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Nutrient Availability Controls The Impact Of Mammalian Herbivores On Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Pools In Grasslands, Judith Sitters, Lori A. Biederman, Et Al. Jan 2020

Nutrient Availability Controls The Impact Of Mammalian Herbivores On Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Pools In Grasslands, Judith Sitters, Lori A. Biederman, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Grasslands are subject to considerable alteration due to human activities globally, including widespread changes in populations and composition of large mammalian herbivores and elevated supply of nutrients. Grassland soils remain important reservoirs of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Herbivores may affect both C and N pools and these changes likely interact with increases in soil nutrient availability. Given the scale of grassland soil fluxes, such changes can have striking consequences for atmospheric C concentrations and the climate. Here, we use the Nutrient Network experiment to examine the responses of soil C and N pools to mammalian herbivore exclusion across 22 ...


Dominant Native And Non‐Native Graminoids Differ In Key Leaf Traits Irrespective Of Nutrient Availability, Arthur A. D. Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James M. Mcgree, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne M. Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly J. Komatsu, Andrew S. Macdougall, Kate H. Orwin, Nicholas J. Ostle, Eric W. Seabloom, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Maria C. Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin L. Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo L. Peri, Anita C. Risch, Christine Roscher, Martin Schütz, Carly J. Stevens Jan 2020

Dominant Native And Non‐Native Graminoids Differ In Key Leaf Traits Irrespective Of Nutrient Availability, Arthur A. D. Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James M. Mcgree, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne M. Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly J. Komatsu, Andrew S. Macdougall, Kate H. Orwin, Nicholas J. Ostle, Eric W. Seabloom, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori Biederman, Maria C. Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin L. Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo L. Peri, Anita C. Risch, Christine Roscher, Martin Schütz, Carly J. Stevens

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Aim: Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate (a) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, (b) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and (c) whether responses are consistent across functional groups.

Location: Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa.

Time period: 2007–2014.

Major taxa studied: Graminoids and forbs.

Methods: We focused on two types of leaf traits connected to resource acquisition: morphological features relating to light-foraging ...


Spectrally Derived Values Of Community Leaf Dry Matter Content Link Shifts In Grassland Composition With Change In Biomass Production, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay Jan 2020

Spectrally Derived Values Of Community Leaf Dry Matter Content Link Shifts In Grassland Composition With Change In Biomass Production, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Leaf traits link environmental effects on plant species abundances to changes in ecosystem processes but are a challenge to measure regularly and over large areas. We used measurements of canopy reflectance from grassland communities to derive a regression model for one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content (LDMC). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to model community‐weighted (species abundance‐weighted) values of LDMC as a function of canopy reflectance in visible and near‐infrared (NIR) wavebands. The PLSR model then was applied to airborne measurements of canopy reflectance to determine how community LDMC interacts with inter‐annual ...


Nutrient Addition Increases Grassland Sensitivity To Droughts, Siddharth Bharath, Elizabeth T. Borer, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Philip A. Fay, Laureano A. Gherardi, Johannes M. H. Knops, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Laura Yahdjian, Eric W. Seabloom Jan 2020

Nutrient Addition Increases Grassland Sensitivity To Droughts, Siddharth Bharath, Elizabeth T. Borer, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Philip A. Fay, Laureano A. Gherardi, Johannes M. H. Knops, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Laura Yahdjian, Eric W. Seabloom

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Grasslands worldwide are expected to experience an increase in extreme events such as drought, along with simultaneous increases in mineral nutrient inputs as a result of human industrial activities. These changes are likely to interact because elevated nutrient inputs may alter plant diversity and increase the sensitivity to droughts. Dividing a system’s sensitivity to drought into resistance to change during the drought and rate of recovery after the drought generates insights into different dimensions of the system’s resilience in the face of drought. Here, we examine the effects of experimental nutrient fertilization and the resulting diversity loss on ...


