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Increasing Carbon Footprint Of Grain Crop Production In The Us Western Corn Belt, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu, Hanqin Tian, David A. Hennessy, Hongli Feng, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Yuyu Zhou, Tom Sauer, Raymond Arritt Nov 2018

Increasing Carbon Footprint Of Grain Crop Production In The Us Western Corn Belt, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu, Hanqin Tian, David A. Hennessy, Hongli Feng, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Yuyu Zhou, Tom Sauer, Raymond Arritt

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Global agriculture is challenged to increase soil carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas emissions while providing products for an increasing population. Growing crop production could be achieved through higher yield per hectare (i.e. intensive farming) or more hectares (extensive farming), which however, have different ecological and environmental consequences. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that expanding cropland for additional production may lead to loss of vegetation and soil carbon, and threaten the survival of wildlife. New concerns about the impacts of extensive farming have been raised for the US Corn Belt, one of the world's most productive regions, as ...


A Malvaceae Mystery: A Mallow Maelstrom Of Genome Multiplications And Maybe Misleading Methods?, Justin L. Conover, Nisa Karimi, Noah Stenz, Cécile Ané, Corrinne E. Grover, C. Skema, Jennifer A. Tate, Kirsten Wolff, Samuel A. Logan, Jonathan F. Wendel, David A. Baum Nov 2018

A Malvaceae Mystery: A Mallow Maelstrom Of Genome Multiplications And Maybe Misleading Methods?, Justin L. Conover, Nisa Karimi, Noah Stenz, Cécile Ané, Corrinne E. Grover, C. Skema, Jennifer A. Tate, Kirsten Wolff, Samuel A. Logan, Jonathan F. Wendel, David A. Baum

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Previous research suggests that Gossypium has undergone a 5- to 6-fold multiplication following its divergence from Theobroma. However, the number of events, or where they occurred in the Malvaceae phylogeny remains unknown. We analyzed transcriptomic and genomic data from representatives of eight of the nine Malvaceae subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear data placed Dombeya (Dombeyoideae) as sister to the rest of Malvadendrina clade, but the plastid DNA tree strongly supported Durio (Helicteroideae) in this position. Intraspecific Ks plots indicated that all sampled taxa, except Theobroma (Byttnerioideae), Corchorus (Grewioideae), and Dombeya (Dombeyoideae), have experienced whole genome multiplications (WGMs). Quartet analysis suggested ...


Insights Into The Evolution Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium, Subgenus Houzingenia) Based On Genome Sequencing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Adam Thrash, Justin L. Conover, William S. Sanders, Daniel G. Peterson, James E. Frelichowski, Jodi A. Scheffler, Brian E. Scheffler, Jonathan F. Wendel Nov 2018

Insights Into The Evolution Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium, Subgenus Houzingenia) Based On Genome Sequencing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Adam Thrash, Justin L. Conover, William S. Sanders, Daniel G. Peterson, James E. Frelichowski, Jodi A. Scheffler, Brian E. Scheffler, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

We employed phylogenomic methods to study molecular evolutionary processes and phylogeny in the geographically widely dispersed New World diploid cottons (Gossypium, subg. Houzingenia). Whole genome resequencing data (average of 33X genomic coverage) were generated to reassess the phylogenetic history of the subgenus and provide a temporal framework for its diversification. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the subgenus likely originated following trans-oceanic dispersal from Africa about 6.6 mya, but that nearly all of the biodiversity evolved following rapid diversification in the mid-Pleistocene (0.5-2.0 mya), with multiple long-distance dispersals required to account for range expansion to Arizona, the Galapagos Islands ...


Microbial Community Structure And Functions Differ Between Native And Novel (Exotic-Dominated) Grassland Ecosystems In An 8-Year Experiment, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Racheal N. Upton, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey Nov 2018

Microbial Community Structure And Functions Differ Between Native And Novel (Exotic-Dominated) Grassland Ecosystems In An 8-Year Experiment, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Racheal N. Upton, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A Grasslands dominated by non-native (exotic) spe- cies have replaced purely native-dominated areas in many parts of the world forming ‘novel’ ecosystems. Altered precipitation patterns are predicted to exacerbate this trend. It is still poorly understood how soil microbial communities and their functions differ between high diversity native- and low diversity exotic-dominated sites and how altered precipitation will impact this difference.

Methods We sampled 64 experimental grassland plots in central Texas with plant species mixtures of either all native or all exotic species; half with summer irrigation. We tested how native vs. exotic plant species mixtures and summer irrigation affected ...


