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Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich Nov 2017

Tropical Tree Species Traits Drive Soil Cation Dynamics Via Effects On Ph: A Proposed Conceptual Framework, Ann E. Russell, Steven J. Hall, James W. Raich

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Humid tropical forests are major players in the global carbon cycle, despite evidence that cations (rock‐derived, positively charged ions) can limit or co‐limit net primary productivity (NPP). In mature forests, tight cation cycling, i.e., without leaching losses, could maintain cation stocks on site. That mechanism does not explain how regenerating tropical secondary forest trees start from seeds and accrue large cation stocks in biomass, when growing on soils depleted in available cations. We propose a new mechanism that links tree species’ traits to soil cation availability via impacts on soil pH, a master biogeochemical driver. We tested ...


Diversity-Dependent Temporal Divergence Of Ecosystem Functioning In Experimental Ecosystems, Nathaly R. Guerrero-Ramírez, Dylan Craven, Peter B. Reich, John J. Ewel, Forest Isbell, Julia Koricheva, John A. Parrotta, Harald Auge, Heather E. Ericson, David I. Forrester, Andy Hector, Jasmin Joshi, Florencia Montagnini, Cecilia Palmborg, Daniel Piotto, Catherine Potvin, Christiane Roscher, Jasper Van Ruijven, David Tilman, Brian Wilsey, Nico Eisenhauer Nov 2017

Diversity-Dependent Temporal Divergence Of Ecosystem Functioning In Experimental Ecosystems, Nathaly R. Guerrero-Ramírez, Dylan Craven, Peter B. Reich, John J. Ewel, Forest Isbell, Julia Koricheva, John A. Parrotta, Harald Auge, Heather E. Ericson, David I. Forrester, Andy Hector, Jasmin Joshi, Florencia Montagnini, Cecilia Palmborg, Daniel Piotto, Catherine Potvin, Christiane Roscher, Jasper Van Ruijven, David Tilman, Brian Wilsey, Nico Eisenhauer

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning generally increase over time, but the underlying processes remain unclear. Using 26 long-term grassland and forest experimental ecosystems, we demonstrate that biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships strengthen mainly by greater increases in functioning in high-diversity communities in grasslands and forests. In grasslands, biodiversity effects also strengthen due to decreases in functioning in low-diversity communities. Contrasting trends across grasslands are associated with differences in soil characteristics.


How Do Nutrients Change Flowering In Prairies?, Lori Biederman, Brent Mortensen, Philip Fay, Nicole Hagenah, Johannes Knops, Kimberly La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Eric Lind, Rebecca Mcculley, Sally Power, Eric Seabloom, Pedro Tognetti Sep 2017

How Do Nutrients Change Flowering In Prairies?, Lori Biederman, Brent Mortensen, Philip Fay, Nicole Hagenah, Johannes Knops, Kimberly La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Eric Lind, Rebecca Mcculley, Sally Power, Eric Seabloom, Pedro Tognetti

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Farmers today apply more synthetic fertilizers to farm fields than ever before – but not all of these nutrients are used by crops: some fertilizer escapes through the air, soil, or water. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium flow off farm fields when it rains, billow into the air when fields are plowed, and drift with the wind to other areas. Extra nutrients are also released to the air when people burn fossil fuels. We wanted to find out: what happens when these extra nutrients land on wild prairie ecosystems? How do its wild plants respond? Do they all just grow better? Or ...


