Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Iowa State University

Plant Sciences

Bulletin

Articles 1 - 30 of 238

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Marketing Iowa Cantaloupes, A. T. Erwin, Geoffrey Shepherd, N. D. Morgan Aug 2017

Marketing Iowa Cantaloupes, A. T. Erwin, Geoffrey Shepherd, N. D. Morgan

Bulletin

Cantaloupe production is well adapted to the sand land areas. This type of soil, though not well adapted to corn and general farm crops, may be advantageously devoted to cantaloupe growing.

Cantaloupe marketing in Iowa presents a number of interesting and complex problems. These include consideration of varietal adaptation, the temperature factor, changes in transporting and selling agencies and competing areas of production. The objective of this bulletin is to show clearly what these problems are and to suggest possible methods of meeting them.


Barley In Iowa, L. C. Burnett, Chas. S. Reddy Aug 2017

Barley In Iowa, L. C. Burnett, Chas. S. Reddy

Bulletin

Barley yields in Iowa are higher than those for oats, but in spite of this 15 times more acres are sown to oats than to barley. During the 10 year period, 1925-34, the farms of Iowa produced average acre yields of 1,007 pounds of oats on 6,000,000 acres and 1,238 pounds of barley on 460,000 acres. Figure 1, presenting data from the Iowa Year Book of Agriculture, shows the relative acreage and acre yields of the two crops from 1900 to 1934. In order that a direct comparison may readily be made, the yields of ...


Hybrid Corn In Iowa, A. A. Bryan, R. W. Jugenheimer Aug 2017

Hybrid Corn In Iowa, A. A. Bryan, R. W. Jugenheimer

Bulletin

Hybrid corn is a comparatively recent development. Extensive breeding programs for the development of corn hybrids date from only about 1920—the Iowa program was begun in 1922. Despite the newness of hybrid corn, yield comparisons in the Iowa Corn Yield Test during the past 10 years have adequately demonstrated the superiority of certain hybrids over the best open-pollinated varieties. Results of these and other comparisons have awakened among growers a keen interest in the possibilities of hybrid corn.

Every grower is interested in obtaining large acre yields. The net profit from growing a bushel of corn is the difference ...


Notes On Some Of The Newer Vegetables, A. T. Erwin, E. S. Haber Aug 2017

Notes On Some Of The Newer Vegetables, A. T. Erwin, E. S. Haber

Bulletin

In presenting the following report on some of the newer vegetables recently tested at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, no attempt is made to embrace all the new varieties or possible synonyms offered in the American seed trade. In cases where the results were so distinctly negative as to indicate that the variety was unsuited to the soil and climatic condition of central Iowa, it was omitted from the list.

The fact that a variety may be of special value for one purpose, but possibly inferior for another, should be borne in mind. The Ohio Canner beet is admirably adapted ...


Hail Damage To Corn, J. C. Eldredge Aug 2017

Hail Damage To Corn, J. C. Eldredge

Bulletin

Each year thousands of Corn Belt farmers, as they nurse their crops from kernel to ear watch gathering ram clouds with a hopeful eye. And each year, instead of the gentle shower of their anticipation, many of these farmers see the dreaded hailstorm come pounding across the country-side, leaving in its wake a path of twisted, bruised and broken corn plants.

Depending upon the stage of development and the apparent severity of the damage, there follows the indecision as to whether to replant, replace with another crop or hope that following conditions will be favorable to the damaged field. Or ...


Flax As An Iowa Crop, Chas. S. Reddy, L. C. Burnett Aug 2017

Flax As An Iowa Crop, Chas. S. Reddy, L. C. Burnett

Bulletin

Among the grain crops in the United States, seed flax is exceeded in value by corn, wheat, oats and barley. It has approximately the same value as rye, rice and sorghums.

As a crop for new land, the flax seed acreage reached a peak (3,700,000 acres) in 1902, but gradually declined to little more than a million acres by 1922. As a crop for old land, taking its place in rotations, flax acreage reached a second peak equal to the first in 1930. Consumption of flax in the United States surpassed production in 1909 and for the past ...