Cis–Trans Controls And Regulatory Novelty Accompanying Allopolyploidization, Guanjing Hu, Jonathan F. Wendel Oct 2018

Cis–Trans Controls And Regulatory Novelty Accompanying Allopolyploidization, Guanjing Hu, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Allopolyploidy is a prevalent process in plants, having important physiological, ecological, and evolutionary consequences. Transcriptomic responses to genomic merger and doubling have been demonstrated in many allopolyploid systems, encompassing a diversity of phenomena including homoeolog expression bias, genome dominance, expression‐level dominance, and revamping of co‐expression networks. Notwithstanding the foregoing, there remains a need to develop a conceptual framework that will stimulate a deeper understanding of these diverse phenomena and their mechanistic interrelationships. Here we introduce considerations relevant to this framework with a focus on cistrans interactions among duplicated genes and alleles in hybrids and allopolyploids. By extending ...


Multiple Facets Of Biodiversity Drive The Diversity–Stability Relationship, Dylan Craven, H. Wayne Polley, Brian Wilsey, Et Al. Oct 2018

Multiple Facets Of Biodiversity Drive The Diversity–Stability Relationship, Dylan Craven, H. Wayne Polley, Brian Wilsey, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A substantial body of evidence has demonstrated that biodiversity stabilizes ecosystem functioning over time in grassland ecosystems. However, the relative importance of different facets of biodiversity underlying the diversity–stability relationship remains unclear. Here we use data from 39 grassland biodiversity experiments and structural equation modelling to investigate the roles of species richness, phylogenetic diversity and both the diversity and community-weighted mean of functional traits representing the ‘fast–slow’ leaf economics spectrum in driving the diversity–stability relationship. We found that high species richness and phylogenetic diversity stabilize biomass production via enhanced asynchrony in the performance of co-occurring species. Contrary ...


Spatial Heterogeneity In Species Composition Constrains Plant Community Responses To Herbivory And Fertilisation, Dorothee Hodapp, Lori A. Biederman, Philip A. Fay, Et Al. Sep 2018

Spatial Heterogeneity In Species Composition Constrains Plant Community Responses To Herbivory And Fertilisation, Dorothee Hodapp, Lori A. Biederman, Philip A. Fay, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major forms of environmental change – fertilisation and herbivore loss – are affected by species pool size and spatial compositional heterogeneity. Fertilisation led to higher rates of ...


Reconciling Multiple Impacts Of Nitrogen Enrichment On Soil Carbon: Plant, Microbial And Geochemical Controls, Chenglong Ye, Dima Chen, Steven J. Hall, Shang Pan, Xuebin Yan, Tongshuo Bai, Hui Guo, Yi Zhang, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu Aug 2018

Reconciling Multiple Impacts Of Nitrogen Enrichment On Soil Carbon: Plant, Microbial And Geochemical Controls, Chenglong Ye, Dima Chen, Steven J. Hall, Shang Pan, Xuebin Yan, Tongshuo Bai, Hui Guo, Yi Zhang, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Impacts of reactive nitrogen (N) inputs on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics are highly variable, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we proposed a new conceptual framework that integrates plant, microbial, and geochemical mechanisms to reconcile diverse and contrasting impacts of N on soil C. This framework was tested using long-term N enrichment and acid addition experiments in a Mongolian steppe grassland. Distinct mechanisms could explain effects of N on particulate and mineral-associated soil C pools, potentially explaining discrepancies among previous N addition studies. While plant production predominated particulate C changes, Ninduced soil acidification strongly affected mineral-associated C through decreased ...


Designations For Individual Genomes And Chromosomes In Gossypium, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jinping Hua Jun 2018

Designations For Individual Genomes And Chromosomes In Gossypium, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jinping Hua

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Gossypium, as the one of the biggest genera, the most diversity, and the highest economic value in field crops, is assuming an increasingly important role in studies on plant taxonomy, polyploidization, phylogeny, cytogenetics, and genomics. Here we update and provide a brief summary of the emerging picture of species relationships and diversification, and a set of the designations for individual genomes and chromosomes in Gossypium. This cytogenetic and genomic nomenclature will facilitate comparative studies worldwide, which range from basic taxonomic exploration to breeding and germplasm introgression.


