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Dryland Soil Nitrogen Cycling Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen Jul 2012

Dryland Soil Nitrogen Cycling Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Management practices may influence dryland soil N cycling. We evaluated the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on dryland crop biomass (stems and leaves) N, surface residue N, and soil N fractions at the 0–20 cm depth in a Williams loam from 2004 to 2008 in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were two tillage practices (no-tillage [NT] and conventional tillage [CT]), two crop rotations (continuous spring wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] [CW] and spring wheat-barley [Hordeum vulgaris L.] hay-corn [Zea mays L.]-pea [Pisum sativum L.] [W-B-C-P]), and two cultural practices (regular [conventional seed rates and plant spacing, conventional ...


Annual Warm-Season Grasses Vary For Forage Yield, Quality, And Competitiveness With Weeds, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. Dennis Cash Dec 2011

Annual Warm-Season Grasses Vary For Forage Yield, Quality, And Competitiveness With Weeds, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. Dennis Cash

Andrew W. Lenssen

Warm-season annual grasses may be suitable as forage crops in integrated weed management systems with reduced herbicide use. A 2-year field study was conducted to determine whether tillage system and nitrogen (N) fertilizer application method influenced crop and weed biomass, water use, water use efficiency (WUE), and forage quality of three warm-season grasses, and seed production by associated weeds. Tillage systems were zero tillage and conventional tillage with a field cultivator. The N fertilization methods were urea broadcast or banded near seed rows at planting. Warm-season grasses seeded were foxtail (Setaria italica L.) and proso (Panicum mileaceum L.) millets, and ...


Sheep Grazing In A Wheat–Fallow System Affects Dryland Soil Properties And Grain Yield, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield Sep 2011

Sheep Grazing In A Wheat–Fallow System Affects Dryland Soil Properties And Grain Yield, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing, an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow system, may affect dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed control and soil water conservation (sheep grazing, herbicide application [chemical], and tillage [mechanical]) and cropping sequence (continuous spring wheat [CSW], spring wheat–fallow [SW-F], and winter wheat–fallow [WW-F]) on soil nutrients and chemical properties in the 0- to 60-cm depth and wheat yield. The experiment was conducted in a Blackmore silt loam from 2004 to 2008 in southwestern Montana. Soil P ...


Dryland Soil Carbon Dynamics Under Alfalfa And Durum-Forage Cropping Sequences, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen May 2011

Dryland Soil Carbon Dynamics Under Alfalfa And Durum-Forage Cropping Sequences, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Forages grown in rotation with or without cereals to sustain dryland soil water content and crop production may influence C dynamics. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L.)-annual forage cropping sequences on above- (stems + leaves) and belowground (roots) biomass C inputs and dryland soil organic C (SOC), particulate total C (PTC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and potential C mineralization (PCM) at the 0–120 cm depth. Cropping sequences were continuous alfalfa (CA), durum-barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hay (D-B), durum-foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) hay (D-M), durum-Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum L.)/barley ...


Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Under Dryland Alfalfa And Durum–Forage Cropping Sequences, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen Mar 2011

Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Under Dryland Alfalfa And Durum–Forage Cropping Sequences, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Forages grown in rotation with or without cereals to sustain dryland soil water content and crop production may influence N dynamics. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L.)–annual forage cropping sequences on above- (stems + leaves) and belowground (roots) biomass N, dryland soil total N (STN), particulate organic N (PON), microbial biomass N (MBN), potential N mineralization (PNM), NH4–N, and NO3–N contents at the 0- to 120-cm depth in northeastern Montana from 2002 to 2005. Cropping sequences were continuous alfalfa (CA), durum–barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hay (D-B), durum–foxtail millet ...


Tillage Effects On Dryland Soil Physical Properties In Northeastern Montana, J. D. Jabro, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. G. Evans Jan 2011

Tillage Effects On Dryland Soil Physical Properties In Northeastern Montana, J. D. Jabro, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

We evaluated the effect of no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) on soil penetration resistance (PR), bulk density (BD), gravimetric moisture content (MC), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) during the fallow phase of a spring wheat–fallow rotation. The study was conducted on two soils mapped as Williams loam at the Froid and Sidney sites. Soil measurements were made on 19 May, 23 June, and 4 August 2005 at the Froid site and on 6 June and 8 July 2005 at the Sidney site. Tillage had no effect on either soil properties except on the PR at Sidney. However ...


Dryland Residue And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen Jan 2011

Dryland Residue And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Cultural Practice, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Jalal D. Jabro, Robert T. Lartey, Robert G. Evans, Brett L. Allen

Andrew W. Lenssen

Novel management practices are needed to increase dryland soil organic matter and crop yields that have been declining due to long-term conventional tillage with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system in the northern Great Plains, USA. The effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice were evaluated on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) yield, surface residue, and soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at the 0–20 cm depth in a Williams loam (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid, Typic Argiustolls) from 2004 to 2007 in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were two tillage practices [no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage ...


