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Plant Invasions Differentially Affected By Diversity And Dominant Species In Native- And Exotic-Dominated Grasslands, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Pedran P. Daneshgar, Brian J. Wilsey Nov 2015

Plant Invasions Differentially Affected By Diversity And Dominant Species In Native- And Exotic-Dominated Grasslands, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Pedran P. Daneshgar, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Plant invasions are an increasingly serious global concern, especially as the climate changes. Here, we explored how plant invasions differed between native- and novel exotic-dominated grasslands with experimental addition of summer precipitation in Texas in 2009. Exotic species greened up earlier than natives by an average of 18 days. This was associated with a lower invasion rate early in the growing season compared to native communities. However, invasion rate did not differ significantly between native and exotic communities across all sampling times. The predictors of invasion rate differed between native and exotic communities, with invasion being negatively influenced by species ...


Responses To Water Depth And Clipping Of Twenty-Three Plant Species In An Indian Monsoonal Wetland, Beth A. Middleton, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, Craig B. Davis Oct 2015

Responses To Water Depth And Clipping Of Twenty-Three Plant Species In An Indian Monsoonal Wetland, Beth A. Middleton, Arnold G. Van Der Valk, Craig B. Davis

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Responses of species to disturbances give insights into how species might respond to future wetland changes. In this study, species of monsoonal wetlands belonging to various functional types (graminoid and non-graminoid emergents, submersed aquatic, floating-leaved aquatic) varied in their growth responses to water depth and harvesting. We tested the effects of water depth (moist soil and flooded) and clipping (unclipped and clipped) on the biomass and longevity of twenty-three dominant plant species of monsoonal wetlands in the Keoladeo National Park, India in a controlled experiment. With respect to total biomass and survival, six species responded positively to flooding and twelve ...


Spatial Heterogeneity In Soil Microbes Alters Outcomes Of Plant Competition, Karen C. Abbott, Justine Karst, Lori A. Biederman, Stuart R. Borrett, Alan Hastings, Vonda Walsh, James D. Bever May 2015

Spatial Heterogeneity In Soil Microbes Alters Outcomes Of Plant Competition, Karen C. Abbott, Justine Karst, Lori A. Biederman, Stuart R. Borrett, Alan Hastings, Vonda Walsh, James D. Bever

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Plant species vary greatly in their responsiveness to nutritional soil mutualists, such as mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia, and this responsiveness is associated with a trade-off in allocation to root structures for resource uptake. As a result, the outcome of plant competition can change with the density of mutualists, with microbe-responsive plant species having high competitive ability when mutualists are abundant and non-responsive plants having high competitive ability with low densities of mutualists. When responsive plant species also allow mutualists to grow to greater densities, changes in mutualist density can generate a positive feedback, reinforcing an initial advantage to either plant ...


Natural Variation In Teosinte At The Domestication Locus Teosinte Branched1 (Tb1), Laura Vann, Thomas Kono, Tanja Pyhäjärvi, Matthew B. Hufford, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra Apr 2015

Natural Variation In Teosinte At The Domestication Locus Teosinte Branched1 (Tb1), Laura Vann, Thomas Kono, Tanja Pyhäjärvi, Matthew B. Hufford, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The teosinte branched1(tb1) gene is a major QTL controlling branching differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte. The insertion of a transposable element (Hopscotch) upstream of tb1 is known to enhance the gene’s expression, causing reduced tillering in maize. Observations of the maize tb1 allele in teosinte and estimates of an insertion age of theHopscotch that predates domestication led us to investigate its prevalence and potential role in teosinte. We assessed the prevalence of the Hopscotchelement across an Americas-wide sample of 837 maize and teosinte individuals using a co-dominant PCR assay. Additionally, we calculated population ...


Differences In Beta Diversity Between Exotic And Native Grasslands Vary With Scale Along A Latitudinal Gradient, Leanne M. Martin, Brian J. Wilsey Apr 2015

Differences In Beta Diversity Between Exotic And Native Grasslands Vary With Scale Along A Latitudinal Gradient, Leanne M. Martin, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Biodiversity can be partitioned into alpha, beta, and gamma components, and beta diversity is not as clearly understood. Biotic homogenization predicts that exotic species should lower beta diversity at global and continental scales, but it is still unclear how exotic species impact beta diversity at smaller scales. Exotic species could theoretically increase or decrease beta diversity relative to natives depending on many factors, including abiotic conditions, community assembly history, management, dispersal rates of species, and connectivity among patches. We sampled plant species abundances in 42 novel, exotic- and native-dominated (remnant) grasslands across a latitudinal gradient in the tallgrass prairie region ...


Gossypium Anapoides (Malvaceae), A New Species From Western Australia, James Mcd. Stewart, Lyn A. Craven, Curt L. Brubaker, Jonathan F. Wendel Jan 2015

Gossypium Anapoides (Malvaceae), A New Species From Western Australia, James Mcd. Stewart, Lyn A. Craven, Curt L. Brubaker, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Gossypium anapoides J. M. Stewart, Craven, Brubaker & Wendel (Malvaceae), a new species ofGossypium L. endemic to the north Kimberley region of Western Australia, is described. The species is erect, with multiple, unbranched stems arising from the crown of a woody lignotuber. This trait, along with the presence of an elaiosome on each seed and the results of molecular analyses, places it with the species of Gossypium sect. Grandicalyx (Fryxell) Fryxell and makes it phylogenetically sister to the geographically disjunct species G. cunninghamii Tod. The species is named for the unique raised venation on the adaxial leaf surface that imparts ...


Rapid Evolutionary Divergence Of Gossypium Barbadense And G. Hirsutum Mitochondrial Genomes, Mingyong Tang, Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E. Grover, Yumei Wang, Shuangshuang Li, Guozheng Liu, Zhiqing Ma, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jinping Hua Jan 2015

Rapid Evolutionary Divergence Of Gossypium Barbadense And G. Hirsutum Mitochondrial Genomes, Mingyong Tang, Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E. Grover, Yumei Wang, Shuangshuang Li, Guozheng Liu, Zhiqing Ma, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jinping Hua

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background

The mitochondrial genome from upland cotton, G. hirsutum, was previously sequenced. To elucidate the evolution of mitochondrial genomic diversity within a single genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome from Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.).

Methods

Mitochondrial DNA from week-old etiolated seedlings was extracted from isolated organelles using discontinuous sucrose density gradient method. Mitochondrial genome was sequenced with Solexa using paired-end, 90 bp read. The clean reads were assembled into contigs using ABySS and finished via additional fosmid and BAC sequencing. Finally, the genome was annotated and analyzed using different softwares.

Results

The G. barbadense (Sea Island cotton) mitochondrial ...