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Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Polyploidy

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An Examination Of Nucleotypic Effects In Diploid And Polyploid Cotton, Jonathan F. Wendel, S.J. Snodgrass, Josef J. Jareczek Jan 2016

An Examination Of Nucleotypic Effects In Diploid And Polyploid Cotton, Jonathan F. Wendel, S.J. Snodgrass, Josef J. Jareczek

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Nucleotypic effects are phenotypic changes related to the total nuclear DNA amount per cell. These effects are commonly observed among and within genera for certain cell types, and the generality of the positive correlation between genome size and cell size has been well established. However, there are few studies of nucleotypic effects which incorporate into the analysis both ploidy level and genome size (given as Mbp determined by 2C values). To test the hypothesis that cell size scales with genome size and ploidy, we measured the guard cell length, epidermal pavement cell surface area, and pollen grain diameter using individuals ...


Duplicate Gene Revolution, Homoeologous Recombination, And Transcriptome Characterization In Allopolyploid Cotton, Lex E. Flagel, Jonathan F. Wendel, Joshua A. Udall Jul 2012

Duplicate Gene Revolution, Homoeologous Recombination, And Transcriptome Characterization In Allopolyploid Cotton, Lex E. Flagel, Jonathan F. Wendel, Joshua A. Udall

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Modern allotetraploid cotton contains an “A” and “D” genome from an ancestral polyploidy event that occurred approximately 1–2 million years ago. Diploid A- and D-genome species can be compared to the A- and D-genomes found within these allotetraploids to make evolutionary inferences about polyploidy. In this paper we present a comprehensive EST assembly derived from diploid and model allotetraploid cottons and demonstrate several evolutionary inferences regarding genic evolution that can be drawn from these data. We generated a set of cotton expressed sequence tags (ESTs), comprising approximately 4.4 million Sanger and next-generation (454) transcripts supplemented by approximately 152 ...


Initiation And Early Development Of Fiber In Wild And Cultivated Cotton, Kara M. Butterworth, Dean C. Adams, Harry T. Horner, Jonathan F. Wendel Jun 2009

Initiation And Early Development Of Fiber In Wild And Cultivated Cotton, Kara M. Butterworth, Dean C. Adams, Harry T. Horner, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Cultivated cotton fiber has undergone transformation from short, coarse fibers found in progenitor wild species to economically important, long, fine fibers grown globally. Morphological transformation requires understanding of development of wild fiber and developmental differences between wild and cultivated fiber.We examined early development of fibers, including abundance and placement on seed surface, nucleus position, presence of vacuoles, and fiber size and shape. Four species were studied using microscopic, morphometric, and statistical methods: Gossypium raimondii (wild D genome), Gossypium herbaceum (cultivated A genome), Gossypium hirsutum (wild tetraploid), and Gossypium hirsutum (cultivated tetraploid). Early fiber development is highly asynchronous in G ...


Duplicate Gene Expression In Allopolyploid Gossypium Reveals Two Temporally Distinct Phases Of Expression Evolution, Lex E. Flagel, Joshua A. Udall, Dan Nettleton, Jonathan F. Wendel Apr 2008

Duplicate Gene Expression In Allopolyploid Gossypium Reveals Two Temporally Distinct Phases Of Expression Evolution, Lex E. Flagel, Joshua A. Udall, Dan Nettleton, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Polyploidy has played a prominent role in shaping the genomic architecture of the angiosperms. Through allopolyploidization, several modern Gossypium (cotton) species contain two divergent, although largely redundant genomes. Owing to this redundancy, these genomes can play host to an array of evolutionary processes that act on duplicate genes. We compared homoeolog (genes duplicated by polyploidy) contributions to the transcriptome of a natural allopolyploid and a synthetic interspecific F1 hybrid, both derived from a merger between diploid species from the Gossypium A-genome and D-genome groups. Relative levels of A- and D-genome contributions to the petal transcriptome were determined for 1,383 ...