The Global N20 Model Intercomparison Project, Hanqin Tian, Jia Yang, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Rongting Xu, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Almut Arneth, Jinfeng Chang, Guangsheng Chen, Philippe Ciais, Stefan Gerber, Akihiko Ito, Yuanyuan Huang, Fortunat Joos, Sebastian Lienert, Palmira Messina, Stefan Olin, Shufen Pan, Changhui Peng, Eri Saikawa, Rona L. Thompson, Nicolas Vuichard, Wilfried Winiwarter, Sonke Zaehle, Bowen Zhang, Kerou Zhang, Qiuan Zhu Jun 2018

The Global N20 Model Intercomparison Project, Hanqin Tian, Jia Yang, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Rongting Xu, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Almut Arneth, Jinfeng Chang, Guangsheng Chen, Philippe Ciais, Stefan Gerber, Akihiko Ito, Yuanyuan Huang, Fortunat Joos, Sebastian Lienert, Palmira Messina, Stefan Olin, Shufen Pan, Changhui Peng, Eri Saikawa, Rona L. Thompson, Nicolas Vuichard, Wilfried Winiwarter, Sonke Zaehle, Bowen Zhang, Kerou Zhang, Qiuan Zhu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and also an ozone-depleting substance that has both natural and anthropogenic sources. Large estimation uncertainty remains on the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of N2O fluxes and the key drivers of N2O production in the terrestrial biosphere. Some terrestrial biosphere models have been evolved to account for nitrogen processes and to show the capability to simulate N2O emissions from land ecosystems at the global scale, but large discrepancies exist among their estimates primarily because of inconsistent input datasets, simulation protocol, and model structure and parameterization schemes. Based on the consistent model input data ...


Historical Nitrogen Fertilizer Use In Agricultural Ecosystems Of The Contiguous United States During 1850–2015: Application Rate, Timing, And Fertilizer Types, Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu Jun 2018

Historical Nitrogen Fertilizer Use In Agricultural Ecosystems Of The Contiguous United States During 1850–2015: Application Rate, Timing, And Fertilizer Types, Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A tremendous amount of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been applied to agricultural lands to promote crop production in the US since the 1850s. However, inappropriate N management practices have caused numerous ecological and environmental problems which are difficult to quantify due to the paucity of spatially explicit time-series fertilizer use maps. Understanding and assessing N fertilizer management history could provide important implications for enhancing N use efficiency and reducing N loss. In this study, we therefore developed long-term gridded maps to depict crop-specific N fertilizer use rates, application timing, and the fractions of ammonium N (NH+ 4 -N) and ...


Variability In Community Productivity—Mediating Effects Of Vegetation Attributes, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey May 2018

Variability In Community Productivity—Mediating Effects Of Vegetation Attributes, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

  1. Plant productivity varies through time in response to environmental fluctuations. Reducing variability in productivity requires an improved understanding of how plant community attributes interact with environmental fluctuations to influence plant growth dynamics. We evaluated links between two community attributes, species diversity and abundance‐weighted values of specific leaf area (SLA), and temporal variability in grassland productivity at patch (local) and aggregate (multipatch) spatial scales.
  2. Aggregate communities were created by combining patches of spatially distinct communities of perennial plant species from grassland biodiversity experiments in Texas, USA. Interannual variability in above‐ground net primary productivity (ANPP) of aggregate communities was analysed ...


Herbivory And Eutrophication Mediate Grassland Plant Nutrient Responses Across A Global Climatic Gradient, T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. Macdougall, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schutz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg, Elizabeth T. Borer Apr 2018

Herbivory And Eutrophication Mediate Grassland Plant Nutrient Responses Across A Global Climatic Gradient, T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. Macdougall, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schutz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg, Elizabeth T. Borer

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and atmospheric N deposition emerged as strong predictors of plot‐level tissue nutrients, mediated by biomass and plant chemistry. Within sites, fertilization increased total plant nutrient ...


Priority Effects Are Affected By Precipitation Variability And Are Stronger In Exotic Than Native Grassland Species, Kaitlin M. Goodale, Brian J. Wilsey Apr 2018

Priority Effects Are Affected By Precipitation Variability And Are Stronger In Exotic Than Native Grassland Species, Kaitlin M. Goodale, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Exotic perennial grassland species often green up earlier than their native counterparts, allowing them to gain an advantage by dominating resources early (priority effects). Precipitation variability is expected to increase with climate change, and may alter the strength of priority effects. We hypothesized that exotics will have stronger priority effects than natives, precipitation variability will impact the strength of priority effects, and precipitation variability will impact the priority effects of native species more than those of exotics. We seeded one of five native or five exotic grassland species from the Central U.S. spanning multiple functional groups 28 days prior ...


