetration And Behavior Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Augustine Q. Beeman, Zach L. Njus, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ILeVO (fluopyram) and VOTiVO (Bacillus firmus I-1582) seed treatments on Heterodera glycines second-stage juvenile (J2) root penetration and behavior. In a growth chamber experiment, roots of soybeans grown from treated or untreated seeds were inoculated with H. glycines J2s at soil depths of 2.5, 5, or 7.5 cm. ILeVO significantly reduced H. glycines root penetration compared with the untreated control, but only when J2s were inoculated at a soil depth of 2.5 cm, which was near the seed. Changes in nematode behavior were assessed by collecting ...


Homeostasis In The Soybean Mirna396–Grf Network Is Essential For Productive Soybean Cyst Nematode Infections, Jason B. Noon, Tarek Hewezi, Thomas J. Baum Jan 2019

Homeostasis In The Soybean Mirna396–Grf Network Is Essential For Productive Soybean Cyst Nematode Infections, Jason B. Noon, Tarek Hewezi, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, penetrates soybean roots and migrates to the vascular cylinder where it forms a feeding site called the syncytium. MiRNA396 (miR396) targets growth-regulating factor (GRF) genes, and the miR396–GRF1/3 module is a master regulator of syncytium development in model cyst nematode H. schachtii infection of Arabidopsis. Here, we investigated whether this regulatory system operates similarly in soybean roots and is likewise important for H. glycines infection. We found that a network involving nine MIR396 and 23 GRF genes is important for normal development of soybean roots and that GRF function is specified in ...


Avicta And Clariva Affect The Biology Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Jared P. Jensen, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka Dec 2018

Avicta And Clariva Affect The Biology Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Jared P. Jensen, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Nematicidal seed treatments are a relatively new strategy for managing plant-parasitic nematodes in row crops. Two such seed treatments, Avicta (abamectin) and Clariva (Pasteuria nishizawae), are marketed by Syngenta for use against Heterodera glycines in soybean production in the upper Midwest. The specific effects of these seed treatments on the biology of the nematode have not been previously reported. The effects of Avicta and Clariva on H. glycines hatching, movement, attraction, penetration, development, and reproduction were determined in controlled-environment experiments. Avicta inhibited juvenile movement and penetration at the seed depth and 3 cm below the seed. Clariva inhibited juvenile movement ...


Re-Evaluation Of Seed Transmission Of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Nebraskensis In Zea Mays, Charles C. Block, Lisa M. Shepherd, Gladys C. Mbofung-Curtis, Jeff M. Sernett, Alison E. Robertson Nov 2018

Re-Evaluation Of Seed Transmission Of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Nebraskensis In Zea Mays, Charles C. Block, Lisa M. Shepherd, Gladys C. Mbofung-Curtis, Jeff M. Sernett, Alison E. Robertson

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The spread of Goss’s bacterial wilt and leaf blight of corn (Zea mays), caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, to a wider geographic range in the early 2000s compared with the late 1960s has generated concern about the possible role of seed transmission in long-distance spread. The objectives of this research were: (1) to determine the percentage of seed infection found in seed harvested from inoculated and noninoculated plants of hybrids that varied in resistance to Goss’s wilt; and (2) to estimate the seed transmission rate from these infected seed lots. The greatest percent seed infection was detected ...


An Effector From The Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii Derepresses Host Rrna Genes By Altering Histone Acetylation, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Tarek Hewezi, Frederic Pontvianne, Thomas J. Baum Nov 2018

An Effector From The Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii Derepresses Host Rrna Genes By Altering Histone Acetylation, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Tarek Hewezi, Frederic Pontvianne, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Cyst nematodes are plant-pathogenic animals that secrete effector proteins into plant root cells to alter host gene expression and reprogram these cells to form specialized feeding sites, known as syncytia. The molecular mechanisms of these effectors are mostly unknown. We determined that the sugar beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) 32E03 effector protein strongly inhibits the activities of Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylases including the HDT1 enzyme, which has a known function in the regulation of rRNA gene expression through chromatin modifications. We determined that plants expressing the 32E03 coding sequence exhibited increased acetylation of histone H3 along the rDNA chromatin. At ...