Tree Fruits For Iowa, H. L. Lantz Aug 2017

Tree Fruits For Iowa, H. L. Lantz

Bulletin

This bulletin is intended to assist Iowa orchardists in the selection of satisfactory tree fruit varieties either for home or commercial production. By consulting the descriptions and discussions herein given and by informing himself as to the present status of varieties already grown in his locality, the prospective planter should be in a position to make a selection which will succeed and bring him satisfactory returns. Doubtless future years will place different valuations upon many of the varieties discussed for Iowa planting.


Effect Of Harvesting, Spacing And Age Of Plants On Yields Of Asparagus, E. S. Haber Aug 2017

Effect Of Harvesting, Spacing And Age Of Plants On Yields Of Asparagus, E. S. Haber

Bulletin

Although Iowa has never ranked high among the states as a producer of asparagus for market or canning, the asparagus acreage planted, particularly by canners, is increasing.

No exact information is available concerning the effect of the cutting season’s length upon yields over a period of years. Market gardeners usually stop cutting asparagus in Iowa between June 1 and June 15. The demand for asparagus at this time decreases and the prices drop too low for profitable harvesting. To prevent damage to future yields, June 15 also appears to be the latest safe harvest date, though no substantiating experimental ...


Control Of Cherry Yellow-Leaf On Nursery Stock, George L. Mcnew, Donald E. Bliss Aug 2017

Control Of Cherry Yellow-Leaf On Nursery Stock, George L. Mcnew, Donald E. Bliss

Bulletin

Yellow-leaf, caused by the fungus Coccomyces hiemalis Higgins, is the most prevalent and destructive cherry disease in Iowa, since it often causes premature defoliation of both nursery and orchard trees. Early defoliation in nursery stock results in decreased growth during the current and subsequent years, and precludes all possibility of forcing the trees into marketable size in one growing season. In the orchard, defoliation may decrease fruit bud formation and vegetative growth and increase the amount of winterkilling.

All defoliated nursery stock must be held in the nursery row a second season, and even then many of the trees must ...


Choosing Legumes And Perennial Grasses, F. S. Wilkins, H. D. Hughes Aug 2017

Choosing Legumes And Perennial Grasses, F. S. Wilkins, H. D. Hughes

Bulletin

Many letters are received annually by the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station requesting information on the different legumes and grasses. This publication has been prepared to answer the more important questions pertaining to the choice of legumes and grasses for different uses and conditions.2

Legumes of greatest value for different uses or soil conditions in Iowa are (1) alfalfa, (2) medium red clover, (3) mammoth red clover, (4) alsike clover, (5) white clover, (6) the biennial white and yellow sweet clovers, (7) hubam clover, (the annual white sweet clover) (8) Korean lespedeza, (9) dalea and (10) soybeans. A discussion of ...


Functional Diseases Of The Apple In Storage, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney, B. S. Pickett Aug 2017

Functional Diseases Of The Apple In Storage, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney, B. S. Pickett

Bulletin

A systematic study of the storage diseases of apples includes the consideration of two general groups: (a) the functional, and (b) the parasitic diseases. Although most kinds of parasitic diseases are seldom found on good grades of apples, occasionally some of these escape inspection and develop considerably on ripe, fruit in storage. The fruit grower who is concerned with producing sound fruit is familiar with such parasitic diseases as apple scab, apple blotch and cedar-apple rust. The fruit dealer, storage operator and consumer, on the other hand, more frequently come in contact with the functional diseases such as Jonathan spot ...


A Production Method Of Valuing Land, W. G. Murray, H. R. Meldrum Aug 2017

A Production Method Of Valuing Land, W. G. Murray, H. R. Meldrum

Bulletin

What is the value of a farm? One answer is the amount it will bring if sold. But let us assume a farmer wants to buy a farm. What can he afford to pay for it? A similar question faces the seller, anxious about what he should ask for his farm. For situations like these, valuation of the land on a productivity basis is helpful. Rightly used such a method can make farm valuations more precise and reliable. In addition to its use in determining the sale price of land, this method is well adapted for appraisals of land for ...