Soil Depth And Grassland Origin Cooperatively Shape Microbial Community Co‐Occurrence And Function, Racheal N. Upton, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey Jan 2020

Soil Depth And Grassland Origin Cooperatively Shape Microbial Community Co‐Occurrence And Function, Racheal N. Upton, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many soils are deep, yet soil below 20 cm remains largely unexplored. Exotic plants can have shallower roots than native species, so their impact on microorganisms is anticipated to change with depth. Using environmental DNA and extracellular enzymatic activities, we studied fungal and bacterial community composition, diversity, function, and co-occurrence networks between native and exotic grasslands at soil depths up to 1 m. We hypothesized (1) the composition and network structure of both fungal and bacterial communities will change with increasing depth, and diversity and enzymatic function will decrease; (2) microbial enzymatic function and network connectedness will be lower in ...


The Genome Sequence Of Gossypioides Kirkii Illustrates A Descending Dysploidy In Plants, Joshua A. Udall, Evan Long, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Justin L. Conover, Daojun Yuan, Corrinne E. Grover, Lei Gong, Mark A. Arick Ii, Rick E. Masonbrink, Daniel G. Peterson, Jonathan F. Wendel Nov 2019

The Genome Sequence Of Gossypioides Kirkii Illustrates A Descending Dysploidy In Plants, Joshua A. Udall, Evan Long, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Justin L. Conover, Daojun Yuan, Corrinne E. Grover, Lei Gong, Mark A. Arick Ii, Rick E. Masonbrink, Daniel G. Peterson, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

One of the extraordinary aspects of plant genome evolution is variation in chromosome number, particularly that among closely related species. This is exemplified by the cotton genus (Gossypium) and its relatives, where most species and genera have a base chromosome number of 13. The two exceptions are sister genera that have n = 12 (the Hawaiian Kokia and the East African and Madagascan Gossypioides). We generated a high-quality genome sequence of Gossypioides kirkii (n = 12) using PacBio, Bionano, and Hi-C technologies, and compared this assembly to genome sequences of Kokia (n = 12) and Gossypium diploids (n = 13). Previous analysis demonstrated that ...


Beyond The Black Box: Promoting Mathematical Collaborations For Elucidating Interactions In Soil Ecology, Alison E. Bennett, Lori Biederman, Matthew Warren, Et Al. Jul 2019

Beyond The Black Box: Promoting Mathematical Collaborations For Elucidating Interactions In Soil Ecology, Alison E. Bennett, Lori Biederman, Matthew Warren, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Understanding soil systems is critical because they form the structural and nutritional foundation for plants and thus every terrestrial habitat and agricultural system. In this paper, we encourage increased use of mathematical models to drive forward understanding of interactions in soil ecological systems. We discuss several distinctive features of soil ecosystems and empirical studies of them. We explore some perceptions that have previously deterred more extensive use of models in soil ecology and some advances that have already been made using models to elucidate soil ecological interactions. We provide examples where mathematical models have been used to test the plausibility ...


Interacting Stressors Matter: Diet Quality And Virus Infection In Honeybee Health, Adam G. Dolezal, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Timothy M. Judd, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning, Amy L. Toth Feb 2019

Interacting Stressors Matter: Diet Quality And Virus Infection In Honeybee Health, Adam G. Dolezal, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Timothy M. Judd, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning, Amy L. Toth

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Honeybee population declines have been linked to multiple stressors, including reduced diet diversity and increased exposure to understudied viral pathogens. Despite interest in these factors, few experimental studies have explored the interaction between diet diversity and viral infection in honeybees. Here, we used a mixture of laboratory cage and small semi-field nucleus hive experiments to determine how these factors interact. In laboratory experiments, we found that high-quality diets (polyfloral pollen and high-quality single-source pollen) have the potential to reduce mortality in the face of infection with Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV). There was a significant interaction between diet and virus ...


Spectral Heterogeneity Predicts Local-Scale Gamma And Beta Diversity Of Mesic Grasslands, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay Jan 2019

Spectral Heterogeneity Predicts Local-Scale Gamma And Beta Diversity Of Mesic Grasslands, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Plant species diversity is an important metric of ecosystem functioning, but field assessments of diversity are constrained in number and spatial extent by labor and other expenses. We tested the utility of using spatial heterogeneity in the remotely-sensed reflectance spectrum of grassland canopies to model both spatial turnover in species composition and abundances (β diversity) and species diversity at aggregate spatial scales (γ diversity). Shannon indices of γ and β diversity were calculated from field measurements of the number and relative abundances of plant species at each of two spatial grains (0.45 m2 and 35.2 m2 ...