Ecological Factors Associated With Pre-Dispersal Predation Of Fig Seeds And Wasps By Fig-Specialist Lepidopteran Larvae, Finn Piatscheck, Justin Van Goor, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason Mar 2018

Ecological Factors Associated With Pre-Dispersal Predation Of Fig Seeds And Wasps By Fig-Specialist Lepidopteran Larvae, Finn Piatscheck, Justin Van Goor, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

In brood pollination mutualisms, predation of developing fruit can have large negative repercussions for both plant and pollinator population dynamics. The Sonoran Desert rock fig Ficus petiolaris and its highly-coevolved wasp pollinator are subject to frequent attack by lepidopteran larvae that consume fig fruit and the developing seeds and larval pollinators they contain. We used generalized linear mixed models to investigate how the phenology, quantity, and spatial distribution of fig fruits is associated with variation in lepidopteran damage intensity on individual trees at nine geographic locations spanning a 741 km latitudinal transect along Mexico’s Baja California Peninsula. We found ...


Phenology Differences Between Native And Novel Exotic‐Dominated Grasslands Rival The Effects Of Climate Change, Brian J. Wilsey, Leanne M. Martin, Andrew D. Kaul Mar 2018

Phenology Differences Between Native And Novel Exotic‐Dominated Grasslands Rival The Effects Of Climate Change, Brian J. Wilsey, Leanne M. Martin, Andrew D. Kaul

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

1. Novel ecosystems can differ from the native systems they replaced. We used phenology measures to compare ecosystem functioning between novel exotic-dominated and native-dominated grasslands in the central U.S.

2. Phenology, or timing of biological events, is affected by climate and land use changes. We assessed how phenology shifts are being altered by exotic species dominance by comparing remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index within growing seasons at exotic- and native-dominated sites along a latitudinal gradient. Exotic species were dominated by the C3 species functional group in the north and the C4 species functional group in the south.

3 ...


Core Cis-Element Variation Confers Subgenome-Biased Expression Of A Transcription Factor That Functions In Cotton Fiber Elongation, Bo Zhao, Jun-Feng Cao, Guan-Jing Hu, Zhi-Wen Chen, Lu-Yao Wang, Xiao-Xia Shangguan, Ling-Jian Wang, Ying-Bo Mao, Tian-Zhen Zhang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Xiao-Ya Chen Jan 2018

Core Cis-Element Variation Confers Subgenome-Biased Expression Of A Transcription Factor That Functions In Cotton Fiber Elongation, Bo Zhao, Jun-Feng Cao, Guan-Jing Hu, Zhi-Wen Chen, Lu-Yao Wang, Xiao-Xia Shangguan, Ling-Jian Wang, Ying-Bo Mao, Tian-Zhen Zhang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Xiao-Ya Chen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

  • Cotton cultivars have evolved to produce extensive, long, seed-born fibers important for the textile industry, but we know little about the molecular mechanism underlying spinnable fiber formation. Here, we report how PACLOBUTRAZOL RESISTANCE 1 (PRE1) in cotton, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, is a target gene of spinnable fiber evolution.
  • Differential expression of homoeologous genes in polyploids is thought to be important to plant adaptation and novel phenotypes. PRE1 expression is specific to cotton fiber cells, upregulated during their rapid elongation stage and A-homoeologous biased in allotetraploid cultivars. Transgenic studies demonstrated that PRE1 is a positive regulator ...


Herbivores Safeguard Plant Diversity By Reducing Variability In Dominance, Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, W. Stan Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom Jan 2018

Herbivores Safeguard Plant Diversity By Reducing Variability In Dominance, Brent Mortensen, Brent Danielson, W. Stan Harpole, Juan Alberti, Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Lori Biederman, Elizabeth T. Borer, Marc W. Cadotte, John M. Dwyer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Pablo Luis Peri, Eric W. Seabloom

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

1. Reductions in community evenness can lead to local extinctions as dominant species exclude subordinate species; however, herbivores can prevent competitive exclusion by consuming otherwise dominant plant species, thus increasing evenness. While these predictions logically result from chronic, gradual reductions in evenness, rapid, temporary pulses of dominance may also reduce species richness. Short pulses of dominance can occur as biotic or abiotic conditions temporarily favor one or a few species, manifested as increased temporal variability (the inverse of temporal stability) in community evenness. Here, we tested whether consumers help maintain plant diversity by reducing the temporal variability in community evenness ...