Soybeans In Iowa Farming, Albert Mighell, H. D. Hughes, F. S. Wilkins Aug 2017

Soybeans In Iowa Farming, Albert Mighell, H. D. Hughes, F. S. Wilkins

Bulletin

Few other crops in Iowa have shown such rapid acreage increases as soybeans or proved as advantageous for so many different uses. Only 471 acres of the crop were grown in the state in 1919. By 1933 the area had expanded to 192,000 acres. Soybeans may be planted either alone or with corn. Alone, they may be used for seed, hay, pasture, silage, soiling, or as a green manure crop. The first two of these uses are by far the most important. Iowa farmers need a home-grown, high protein concentrate, and soybeans are the best crop available for that ...


Irrigation For Vegetable Crops In Iowa, A. T. Erwin, E. S. Haber Aug 2017

Irrigation For Vegetable Crops In Iowa, A. T. Erwin, E. S. Haber

Bulletin

Does it pay to irrigate vegetable crops in Iowa?

What does it cost to irrigate? and under what conditions are these costs, plus a profit, returned to the vegetable grower?

No complete answer to these questions can be given, because of the widely varying conditions involved—differences of rainfall, of crops, of costs, of soil, of topography. But considerable light is thrown on them by experiments which the Vegetable Crops Subsection of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station has conducted during several years at Ames and on “Muscatine Island.’’


Effects Of Inoculation And Liming On Alfalfa Grown On The Grundy Silt Loam, R. H. Walker, P. E. Brown Aug 2017

Effects Of Inoculation And Liming On Alfalfa Grown On The Grundy Silt Loam, R. H. Walker, P. E. Brown

Bulletin

In southern Iowa where the Grundy silt loam is one of the principal upland soil types, less than 1 percent of the total acreage of cropped land is devoted to the production of alfalfa. This low acreage in alfalfa is due to the fact that the soils there are generally acid in reaction and are not suited to the production of alfalfa until the acidity is corrected by liming. Furthermore, these acid soils are deficient in the alfalfa root-nodule bacteria which must be introduced into the soil after liming if the best results are to be obtained.

In this bulletin ...


Effects Of Inoculation And Liming On Soybeans Grown On The Grundy Silt Loam, R. H. Walker, P. E. Brown Aug 2017

Effects Of Inoculation And Liming On Soybeans Grown On The Grundy Silt Loam, R. H. Walker, P. E. Brown

Bulletin

Soybeans are grown extensively on the Grundy silt loam in southern Iowa. This soil usually requires from 2 to 3 tons of limestone to correct the acidity. Furthermore, it does not naturally contain the nitrogen-fixing soybean root-nodule bacteria. Hence, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of liming and inoculation on the yield and quality of soybeans grown on typical Grundy silt loam. The experiments were conducted near Osceola in Clarke County.

Quarry-run limestone was applied to different plots in varying amounts, ranging from 1 to 6 tons per acre. On other plots limestone of different degrees of fineness was ...


The Peppers, A. T. Erwin Aug 2017

The Peppers, A. T. Erwin

Bulletin

Peppers are native plants of tropical America, one of the few vegetables which still abound in the wild state. The earliest mention of them was in a report of Columbus’ first voyage.

The garden peppers are regarded as dwarf, early maturing forms of Capsicum frutescens. They are either annuals or perennials, according to climatic conditions.

The peppers are both self and cross-fertilized.

The collection of peppers grown in securing the data for this bulletin, included over 200 varieties, a large proportion of which were synonyms, secured from the American and European seed trade.


Soil Management On The Carrington Silt Loam, P. E. Brown, H. R. Meldrum, A. J. Englehorn, R. E. Bennett Aug 2017

Soil Management On The Carrington Silt Loam, P. E. Brown, H. R. Meldrum, A. J. Englehorn, R. E. Bennett

Bulletin

The Carrington silt loam occurs extensively on the gently rolling uplands throughout northeastern central Iowa and in the eastern central counties. It is one of the more important soil types in the Iowan drift soil area. The map (fig. 1) shows its approximate occurrence.

Crop yields are generally quite satisfactory on this soil, but some areas are not producing properly, and in many cases much larger yields per acre may be secured by the adoption of better methods of soil management. Suggestions have been offered in a previous publication* which if adopted will make this soil more productive and insure ...