The Chromosome-Scale Reference Genome Of Black Pepper Provides Insight Into Piperine Biosynthesis, Lisong Hu, Zhongping Xu, Maojun Wang, Rui Fan, Daojun Yuan, Baoduo Wu, Huasong Wu, Xiaowei Qin, Lin Yan, Lehe Tan, Soonliang Sim, Wen Li, Christopher A. Saski, Henry Daniell, Jonathan F. Wendel, Keith Lindsey, Xianlong Zhang, Chaoyun Hao, Shuangxia Jin Jan 2019

The Chromosome-Scale Reference Genome Of Black Pepper Provides Insight Into Piperine Biosynthesis, Lisong Hu, Zhongping Xu, Maojun Wang, Rui Fan, Daojun Yuan, Baoduo Wu, Huasong Wu, Xiaowei Qin, Lin Yan, Lehe Tan, Soonliang Sim, Wen Li, Christopher A. Saski, Henry Daniell, Jonathan F. Wendel, Keith Lindsey, Xianlong Zhang, Chaoyun Hao, Shuangxia Jin

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Black pepper (Piper nigrum), dubbed the ‘King of Spices’ and ‘Black Gold’, is one of the most widely used spices. Here, we present its reference genome assembly by integrating PacBio, 10x Chromium, BioNano DLS optical mapping, and Hi-C mapping technologies. The 761.2 Mb sequences (45 scaffolds with an N50 of 29.8 Mb) are assembled into 26 pseudochromosomes. A phylogenomic analysis of representative plant genomes places magnoliids as sister to the monocots-eudicots clade and indicates that black pepper has diverged from the shared Laurales-Magnoliales lineage approximately 180 million years ago. Comparative genomic analyses reveal specific gene expansions in the ...


Leaf Nutrients, Not Specific Leaf Area, Are Consistent Indicators Of Elevated Nutrient Inputs, Jennifer Firn, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Lori Biederman, Et Al. Jan 2019

Leaf Nutrients, Not Specific Leaf Area, Are Consistent Indicators Of Elevated Nutrient Inputs, Jennifer Firn, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Lori Biederman, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Leaf traits are frequently measured in ecology to provide a ‘common currency’ for predicting how anthropogenic pressures impact ecosystem function. Here, we test whether leaf traits consistently respond to experimental treatments across 27 globally distributed grassland sites across 4 continents. We find that specific leaf area (leaf area per unit mass)—a commonly measured morphological trait inferring shifts between plant growth strategies—did not respond to up to four years of soil nutrient additions. Leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations increased in response to the addition of each respective soil nutrient. We found few significant changes in leaf traits when ...


Mycorrhizal Colonization And Its Relationship With Plant Performance Differs Between Exotic And Native Grassland Plant Species, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, H. Wayne Polley, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Kirsten Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey Jan 2019

Mycorrhizal Colonization And Its Relationship With Plant Performance Differs Between Exotic And Native Grassland Plant Species, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, H. Wayne Polley, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Kirsten Hofmockel, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Many grasslands have been transformed by exotic species with potentially novel ecological interactions. We hypothesized that exotic and native plant species differ, on average, in their percentage mycorrhizal colonization, and that mycorrhizal colonization is positively related to plant performance in the field. We compared colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi in perennial native and exotic species that were paired phylogenetically and by functional groups and grown under a common environment in field plots in Central Texas, USA. Roots were collected from plants in monoculture plots, stained, and percent colonization was assessed with a microscope. Aboveground biomass and dominance in mixture ...


Intergenomic Gene Transfer In Diploid And Allopolyploid Gossypium, Nan Zhao, Corrinne E. Grover, Zhiwen Chen, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jinping Hua Jan 2019

Intergenomic Gene Transfer In Diploid And Allopolyploid Gossypium, Nan Zhao, Corrinne E. Grover, Zhiwen Chen, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jinping Hua

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Intergenomic gene transfer (IGT) between nuclear and organellar genomes is a common phenomenon during plant evolution. Gossypium is a useful model to evaluate the genomic consequences of IGT for both diploid and polyploid species. Here, we explore IGT among nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid genomes of four cotton species, including two allopolyploids and their model diploid progenitors (genome donors, G. arboreum: A2 and G. raimondii: D5).