The Effect Of Cold Stress On Damping-Off Of Soybean Caused By Pythium Sylvaticum, M. Serrano, Alison Robertson Nov 2018

The Effect Of Cold Stress On Damping-Off Of Soybean Caused By Pythium Sylvaticum, M. Serrano, Alison Robertson

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

To improve our understanding of the timing of cold stress and its effect on Pythium damping-off, we performed a factorial experiment with two cold stress temperatures (4 and 10°C); exposure to 96 h of cold stress at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after planting; and inoculation with Pythium sylvaticum-infested millet or control. Increased susceptibility to damping-off resulting in reduced emergence was found in inoculated plants when the cold stress period began 2 or 4 days after planting. In the noninoculated controls, no effect of cold stress on emergence was observed. Slower seedling growth was observed ...


The Plant‐Parasitic Cyst Nematode Effector Gland4 Is A Dna‐Binding Protein, Stacey N. Barnes, Catherine L. Wram, Melissa G. Mitchum, Thomas J. Baum Oct 2018

The Plant‐Parasitic Cyst Nematode Effector Gland4 Is A Dna‐Binding Protein, Stacey N. Barnes, Catherine L. Wram, Melissa G. Mitchum, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Cyst nematodes are plant pathogens that infect a wide range of economically important crops. One parasitic mechanism employed by cyst nematodes is the production and in planta delivery of effector proteins to modify plant cells and suppress defenses to favor parasitism. This study focused on GLAND4, an effector of Heterodera glycines and H. schachtii, the soybean and sugar beet cyst nematodes, respectively. We showed that GLAND4 is recognized by the plant cellular machinery and is transported to the plant nucleus, an organelle where little is known about plant nematode effector functions. We showed that GLAND4 has DNA-binding ability and repressed ...


Cropping System Diversification Reduces Severity And Incidence Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome Caused By Fusarium Virguliforme, L. F. S. Leandro, S. Eggenberger, C. Chen, J. Williams, G. A. Beattie, M. Liebman Sep 2018

Cropping System Diversification Reduces Severity And Incidence Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome Caused By Fusarium Virguliforme, L. F. S. Leandro, S. Eggenberger, C. Chen, J. Williams, G. A. Beattie, M. Liebman

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Current management of sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean, caused by Fusarium virguliforme, focuses on planting resistant varieties and improving soil drainage; however, these measures are not completely effective. A 6-year study evaluated the effects of cropping system diversification on SDS and soybean yield. SDS, root health, yield, and F. virguliforme density in soil were assessed in a naturally infested field trial comparing a 2-year cropping system consisting of a corn-soybean rotation and synthetic fertilizer applications with 3- and 4-year cropping systems consisting of corn-soybean-oat + red clover and corn-soybean-oat +alfalfa-alfalfa rotations, respectively, with both manure and low synthetic fertilizer rates ...


Perceptions Of Midwestern Crop Advisors And Growers On Foliar Fungicide Adoption And Use In Maize, P. D. Esker, D. A. Shah, C. A. Bradley, S. P. Conley, P. A. Paul, A. E. Robertson Sep 2018

Perceptions Of Midwestern Crop Advisors And Growers On Foliar Fungicide Adoption And Use In Maize, P. D. Esker, D. A. Shah, C. A. Bradley, S. P. Conley, P. A. Paul, A. E. Robertson

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Foliar fungicide use in hybrid maize in the United States was rare before 2000. The decade from 2000 to 2010 saw foliar fungicides increasingly applied to maize in the absence of appreciable disease pressure, a practice seemingly at odds with integrated pest management philosophy. Yet, it is commonly believed that growers do not employ management strategies unless there are perceived benefits. Maize (corn) growers (CGs) and certified crop advisors (CCAs) across four Midwestern states (Iowa, Illinois, Ohio, and Wisconsin) were surveyed to better understand their practices, values and perceptions concerning the use of foliar fungicides during 2005 to 2009. The ...


Identification Of Candidate Effector Genes Of Pratylenchus Penetrans, Paulo Vieira, Thomas R. Maier, Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Dana K. Howe, Inga Zasada, Thomas J. Baum, Jonathan D. Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo Aug 2018

Identification Of Candidate Effector Genes Of Pratylenchus Penetrans, Paulo Vieira, Thomas R. Maier, Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Dana K. Howe, Inga Zasada, Thomas J. Baum, Jonathan D. Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Pratylenchus penetrans is one of the most important species of root lesion nematodes (RLNs) because of its detrimental and economic impact in a wide range of crops. Similar to other plant‐parasitic nematodes (PPNs), P. penetrans harbours a significant number of secreted proteins that play key roles during parasitism. Here, we combined spatially and temporally resolved next‐generation sequencing datasets of P. penetrans to select a list of candidate genes aimed at the identification of a panel of effector genes for this species. We determined the spatial expression of transcripts of 22 candidate effectors within the oesophageal glands of P ...