Gladiolus Varieties In Floriculture Trial Gardens At Iowa State College, E. C. Volz, D. C. Fairburn Aug 2017

Gladiolus Varieties In Floriculture Trial Gardens At Iowa State College, E. C. Volz, D. C. Fairburn

Bulletin

One of the few gladiolus trial gardens in the United States is located at Ames, Iowa. This project was established in 1929 by the Iowa Gladiolus Society and the Department of Horticulture at Iowa State College. It has enjoyed the active cooperation of gladiolus breeders and commercial growers. The purpose of this garden is to make a comparative study of new and important varieties of gladioli to determine their commercial value and general adaptability. The value of this trial garden from a demonstration point of view alone can hardly be overestimated. Thousands of plant lovers visit the garden annually to ...


A Soil Management Program For Grundy Silt Loam, W. H. Stevenson, P. E. Brown Aug 2017

A Soil Management Program For Grundy Silt Loam, W. H. Stevenson, P. E. Brown

Bulletin

The results secured on 13 cooperative soil experimental fields on the Grundy silt loam in Southern Iowa have shown that the Iowa System of Soil Management when put into, operation on that soil type, will definitely increase the yields of general farm crops.

Occasionally the Grundy silt loam is not adequately drained, especially on some of the broad, level to flat areas of the type, and tiling is the first treatment needed to make such areas satisfactorily productive.

Ordinary farm practice usually provides satisfactory cultivation, and this is especially important on this type because it stimulates the production of available ...


The Effect Of Various Containers On The Growth Of Vegetable Plants, E. S. Haber Aug 2017

The Effect Of Various Containers On The Growth Of Vegetable Plants, E. S. Haber

Bulletin

The experiments indicate that clay pots are superior, as a general rule, to composition pots, paper bands or flats as a growing medium for vegetable plants. If the plants in these substitute containers, however, are watered, about every week or 10 days with a solution of nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia or any other nitrogenous fertilizer at the rate of 1 ounce to 1 gallon of water, plants equal to those produced in clay pots are possible. A few species may do as well without nitrates; cabbage plants grown in peat pots were slightly better than those in clay ...


A Soil Management Program For Carrington Loam, W. H. Stevenson, P. E. Brown Aug 2017

A Soil Management Program For Carrington Loam, W. H. Stevenson, P. E. Brown

Bulletin

Tests on 12 cooperative soil experiment fields on the Carrington loam in various counties indicate that the Iowa system of soil management is applicable to that soil and that the various treatments suggested are of definite value.

The Carrington loam is usually adequately drained, but in any areas where the drainage is poor, tiling is the first treatment needed to make such areas satisfactorily productive.

The proper cultivation of the soil is essential for the best growth of general farm crops. As the production of available plant food depends to a large extent upon cultivation, this affects crop yields materially.


Field Experiments With Fertilizers On Some Iowa Soils, W. H. Stevenson, P. E. Brown Aug 2017

Field Experiments With Fertilizers On Some Iowa Soils, W. H. Stevenson, P. E. Brown

Bulletin

Many of the experiments carried out in the field in cooperation with Iowa farmers on some of the more extensive soil types in the state have been under way for 10 or more years. The average results secured on the Carrington loam, the Clarion loam, the Carrington silt loam, the Grundy silt loam, the Grundy silty clay loam, the Tama silt loam, the Muscatine silt loam, the Clinton silt loam, the Marshall silt loam and the Waukesha silt loam are presented and discussed in this bulletin.

The results secured show that crop yields may be increased on many Iowa farms ...


The Management Of Peat And Alkali Soils In Iowa, W. H. Stevenson, P. E. Brown, J. L. Boatman Aug 2017

The Management Of Peat And Alkali Soils In Iowa, W. H. Stevenson, P. E. Brown, J. L. Boatman

Bulletin

How to handle peat soils and how to reclaim so-called, alkali spots are real problems to many farmers in north-central Iowa, large numbers of whom have found thru hitter experience the futility of attempting to grow crops on such land without special methods of treatment.

While drainage is generally recognized as the basic treatment necessary if these soils are to be successfully cropped, other treatments in addition have been found to be essential if satisfactory crop yields are to be secured on peat and alkali areas. Even with the very best system of management, several years may be required before ...