Results: Extensive IGT events exist for both diploid and allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium) species, with the nuclear genome being the predominant recipient of transferred DNA followed by the mitochondrial genome. The nuclear genome has integrated ...


More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. Macdougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens Jan 2019

More Salt, Please: Global Patterns, Responses And Impacts Of Foliar Sodium In Grasslands, E. T. Borer, E. M. Lind, J. Firn, E. W. Seabloom, T. M. Anderson, E. S. Bakker, L. A. Biederman, K. J. La Pierre, A. S. Macdougall, J. L. Moore, A. C. Risch, M. Schutz, C. J. Stevens

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Sodium is unique among abundant elemental nutrients, because most plant species do not require it for growth or development, whereas animals physiologically require sodium. Foliar sodium influences consumption rates by animals and can structure herbivores across landscapes. We quantified foliar sodium in 201 locally abundant, herbaceous species representing 32 families and, at 26 sites on four continents, experimentally manipulated vertebrate herbivores and elemental nutrients to determine their effect on foliar sodium. Foliar sodium varied taxonomically and geographically, spanning five orders of magnitude. Site‐level foliar sodium increased most strongly with site aridity and soil sodium; nutrient addition weakened the relationship ...


Mechanisms Underlying Limited Soil Carbon Gains In Perennial And Cover‐Cropped Bioenergy Systems Revealed By Stable Isotopes, Chenglong Ye, Steven J. Hall Jan 2019

Mechanisms Underlying Limited Soil Carbon Gains In Perennial And Cover‐Cropped Bioenergy Systems Revealed By Stable Isotopes, Chenglong Ye, Steven J. Hall

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Removal of biomass for bioenergy production may decrease soil organic carbon. While perennials or cover‐cropped grains often have greater root production than annual grain crops, they variably impact soil carbon and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We used high‐frequency measurements of soil respiration and natural abundance carbon stable isotopes to differentiate respiration sources, pool sizes, and decomposition rate constants during a 10 month incubation of soils collected to 1 m depth from a 10 year old field experiment in Iowa, United States. Conversion of corn–soybean rotations to reconstructed prairies or addition of a rye cover crop to continuous ...


Unraveling Cis And Trans Regulatory Evolution During Cotton Domestication, Ying Bao, Guanjing Hu, Corrinne E. Grover, Justin Conover, Daojun Yuan, Jonathan F. Wendel Jan 2019

Unraveling Cis And Trans Regulatory Evolution During Cotton Domestication, Ying Bao, Guanjing Hu, Corrinne E. Grover, Justin Conover, Daojun Yuan, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Cis and trans regulatory divergence underlies phenotypic and evolutionary diversification. Relatively little is understood about the complexity of regulatory evolution accompanying crop domestication, particularly for polyploid plants. Here, we compare the fiber transcriptomes between wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and their reciprocal F1 hybrids, revealing genome-wide (~15%) and often compensatory cis and trans regulatory changes under divergence and domestication. The high level of trans evolution (54%–64%) observed is likely enabled by genomic redundancy following polyploidy. Our results reveal that regulatory variation is significantly associated with sequence evolution, inheritance of parental expression patterns, co-expression gene network properties, and genomic ...


Increasing Carbon Footprint Of Grain Crop Production In The Us Western Corn Belt, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu, Hanqin Tian, David A. Hennessy, Hongli Feng, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Yuyu Zhou, Tom Sauer, Raymond Arritt Nov 2018

Increasing Carbon Footprint Of Grain Crop Production In The Us Western Corn Belt, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu, Hanqin Tian, David A. Hennessy, Hongli Feng, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Yuyu Zhou, Tom Sauer, Raymond Arritt

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Global agriculture is challenged to increase soil carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas emissions while providing products for an increasing population. Growing crop production could be achieved through higher yield per hectare (i.e. intensive farming) or more hectares (extensive farming), which however, have different ecological and environmental consequences. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that expanding cropland for additional production may lead to loss of vegetation and soil carbon, and threaten the survival of wildlife. New concerns about the impacts of extensive farming have been raised for the US Corn Belt, one of the world's most productive regions, as ...