Bacterial Wilt Symptoms Are Impacted By Host Age And Involve Net Downward Movement Of Erwinia Tracheiphila In Muskmelon, Q. Liu, Gwyn A. Beattie, E. Saalau Rojas, Mark L. Gleason Jul 2018

Bacterial Wilt Symptoms Are Impacted By Host Age And Involve Net Downward Movement Of Erwinia Tracheiphila In Muskmelon, Q. Liu, Gwyn A. Beattie, E. Saalau Rojas, Mark L. Gleason

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Cucurbit bacterial wilt, caused by Erwinia tracheiphila, is a damaging disease of cucurbit crops in the Midwest and Northeast U.S. Current management of bacterial wilt relies primarily on insecticide applications to control striped and spotted cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, respectively), which vector E. tracheiphila. Development of alternative management strategies is constrained by a lack of understanding of bacterial wilt etiology. The impact of host age on rate on symptom development and extent of bacterial movement in the xylem of muskmelon (Cucumis melo cv. Athena) was evaluated following wound inoculation of 2- to 8-week-old plants in ...


The Novel Cyst Nematode Effector Protein 30d08 Targets Host Nuclear Functions To Alter Gene Expression In Feeding Sites, Anju Verma, Chris Lee, Stephanie Morriss, Fiona Odu, Charlotte Kenning, Nancy Rizzo, William G. Spollen, Marriam Lin, Amanda G. Mcrae, Scott A. Givan, Tarek Hewezi, Richard Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum Jul 2018

The Novel Cyst Nematode Effector Protein 30d08 Targets Host Nuclear Functions To Alter Gene Expression In Feeding Sites, Anju Verma, Chris Lee, Stephanie Morriss, Fiona Odu, Charlotte Kenning, Nancy Rizzo, William G. Spollen, Marriam Lin, Amanda G. Mcrae, Scott A. Givan, Tarek Hewezi, Richard Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

• Cyst nematodes deliver effector proteins into host cells to manipulate cellular processes and establish a metabolically hyperactive feeding site. The novel 30D08 effector protein is produced in the dorsal gland of parasitic juveniles, but its function has remained unknown.

• We demonstrate that expression of 30D08 contributes to nematode parasitism, the protein is packaged into secretory granules, and is targeted to the plant nucleus where it interacts with SMU2 (homologue of suppressor of mec-8 and unc-52 2), an auxiliary spliceosomal protein.

• We show that SMU2 is expressed in feeding sites and a smu2 mutant is less susceptible to nematode infection. In ...


A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar Jun 2018

A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

In order to identify and control the menace of destructive pests via microscopic image-based identification state-of-the art deep learning architecture is demonstrated on the parasitic worm, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Soybean yield loss is negatively correlated with the density of SCN eggs that are present in the soil. While there has been progress in automating extraction of egg-filled cysts and eggs from soil samples counting SCN eggs obtained from soil samples using computer vision techniques has proven to be an extremely difficult challenge. Here we show that a deep learning architecture developed for rare object identification in ...


Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li Jun 2018

Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Enhancing the nutritional quality and disease resistance of crops without sacrificing productivity is a key issue for developing varieties that are valuable to farmers and for simultaneously improving food security and sustainability. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana species‐specific AtQQS (Qua‐Quine Starch) orphan gene or its interactor, NF‐YC4 (Nuclear Factor Y, subunit C4), has been shown to increase levels of leaf/seed protein without affecting the growth and yield of agronomic species. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of AtQQS and NF‐YC4 in Arabidopsis and soybean enhances resistance/reduces susceptibility to viruses, bacteria, fungi, aphids, and soybean cyst ...


Alternative Hosts For Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus And Feeding Preferences Of Its Vector Soybean Thrips, Melissa D. Irizarry, Manjula G. Elmore, Jean C. Batzer, Steven A. Whitham, Daren S. Mueller Jun 2018

Alternative Hosts For Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus And Feeding Preferences Of Its Vector Soybean Thrips, Melissa D. Irizarry, Manjula G. Elmore, Jean C. Batzer, Steven A. Whitham, Daren S. Mueller

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), a tospovirus and one of the most widespread soybean viruses in North America, is primarily transmitted by soybean thrips (Neohydatothrips variabilis). Although soybean is not considered the primary plant host for SVNV, there is a dearth of knowledge about alternative host plants for SVNV. We therefore investigated whether commonly present specialty and cover crops in Iowa can serve as alternative hosts for SVNV. Seventeen cover crops and seven specialty crops were tested using mechanical and thrips inoculations. Clear symptoms of SVNV and systemic infection in buckwheat and clear local infection with possible systemic infection on ...