High Yielding Strains And Varieties Of Corn For Iowa, H. D. Hughes, Joe L. Robinson, A. A. Bryan Aug 2017

High Yielding Strains And Varieties Of Corn For Iowa, H. D. Hughes, Joe L. Robinson, A. A. Bryan

Bulletin

This publication is a report of the Iowa Corn Yield Test, the primary object of which is to locate the strains and varieties which will produce the largest yields of dry shelled corn in the different sections and districts of the state. The Farm Crops Section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station has cooperated with the Iowa Corn and Small Grain Growers’ Association from the time the work was first undertaken in 1920. Since 1922 this cooperation has been shared by the Office of Cereal Crops and Diseases of the United States Department of Agriculture which at that time assigned ...


Species And Varietal Crosses In Cucurbits, A. T. Erwin, E. S. Haber Aug 2017

Species And Varietal Crosses In Cucurbits, A. T. Erwin, E. S. Haber

Bulletin

A preponderance of parthenocarpic fruits is one of the outstanding features of this investigation. Out of approximately 3,000 crosses, 369 fruits were secured, over 99 percent of which were parthenocarpic.

A second significant fact is the pronounced manifestations of impotence of the species hybrids in cucurbits. Sexual derangement, especially of the staminate organs, was clearly evidenced. In a number of the crosses which resulted in fertile seeds, there were pronounced manifestations of physiological weakness. These symptoms of either impotence or physiological weakness characterize the crosses of C. pepo and C. maxima and of C. moschata and C. maxima and ...


The Inoculation Of Non-Legumes, L. W. Erdman, P. E. Brown Aug 2017

The Inoculation Of Non-Legumes, L. W. Erdman, P. E. Brown

Bulletin

The discovery of the importance of the inoculation of legume crops, such as clovers and alfalfa, some 40 years ago, in order to secure larger crops and increase the fertility of the soil, has led to many attempts to devise a culture which would bring about similar beneficial effects on non-legumes.

The first commercial culture, known as Alinit, appeared in 1895. It was supposed to increase the nitrogen content of the soil thru the introduction of free-living nitrogen fixing organisms and thus supply nitrogen for the better growth of all crops. It failed. Other cultures, appearing from time to time ...


Relation Of Certain Ear And Kernel Characters Of Reid Yellow Dent Corn To Yield, H. D. Hughes, Joe L. Robinson Aug 2017

Relation Of Certain Ear And Kernel Characters Of Reid Yellow Dent Corn To Yield, H. D. Hughes, Joe L. Robinson

Bulletin

Considerable attention has been given to to the possible relationships which may exist between various visible characters in the seed ear and the relative ability of such seed to produce satisfactory yields when planted. The extent to which it is possible to influence the yield of corn by selecting seed with certain ear and kernel characters is a question of practical interest to all corn growers.

The practical corn growers of the past, as well as those o f the present, in saving ears for seed, have probably had in mind characters believed to be associated with or contributing to ...


Sweet Corn Seed Studies, A. T. Erwin, E. S. Haber Aug 2017

Sweet Corn Seed Studies, A. T. Erwin, E. S. Haber

Bulletin

Sweet corn is the most important canning crop grown in Iowa. The average annual pack in this state for the past five years is approximately 2,500,000 cases. High grade seed, both as to canning quality and vitality, is of primary importance to the canning industry. Due perhaps to its sugary character, sweet corn is more difficult to cure than field corn. Also, it is a plant of less vigor and more subject to diseases. Greater care is therefore required in curing and handling the seed.

This study was undertaken to secure information regarding:

1. Methods of hastening the ...


Iogold Oats, L. C. Burnett Aug 2017

Iogold Oats, L. C. Burnett

Bulletin

Iogold, a new variety of oats offered for distribution by the Farm Crops Section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station in 1927, has three distinct qualities which recommend it to Iowa farmers. Its advantages are stiffness of straw, high yield of grain and resistance to stem rust. Iogold stands as well or better than Iowa No. 105 and its yields are equal to Iowar. It went thru the 1926 stem rust epidemic with less than 2 percent of infected plants, while most other varieties showed from 8·0 to 100 percent infection. For growing on land where lodging and rust ...