A Malvaceae Mystery: A Mallow Maelstrom Of Genome Multiplications And Maybe Misleading Methods?, Justin L. Conover, Nisa Karimi, Noah Stenz, Cécile Ané, Corrinne E. Grover, C. Skema, Jennifer A. Tate, Kirsten Wolff, Samuel A. Logan, Jonathan F. Wendel, David A. Baum Nov 2018

A Malvaceae Mystery: A Mallow Maelstrom Of Genome Multiplications And Maybe Misleading Methods?, Justin L. Conover, Nisa Karimi, Noah Stenz, Cécile Ané, Corrinne E. Grover, C. Skema, Jennifer A. Tate, Kirsten Wolff, Samuel A. Logan, Jonathan F. Wendel, David A. Baum

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Previous research suggests that Gossypium has undergone a 5- to 6-fold multiplication following its divergence from Theobroma. However, the number of events, or where they occurred in the Malvaceae phylogeny remains unknown. We analyzed transcriptomic and genomic data from representatives of eight of the nine Malvaceae subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear data placed Dombeya (Dombeyoideae) as sister to the rest of Malvadendrina clade, but the plastid DNA tree strongly supported Durio (Helicteroideae) in this position. Intraspecific Ks plots indicated that all sampled taxa, except Theobroma (Byttnerioideae), Corchorus (Grewioideae), and Dombeya (Dombeyoideae), have experienced whole genome multiplications (WGMs). Quartet analysis suggested ...


Insights Into The Evolution Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium, Subgenus Houzingenia) Based On Genome Sequencing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Adam Thrash, Justin L. Conover, William S. Sanders, Daniel G. Peterson, James E. Frelichowski, Jodi A. Scheffler, Brian E. Scheffler, Jonathan F. Wendel Nov 2018

Insights Into The Evolution Of The New World Diploid Cottons (Gossypium, Subgenus Houzingenia) Based On Genome Sequencing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Adam Thrash, Justin L. Conover, William S. Sanders, Daniel G. Peterson, James E. Frelichowski, Jodi A. Scheffler, Brian E. Scheffler, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

We employed phylogenomic methods to study molecular evolutionary processes and phylogeny in the geographically widely dispersed New World diploid cottons (Gossypium, subg. Houzingenia). Whole genome resequencing data (average of 33X genomic coverage) were generated to reassess the phylogenetic history of the subgenus and provide a temporal framework for its diversification. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the subgenus likely originated following trans-oceanic dispersal from Africa about 6.6 mya, but that nearly all of the biodiversity evolved following rapid diversification in the mid-Pleistocene (0.5-2.0 mya), with multiple long-distance dispersals required to account for range expansion to Arizona, the Galapagos Islands ...


Microbial Community Structure And Functions Differ Between Native And Novel (Exotic-Dominated) Grassland Ecosystems In An 8-Year Experiment, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Racheal N. Upton, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey Nov 2018

Microbial Community Structure And Functions Differ Between Native And Novel (Exotic-Dominated) Grassland Ecosystems In An 8-Year Experiment, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Racheal N. Upton, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A Grasslands dominated by non-native (exotic) spe- cies have replaced purely native-dominated areas in many parts of the world forming ‘novel’ ecosystems. Altered precipitation patterns are predicted to exacerbate this trend. It is still poorly understood how soil microbial communities and their functions differ between high diversity native- and low diversity exotic-dominated sites and how altered precipitation will impact this difference.

Methods We sampled 64 experimental grassland plots in central Texas with plant species mixtures of either all native or all exotic species; half with summer irrigation. We tested how native vs. exotic plant species mixtures and summer irrigation affected ...


Cis–Trans Controls And Regulatory Novelty Accompanying Allopolyploidization, Guanjing Hu, Jonathan F. Wendel Oct 2018

Cis–Trans Controls And Regulatory Novelty Accompanying Allopolyploidization, Guanjing Hu, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Allopolyploidy is a prevalent process in plants, having important physiological, ecological, and evolutionary consequences. Transcriptomic responses to genomic merger and doubling have been demonstrated in many allopolyploid systems, encompassing a diversity of phenomena including homoeolog expression bias, genome dominance, expression‐level dominance, and revamping of co‐expression networks. Notwithstanding the foregoing, there remains a need to develop a conceptual framework that will stimulate a deeper understanding of these diverse phenomena and their mechanistic interrelationships. Here we introduce considerations relevant to this framework with a focus on cistrans interactions among duplicated genes and alleles in hybrids and allopolyploids. By extending ...


