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Ragweed And Sagebrush Pollen Can Distinguish Between Vegetation Types At Broad Spatial Scales, Hannah M. Carroll, Alan D. Wanamaker, Lynn G. Clark, Brian J. Wilsey May 2020

Ragweed And Sagebrush Pollen Can Distinguish Between Vegetation Types At Broad Spatial Scales, Hannah M. Carroll, Alan D. Wanamaker, Lynn G. Clark, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Patterns of vegetation distribution at regional to subcontinental scales can inform understanding of climate. Delineating ecoregion boundaries over geologic time is complicated by the difficulty of distinguishing between prairie types at broad spatial scales using the pollen record. Pollen ratios are sometimes employed to distinguish between vegetation types, although their applicability is often limited to a geographic range. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database offers an unparalleled opportunity to synthesize a large number of pollen datasets. Ambrosia (ragweed) is a genus of mesic‐adapted species sensitive to summer moisture. Artemisia (sagebrush, wormwood, mugwort) is a genus of dry‐mesic‐adapted species resilient ...


Spectrally Derived Values Of Community Leaf Dry Matter Content Link Shifts In Grassland Composition With Change In Biomass Production, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay Jan 2020

Spectrally Derived Values Of Community Leaf Dry Matter Content Link Shifts In Grassland Composition With Change In Biomass Production, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Leaf traits link environmental effects on plant species abundances to changes in ecosystem processes but are a challenge to measure regularly and over large areas. We used measurements of canopy reflectance from grassland communities to derive a regression model for one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content (LDMC). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to model community‐weighted (species abundance‐weighted) values of LDMC as a function of canopy reflectance in visible and near‐infrared (NIR) wavebands. The PLSR model then was applied to airborne measurements of canopy reflectance to determine how community LDMC interacts with inter‐annual ...


Nutrient Addition Increases Grassland Sensitivity To Droughts, Siddharth Bharath, Elizabeth T. Borer, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Philip A. Fay, Laureano A. Gherardi, Johannes M. H. Knops, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Laura Yahdjian, Eric W. Seabloom Jan 2020

Nutrient Addition Increases Grassland Sensitivity To Droughts, Siddharth Bharath, Elizabeth T. Borer, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Philip A. Fay, Laureano A. Gherardi, Johannes M. H. Knops, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Laura Yahdjian, Eric W. Seabloom

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Grasslands worldwide are expected to experience an increase in extreme events such as drought, along with simultaneous increases in mineral nutrient inputs as a result of human industrial activities. These changes are likely to interact because elevated nutrient inputs may alter plant diversity and increase the sensitivity to droughts. Dividing a system’s sensitivity to drought into resistance to change during the drought and rate of recovery after the drought generates insights into different dimensions of the system’s resilience in the face of drought. Here, we examine the effects of experimental nutrient fertilization and the resulting diversity loss on ...


Dominant Native And Non‐Native Graminoids Differ In Key Leaf Traits Irrespective Of Nutrient Availability, Arthur A. D. Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James M. Mcgree, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne M. Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly J. Komatsu, Andrew S. Macdougall, Kate H. Orwin, Nicholas J. Ostle, Eric W. Seabloom, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Maria C. Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin L. Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo L. Peri, Anita C. Risch, Christine Roscher, Martin Schütz, Carly J. Stevens Jan 2020

Dominant Native And Non‐Native Graminoids Differ In Key Leaf Traits Irrespective Of Nutrient Availability, Arthur A. D. Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James M. Mcgree, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne M. Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly J. Komatsu, Andrew S. Macdougall, Kate H. Orwin, Nicholas J. Ostle, Eric W. Seabloom, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Maria C. Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin L. Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo L. Peri, Anita C. Risch, Christine Roscher, Martin Schütz, Carly J. Stevens

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Aim: Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate (a) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, (b) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and (c) whether responses are consistent across functional groups.

Location: Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa.

Time period: 2007–2014.

Major taxa studied: Graminoids and forbs.

Methods: We focused on two types of leaf traits connected to resource acquisition: morphological features relating to light-foraging ...