Nutrient Addition Shifts Plant Community Composition Towards Earlier Flowering Species In Some Prairie Ecoregions In The U.S. Central Plains, Lori A. Biederman, Brent Mortensen, Philip Fay, Nicole Hagenah, Johannes Knops, Kimberly La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Eric Lind, Rebecca Mcculley, Sally Power, Eric Seabloom, Pedro Tognetti May 2017

Nutrient Addition Shifts Plant Community Composition Towards Earlier Flowering Species In Some Prairie Ecoregions In The U.S. Central Plains, Lori A. Biederman, Brent Mortensen, Philip Fay, Nicole Hagenah, Johannes Knops, Kimberly La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Eric Lind, Rebecca Mcculley, Sally Power, Eric Seabloom, Pedro Tognetti

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The distribution of flowering across the growing season is governed by each species’ evolutionary history and climatic variability. However, global change factors, such as eutrophication and invasion, can alter plant community composition and thus change the distribution of flowering across the growing season. We examined three ecoregions (tall-, mixed, and short-grass prairie) across the U.S. Central Plains to determine how nutrient (nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and potassium (+micronutrient)) addition alters the temporal patterns of plant flowering traits. We calculated total community flowering potential (FP) by distributing peak-season plant cover values across the growing season, allocating each species’ cover to only ...


Species Composition But Not Diversity Explains Recovery From The 2011 Drought In Texas Grasslands, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey Mar 2017

Species Composition But Not Diversity Explains Recovery From The 2011 Drought In Texas Grasslands, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Extreme droughts can have profound direct consequences for grassland ecosystems, but it is poorly known how ecosystems recover from drought and what ecological factors are associated with recovery. Recovery occurs when ecosystem functioning returns to values observed prior to a perturbation. Here, we tested for ecosystem recovery after an extreme drought in 2011 in previously established native and exotic experimental communities in Central Texas. Planted mixtures of all native and all exotic species were crossed with a summer irrigation treatment, with eight community compositions (random draws) per treatment. Prior to the drought, native plots had higher diversity than exotic plots ...


Genetic Diversity And Population Structure Of The Threatened Temperate Woody Bamboo Kuruna Debilis (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Arundinarieae) From Sri Lanka Based On Microsatellite Analysis, Lakshmi Attigala, Timothy Gallaher, John Nason, Lynn G. Clark Mar 2017

Genetic Diversity And Population Structure Of The Threatened Temperate Woody Bamboo Kuruna Debilis (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Arundinarieae) From Sri Lanka Based On Microsatellite Analysis, Lakshmi Attigala, Timothy Gallaher, John Nason, Lynn G. Clark

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Species of the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna Attigala, Kathriar. & L.G. Clark (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) distributed in Sri Lanka and southern India, are threatened due to deforestation and habitat fragmentation. The current study focused on the tetraploid woody bamboo Kuruna debilis (Thwaites) Attigala, Kathriar. & L.G. Clark, using twelve variable microsatellite loci to assess the genetic diversity and population structure in six known Sri Lankan populations. Due to the rarity of the species, an exhaustive sampling of accessible plants resulted in a total of only 28 individuals. Nonetheless, the allelic diversity was high at most loci and given the limited ...


Direct Nitrous Oxide Emissions In Mediterranean Climate Cropping Systems: Emission Factors Based On A Meta-Analysis Of Available Measurement Data, Maria L. Cayuela, Eduardo Aguilera, Alberto Sanz-Cobena, Dean C. Adams, Diego Abalos, Louise Barton, Rebecca Ryals, Whendee L. Silver, Marta A. Alfaro, Valentini A. Pappa, Pete Smith, Josette Garnier, Gilles Billen, Lex Bouwman, Alberte Bondeau, Luis Lassaletta Feb 2017

Direct Nitrous Oxide Emissions In Mediterranean Climate Cropping Systems: Emission Factors Based On A Meta-Analysis Of Available Measurement Data, Maria L. Cayuela, Eduardo Aguilera, Alberto Sanz-Cobena, Dean C. Adams, Diego Abalos, Louise Barton, Rebecca Ryals, Whendee L. Silver, Marta A. Alfaro, Valentini A. Pappa, Pete Smith, Josette Garnier, Gilles Billen, Lex Bouwman, Alberte Bondeau, Luis Lassaletta

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many recent reviews and meta‐analyses of N2O emissions do not include data from Mediterranean studies. In this paper we present a meta‐analysis of the N2O emissions from Mediterranean cropping systems, and propose a more robust and reliable regional emission factor (EF) for N2O, distinguishing the effects of water management, crop type, and fertilizer management. The average overall EF for Mediterranean agriculture (EFMed) is 0.5%, which is substantially lower than the IPCC default value of 1%. Soil properties had no significant effect on EFs for N2O. Increasing the nitrogen fertilizer rate led to higher EFs; when N was ...


Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu Jan 2017

Global Gross Primary Productivity And Water Use Efficiency Changes Under Drought Stress, Zhen Yu, Jingxin Wang, Shirong Liu, James S. Rentch, Pengsen Sun, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Drought can affect the structure, composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet drought impacts and post-drought recovery potentials of different land cover types have not been extensively studied at a global scale. We evaluated drought impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of different global terrestrial ecosystems, as well as the drought-resilience of each ecosystem type during the period of 2000 to 2011. Using GPP as biome vitality indicator against drought stress, we developed a model to examine ecosystem resilience represented by the length of recovery days (LRD). LRD presented an evident gradient of ...


Diversity Analysis Of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Germplasm Using The Cottonsnp63k Array, Jonathan F. Wendel, Lori L. Hinze, Amanda M. Hulse-Kemp, Iain W. Wilson, Qian-Hao Zhu, Danny J. Llewellyn, Jen M. Taylor, Andrew Spriggs, David D. Fang, Mauricio Ulloa, John J. Burke, Marc Giband, Jean-Marc Lacape, Allen Van Deynze, Joshua A. Udall, Jodi A. Scheffler, Steve Hague, Alan E. Pepper, James Frelichowski, Cindy T. Lawley, Don C. Jones, Richard G. Percy, David M. Stelly Jan 2017

Diversity Analysis Of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Germplasm Using The Cottonsnp63k Array, Jonathan F. Wendel, Lori L. Hinze, Amanda M. Hulse-Kemp, Iain W. Wilson, Qian-Hao Zhu, Danny J. Llewellyn, Jen M. Taylor, Andrew Spriggs, David D. Fang, Mauricio Ulloa, John J. Burke, Marc Giband, Jean-Marc Lacape, Allen Van Deynze, Joshua A. Udall, Jodi A. Scheffler, Steve Hague, Alan E. Pepper, James Frelichowski, Cindy T. Lawley, Don C. Jones, Richard G. Percy, David M. Stelly

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background

Cotton germplasm resources contain beneficial alleles that can be exploited to develop germplasm adapted to emerging environmental and climate conditions. Accessions and lines have traditionally been characterized based on phenotypes, but phenotypic profiles are limited by the cost, time, and space required to make visual observations and measurements. With advances in molecular genetic methods, genotypic profiles are increasingly able to identify differences among accessions due to the larger number of genetic markers that can be measured. A combination of both methods would greatly enhance our ability to characterize germplasm resources. Recent efforts have culminated in the identification of sufficient ...


A New Species Of Cotton From Wake Atoll,Gossypium Stephensii(Malvaceae), Jonathan F. Wendel, Joseph P. Gallagher, Corrinne E. Grover, Kristen Rex, Matthew Moran Jan 2017

A New Species Of Cotton From Wake Atoll,Gossypium Stephensii(Malvaceae), Jonathan F. Wendel, Joseph P. Gallagher, Corrinne E. Grover, Kristen Rex, Matthew Moran

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Wake Atoll is an isolated chain of three islets located in the Western Pacific. Included in its endemic flora is a representative of the genus Gossypium colloquially referred to as Wake Island cotton. Stanley G. Stephens pointed out that “Wake Island cotton does not resemble closely either the Caribbean or other Pacific forms.” Taking into consideration morphological distinctions, the geographic isolation of Wake Atoll, and newly generated molecular data presented here, we conclude that the cottons of Wake Atoll do in fact represent a new species of Gossypium, here named Gossypium stephensii. This name is chosen to commemorate the eminent ...