Multiple Facets Of Biodiversity Drive The Diversity–Stability Relationship, Dylan Craven, H. Wayne Polley, Brian Wilsey, Et Al. Oct 2018

Multiple Facets Of Biodiversity Drive The Diversity–Stability Relationship, Dylan Craven, H. Wayne Polley, Brian Wilsey, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A substantial body of evidence has demonstrated that biodiversity stabilizes ecosystem functioning over time in grassland ecosystems. However, the relative importance of different facets of biodiversity underlying the diversity–stability relationship remains unclear. Here we use data from 39 grassland biodiversity experiments and structural equation modelling to investigate the roles of species richness, phylogenetic diversity and both the diversity and community-weighted mean of functional traits representing the ‘fast–slow’ leaf economics spectrum in driving the diversity–stability relationship. We found that high species richness and phylogenetic diversity stabilize biomass production via enhanced asynchrony in the performance of co-occurring species. Contrary ...


Spatial Heterogeneity In Species Composition Constrains Plant Community Responses To Herbivory And Fertilisation, Dorothee Hodapp, Lori A. Biederman, Philip A. Fay, Et Al. Sep 2018

Spatial Heterogeneity In Species Composition Constrains Plant Community Responses To Herbivory And Fertilisation, Dorothee Hodapp, Lori A. Biederman, Philip A. Fay, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major forms of environmental change – fertilisation and herbivore loss – are affected by species pool size and spatial compositional heterogeneity. Fertilisation led to higher rates of ...


Reconciling Multiple Impacts Of Nitrogen Enrichment On Soil Carbon: Plant, Microbial And Geochemical Controls, Chenglong Ye, Dima Chen, Steven J. Hall, Shang Pan, Xuebin Yan, Tongshuo Bai, Hui Guo, Yi Zhang, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu Aug 2018

Reconciling Multiple Impacts Of Nitrogen Enrichment On Soil Carbon: Plant, Microbial And Geochemical Controls, Chenglong Ye, Dima Chen, Steven J. Hall, Shang Pan, Xuebin Yan, Tongshuo Bai, Hui Guo, Yi Zhang, Yongfei Bai, Shuijin Hu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Impacts of reactive nitrogen (N) inputs on ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics are highly variable, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we proposed a new conceptual framework that integrates plant, microbial, and geochemical mechanisms to reconcile diverse and contrasting impacts of N on soil C. This framework was tested using long-term N enrichment and acid addition experiments in a Mongolian steppe grassland. Distinct mechanisms could explain effects of N on particulate and mineral-associated soil C pools, potentially explaining discrepancies among previous N addition studies. While plant production predominated particulate C changes, Ninduced soil acidification strongly affected mineral-associated C through decreased ...


Designations For Individual Genomes And Chromosomes In Gossypium, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jinping Hua Jun 2018

Designations For Individual Genomes And Chromosomes In Gossypium, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Jinping Hua

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Gossypium, as the one of the biggest genera, the most diversity, and the highest economic value in field crops, is assuming an increasingly important role in studies on plant taxonomy, polyploidization, phylogeny, cytogenetics, and genomics. Here we update and provide a brief summary of the emerging picture of species relationships and diversification, and a set of the designations for individual genomes and chromosomes in Gossypium. This cytogenetic and genomic nomenclature will facilitate comparative studies worldwide, which range from basic taxonomic exploration to breeding and germplasm introgression.