Soil Health Recovery After Grassland Reestablishment On Cropland: The Effects Of Time And Topographic Position, Mriganka De, Jason A. Riopel, Larry J. Cihacek, Michael Lawrinenko, Rebecca Baldwin-Kordick, Steven J. Hall, Marshall D. Mcdaniel Jan 2020

Soil Health Recovery After Grassland Reestablishment On Cropland: The Effects Of Time And Topographic Position, Mriganka De, Jason A. Riopel, Larry J. Cihacek, Michael Lawrinenko, Rebecca Baldwin-Kordick, Steven J. Hall, Marshall D. Mcdaniel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a U.S. federal land conservation program that incentivizes grassland reestablishment on marginal lands. Although this program has many environmental benefits, two critical questions remain: does reestablishing grasslands via CRP also result in soil health recovery, and what parts of restored fields (i.e., topographic positions) recover the fastest? We hypothesized that soil health will recover over time after converting cropland to CRP grassland and that recovery will be greatest at higher topographic positions. To test this, we sampled 241 midwestern U.S. soils along a grassland chronosequence (0–40 yr, including native grasslands ...


Lower Soil Carbon Stocks In Exotic Vs. Native Grasslands Are Driven By Carbonate Losses, Brian Wilsey, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten Hofmockel, Steven J. Hall Jan 2020

Lower Soil Carbon Stocks In Exotic Vs. Native Grasslands Are Driven By Carbonate Losses, Brian Wilsey, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten Hofmockel, Steven J. Hall

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Global change includes invasion by exotic (nonnative) plant species and altered precipitation patterns, and these factors may affect terrestrial carbon (C) storage. We measured soil C changes in experimental mixtures of all exotic or all native grassland plant species under two levels of summer drought stress (0 and +128 mm). After 8 yr, soils were sampled in 10‐cm increments to 100‐cm depth to determine if soil C differed among treatments in deeper soils. Total soil C (organic + inorganic) content was significantly higher under native than exotic plantings, and differences increased with depth. Surprisingly, differences after 8 yr in ...


Genomic Diversifications Of Five Gossypium Allopolyploid Species And Their Impact On Cotton Improvement, Z. Jeffrey Chen, Avinash Sreedasyam, Atsumi Ando, Qingxin Song, Luis M. De Santiago, Amanda M. Hulse-Kemp, Sheron Simpson, Brian E. Scheffler, Corrinne E. Grover, Guanjing Hu, Justin L. Conover, Joseph W. Carlson, Shengqiang Shu, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jeremy Schmutz, Et Al. Jan 2020

Genomic Diversifications Of Five Gossypium Allopolyploid Species And Their Impact On Cotton Improvement, Z. Jeffrey Chen, Avinash Sreedasyam, Atsumi Ando, Qingxin Song, Luis M. De Santiago, Amanda M. Hulse-Kemp, Sheron Simpson, Brian E. Scheffler, Corrinne E. Grover, Guanjing Hu, Justin L. Conover, Joseph W. Carlson, Shengqiang Shu, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jeremy Schmutz, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Polyploidy is an evolutionary innovation for many animals and all flowering plants, but its impact on selection and domestication remains elusive. Here we analyze genome evolution and diversification for all five allopolyploid cotton species, including economically important Upland and Pima cottons. Although these polyploid genomes are conserved in gene content and synteny, they have diversified by subgenomic transposon exchanges that equilibrate genome size, evolutionary rate heterogeneities and positive selection between homoeologs within and among lineages. These differential evolutionary trajectories are accompanied by gene-family diversification and homoeolog expression divergence among polyploid lineages. Selection and domestication drive parallel gene expression similarities in ...


Soil Depth And Grassland Origin Cooperatively Shape Microbial Community Co‐Occurrence And Function, Racheal N. Upton, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey Jan 2020

Soil Depth And Grassland Origin Cooperatively Shape Microbial Community Co‐Occurrence And Function, Racheal N. Upton, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many soils are deep, yet soil below 20 cm remains largely unexplored. Exotic plants can have shallower roots than native species, so their impact on microorganisms is anticipated to change with depth. Using environmental DNA and extracellular enzymatic activities, we studied fungal and bacterial community composition, diversity, function, and co-occurrence networks between native and exotic grasslands at soil depths up to 1 m. We hypothesized (1) the composition and network structure of both fungal and bacterial communities will change with increasing depth, and diversity and enzymatic function will decrease; (2) microbial enzymatic function and network connectedness will be lower in ...


Nutrient Availability Controls The Impact Of Mammalian Herbivores On Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Pools In Grasslands, Judith Sitters, Lori A. Biederman, Et Al. Jan 2020

Nutrient Availability Controls The Impact Of Mammalian Herbivores On Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Pools In Grasslands, Judith Sitters, Lori A. Biederman, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Grasslands are subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations and the climate. Here, we use the Nutrient Network experiment to examine the responses of soil C and N pools to mammalian herbivore exclusion across 22 ...