Metabolic Coupling On Roots, Gwyn A. Beattie Apr 2018

Metabolic Coupling On Roots, Gwyn A. Beattie

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The coupling of root exudation of nutrients with microbial nutrient uptake preferences helps drive the assembly of rhizosphere microbiomes, enabling the use of metabolite interaction traits for engineering favorable microbial communities on roots.


Novel Global Effector Mining From The Transcriptome Of Early Life Stages Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera Glycines, Michael Gardner, Andi Dhroso, Nathan Johnson, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G. Mitchum Feb 2018

Novel Global Effector Mining From The Transcriptome Of Early Life Stages Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera Glycines, Michael Gardner, Andi Dhroso, Nathan Johnson, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is an obligate parasite that relies on the secretion of effector proteins to manipulate host cellular processes that favor the formation of a feeding site within host roots to ensure its survival. The sequence complexity and co-evolutionary forces acting upon these effectors remain unknown. Here we generated a de novo transcriptome assembly representing the early life stages of SCN in both a compatible and an incompatible host interaction to facilitate global effector mining efforts in the absence of an available annotated SCN genome. We then employed a dual effector prediction strategy coupling a newly ...


Movement And Motion Of Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Populations And Individuals In Response To Abamectin, Jared P. Jensen, Augustine Q. Beeman, Zach L. Njus, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka Feb 2018

Movement And Motion Of Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Populations And Individuals In Response To Abamectin, Jared P. Jensen, Augustine Q. Beeman, Zach L. Njus, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Two new in vitro methods were developed to analyze plant-parasitic nematode behavior, at the population and the individual organism levels, through time-lapse image analysis. The first method employed a high-resolution flatbed scanner to monitor the movement of a population of nematodes over a 24-hour period at 25°C. The second method tracked multiple motion parameters of individual nematodes on a microscopic scale, using a high-speed camera. Changes in movement and motion of second-stage juveniles (J2s) of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, were measured after exposure to a serial dilution of abamectin (0.1 μg/ml to 100 μg ...


Mining Halophytes For Plant Growth-Promoting Halotolerant Bacteria To Enhance The Salinity Tolerance Of Non-Halophytic Crops, Hassan Etesami, Gwyn A. Beattie Feb 2018

Mining Halophytes For Plant Growth-Promoting Halotolerant Bacteria To Enhance The Salinity Tolerance Of Non-Halophytic Crops, Hassan Etesami, Gwyn A. Beattie

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Interest is increasing in the application of PGPRs (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) to ameliorate stresses such as salinity stress in crop production. The identification of salt-tolerant, or halophilic, PGPRs has the potential to promote saline soil-based agriculture. Halophytes are a useful reservoir of halotolerant bacteria with plant growth-promoting capabilities. Here, we review recent studies on the use of halophilic PGPRs to stimulate plant growth and increase the tolerance of non-halophytic crops to salinity. These studies illustrate that halophilic PGPRs from the rhizosphere of ...


Analysis Of Extreme Phenotype Bulk Copy Number Variation (Xp-Cnv) Identified The Association Of Rp1 With Resistance To Goss's Wilt Of Maize, Ying Hu, Jie Ren, Zhao Peng, Arnoldo A. Umana, Ha Le, Tatiana Danilova, Junjie Fu, Haiyan Wang, Alison Robertson, Scot H. Hulbert, Frank F. White, Sanzhen Liu Feb 2018

Analysis Of Extreme Phenotype Bulk Copy Number Variation (Xp-Cnv) Identified The Association Of Rp1 With Resistance To Goss's Wilt Of Maize, Ying Hu, Jie Ren, Zhao Peng, Arnoldo A. Umana, Ha Le, Tatiana Danilova, Junjie Fu, Haiyan Wang, Alison Robertson, Scot H. Hulbert, Frank F. White, Sanzhen Liu

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Goss's wilt (GW) of maize is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and has spread in recent years throughout the Great Plains, posing a threat to production. The genetic basis of plant resistance is unknown. Here, a simple method for quantifying disease symptoms was developed and used to select cohorts of highly resistant and highly susceptible lines known as extreme phenotypes (XP). Copy number variation (CNV) analyses using whole genome sequences of bulked XP revealed 141 genes containing CNV between the two XP groups. The CNV genes include the previously identified common rust resistant locus ...