The Global N20 Model Intercomparison Project, Hanqin Tian, Jia Yang, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Rongting Xu, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Almut Arneth, Jinfeng Chang, Guangsheng Chen, Philippe Ciais, Stefan Gerber, Akihiko Ito, Yuanyuan Huang, Fortunat Joos, Sebastian Lienert, Palmira Messina, Stefan Olin, Shufen Pan, Changhui Peng, Eri Saikawa, Rona L. Thompson, Nicolas Vuichard, Wilfried Winiwarter, Sonke Zaehle, Bowen Zhang, Kerou Zhang, Qiuan Zhu Jun 2018

The Global N20 Model Intercomparison Project, Hanqin Tian, Jia Yang, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Rongting Xu, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Almut Arneth, Jinfeng Chang, Guangsheng Chen, Philippe Ciais, Stefan Gerber, Akihiko Ito, Yuanyuan Huang, Fortunat Joos, Sebastian Lienert, Palmira Messina, Stefan Olin, Shufen Pan, Changhui Peng, Eri Saikawa, Rona L. Thompson, Nicolas Vuichard, Wilfried Winiwarter, Sonke Zaehle, Bowen Zhang, Kerou Zhang, Qiuan Zhu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and also an ozone-depleting substance that has both natural and anthropogenic sources. Large estimation uncertainty remains on the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of N2O fluxes and the key drivers of N2O production in the terrestrial biosphere. Some terrestrial biosphere models have been evolved to account for nitrogen processes and to show the capability to simulate N2O emissions from land ecosystems at the global scale, but large discrepancies exist among their estimates primarily because of inconsistent input datasets, simulation protocol, and model structure and parameterization schemes. Based on the consistent model input data ...


Historical Nitrogen Fertilizer Use In Agricultural Ecosystems Of The Contiguous United States During 1850–2015: Application Rate, Timing, And Fertilizer Types, Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu Jun 2018

Historical Nitrogen Fertilizer Use In Agricultural Ecosystems Of The Contiguous United States During 1850–2015: Application Rate, Timing, And Fertilizer Types, Peiyu Cao, Chaoqun (Crystal) Lu, Zhen Yu

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A tremendous amount of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been applied to agricultural lands to promote crop production in the US since the 1850s. However, inappropriate N management practices have caused numerous ecological and environmental problems which are difficult to quantify due to the paucity of spatially explicit time-series fertilizer use maps. Understanding and assessing N fertilizer management history could provide important implications for enhancing N use efficiency and reducing N loss. In this study, we therefore developed long-term gridded maps to depict crop-specific N fertilizer use rates, application timing, and the fractions of ammonium N (NH+ 4 -N) and ...


Variability In Community Productivity—Mediating Effects Of Vegetation Attributes, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey May 2018

Variability In Community Productivity—Mediating Effects Of Vegetation Attributes, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

  1. Plant productivity varies through time in response to environmental fluctuations. Reducing variability in productivity requires an improved understanding of how plant community attributes interact with environmental fluctuations to influence plant growth dynamics. We evaluated links between two community attributes, species diversity and abundance‐weighted values of specific leaf area (SLA), and temporal variability in grassland productivity at patch (local) and aggregate (multipatch) spatial scales.
  2. Aggregate communities were created by combining patches of spatially distinct communities of perennial plant species from grassland biodiversity experiments in Texas, USA. Interannual variability in above‐ground net primary productivity (ANPP) of aggregate communities was analysed ...


Herbivory And Eutrophication Mediate Grassland Plant Nutrient Responses Across A Global Climatic Gradient, T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. Macdougall, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schutz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg, Elizabeth T. Borer Apr 2018

Herbivory And Eutrophication Mediate Grassland Plant Nutrient Responses Across A Global Climatic Gradient, T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. Macdougall, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schutz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg, Elizabeth T. Borer

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and atmospheric N deposition emerged as strong predictors of plot‐level tissue nutrients, mediated by biomass and plant chemistry. Within sites, fertilization increased total plant nutrient ...


Priority Effects Are Affected By Precipitation Variability And Are Stronger In Exotic Than Native Grassland Species, Kaitlin M. Goodale, Brian J. Wilsey Apr 2018

Priority Effects Are Affected By Precipitation Variability And Are Stronger In Exotic Than Native Grassland Species, Kaitlin M. Goodale, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Exotic perennial grassland species often green up earlier than their native counterparts, allowing them to gain an advantage by dominating resources early (priority effects). Precipitation variability is expected to increase with climate change, and may alter the strength of priority effects. We hypothesized that exotics will have stronger priority effects than natives, precipitation variability will impact the strength of priority effects, and precipitation variability will impact the priority effects of native species more than those of exotics. We seeded one of five native or five exotic grassland species from the Central U.S. spanning multiple functional groups 28 days prior ...