Global Manure Nitrogen Production And Application In Cropland During 1860–2014: A 5 Arcmin Gridded Global Dataset For Earth System Modeling, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shree R.S. Dangal, Jia Yang, Shufen Pan Jan 2017

Global Manure Nitrogen Production And Application In Cropland During 1860–2014: A 5 Arcmin Gridded Global Dataset For Earth System Modeling, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Shree R.S. Dangal, Jia Yang, Shufen Pan

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Given the important role of nitrogen input from livestock systems in terrestrial nutrient cycles and the atmospheric chemical composition, it is vital to have a robust estimation of the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation in manure nitrogen production and its application to cropland across the globe. In this study, we used the dataset from the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS) in conjunction with country-specific annual livestock populations to reconstruct the manure nitrogen production during 1860–2014. The estimated manure nitrogen production increased from 21.4TgNyr−1 in 1860 to 131.0TgNyr−1 in 2014 with a significant annual increasing trend ...


Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao Jan 2017

Uncertainty In The Response Of Terrestrial Carbon Sink To Environmental Drivers Undermines Carbon-Climate Feedback Predictions, D.N. Huntzinger, A.M. Michalak, C. Schwalm, P. Ciais, A.W. King, Y. Fang, K. Schaefer, Y. Wei, R.B. Cook, J.B. Fisher, D. Hayes, M. Huang, A. Ito, A.K. Jain, H. Lei, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, F. Maignan, J. Mao, N. Parazoo, S. Peng, B. Poulter, D. Ricciuto, X. Shi, H. Tian, W. Wang, N. Zeng, F. Zhao

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Terrestrial ecosystems play a vital role in regulating the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere. Understanding the factors controlling land C uptake is critical for reducing uncertainties in projections of future climate. The relative importance of changing climate, rising atmospheric CO2, and other factors, however, remains unclear despite decades of research. Here, we use an ensemble of land models to show that models disagree on the primary driver of cumulative C uptake for 85% of vegetated land area. Disagreement is largest in model sensitivity to rising atmospheric CO2 which shows almost twice the variability in cumulative land uptake since ...


Gene-Body Cg Methylation And Divergent Expression Of Duplicate Genes In Rice, Jonathan F. Wendel, Xutong Wang, Zhibin Zhang, Tiansi Fu, Lanjuan Hu, Chunming Xu, Lei Gong Jan 2017

Gene-Body Cg Methylation And Divergent Expression Of Duplicate Genes In Rice, Jonathan F. Wendel, Xutong Wang, Zhibin Zhang, Tiansi Fu, Lanjuan Hu, Chunming Xu, Lei Gong

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Gene and genome duplication fosters genetic novelty, but redundant gene copies would undergo mutational decay unless preserved via selective or neutral forces. Molecular mechanisms mediating duplicate preservation remain incompletely understood. Several recent studies showed an association between DNA methylation and expression divergence of duplicated genes and suggested a role of epigenetic mechanism in duplicate retention. Here, we compare genome-wide gene-body CG methylation (BCGM) and duplicate gene expression between a rice mutant null for OsMet1-2(a major CG methytransferase in rice) and its isogenic wild-type. We demonstrate a causal link between BCGM divergence and expression difference of duplicate copies. Interestingly, the ...


Global Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer Use For Agriculture Production In The Past Half Century: Shifted Hot Spots And Nutrient Imbalance, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian Jan 2017

Global Nitrogen And Phosphorus Fertilizer Use For Agriculture Production In The Past Half Century: Shifted Hot Spots And Nutrient Imbalance, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Hanqin Tian

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

In addition to enhancing agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically alters global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedback to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system and land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use oversimplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long periods. In this study, we therefore develop global time series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in agricultural lands ...