Measured And Predicted Temporal Changes In Soil Nitrate-N Levels From Late Summer To Early Spring In Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, Clain Jones, Chengci Chen, Kent Mcvay, Bob Stougaard, Mal Westcott, Joyce Eckhoff, Jennifer Weeding, Mark Greenwood Jan 2011

Measured And Predicted Temporal Changes In Soil Nitrate-N Levels From Late Summer To Early Spring In Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, Clain Jones, Chengci Chen, Kent Mcvay, Bob Stougaard, Mal Westcott, Joyce Eckhoff, Jennifer Weeding, Mark Greenwood

Andrew W. Lenssen

Most soil sampling is conducted from August to November in Montana because of better soil sampling conditions and because it provides more time for growers to make fertilizer decisions prior to application. Fertilizer guidelines in Montana are based on spring nitrate-N levels in the upper 2 ft because they are more indicative of growing season available N than fall nitrate-N levels. It is not known how much nitrate-N levels change between late summer and spring, nor is it known what factors affect these changes, and large changes could result in either over-application of N fertilizer or sub-optimal yields. A three-year ...


Sheep Grazing Effect On Dryland Soil Carbon And Nitrogen In The Wheat-Fallow System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield Jan 2011

Sheep Grazing Effect On Dryland Soil Carbon And Nitrogen In The Wheat-Fallow System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield

Andrew W. Lenssen

Weed control by sheep grazing during fallow periods in the dryland wheat-fallow system may influence soil C and N levels. The effects of fallow management for weed control and soil water conservation [sheep grazing (grazing), herbicide application (chemical), and tillage (mechanical)] and cropping sequence [continuous spring wheat (CSW), spring wheat-fallow (SW-F), and winter wheatfallow (WW-F)] on wheat biomass (stems + leaves) yield and soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at the 0-120 cm depth was evaluated from 2004 to 2008 in western Montana. Annualized wheat biomass yield was greater in CSW than in SW-F and WW-F from 2004 to ...


Dryland Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Influenced By Sheep Grazing In The Wheat–Fallow System, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield Nov 2010

Dryland Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Influenced By Sheep Grazing In The Wheat–Fallow System, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Hayes B. Goosey, Erin Snyder, Patrick G. Hatfield

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sheep (Ovis aries) grazing during fallow for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow systems may influence soil C and N levels and grain yields by returning part of consumed crop residue to the soil through feces and urine. We evaluated the effects of fallow management (sheep grazing [grazing], herbicide application [chemical], and tillage [mechanical]) for weed control and soil water conservation and cropping sequence (continuous spring wheat [CSW], spring wheat–fallow [SW-F], and winter wheat–fallow [WW-F]) on soil organic carbon (SOC), inorganic carbon (SIC), total nitrogen (STN), NH4–N, and NO3–N levels at the 0- to ...


Yield, Quality, And Water And Nitrogen Use Of Durum And Annual Forages In Two-Year Rotations, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. D. Cash, P. G. Hatfield, Upendra M. Sainju, W. R. Grey, Sue L. Blodgett, H. B. Goosey, D. A. Griffith, G. D. Johnson Jul 2010

Yield, Quality, And Water And Nitrogen Use Of Durum And Annual Forages In Two-Year Rotations, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. D. Cash, P. G. Hatfield, Upendra M. Sainju, W. R. Grey, Sue L. Blodgett, H. B. Goosey, D. A. Griffith, G. D. Johnson

Andrew W. Lenssen

Annual spring-seeded forage crops use less water than cereal grains, including durum (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum), and may be suitable to replace summer fallow. We conducted an experiment from 2002 through 2006 comparing yield, quality, and water and N use of durum and three annual forages, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), barley interseeded with pea [Pisum sativum L. ssp. arvense (L.) Poir.], and foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] in 2-yr rotations. Durum in rotation with summer fallow and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were included. Averaged over 5 yr, alfalfa had higher forage yield and quality, water use, and N ...


Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, R. T. Lartey, T.C. Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans May 2010

Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, R. T. Lartey, T.C. Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet, survives as pseudostromata in infected sugar beet residues in the soil. Under optimal conditions, overwintering propagules germinate and produce conidia that are dispersed as primary inoculum to initiate infection in sugar beet. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for rapid detection of C. beticola in field soils. Total DNA was first isolated from soil amended with C. beticola culture using the PowerSoil DNA Kit. The purified DNA was subjected to PCR in Extract-N-Amp PCR mix with CBACTIN primers over 35 cycles. The amplified products were resolved ...


Regional Assemblages Of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) In Montana Canola Fields, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. A. Ritter, Sue L. Blodgett, M. L. Taper Jan 2010

Regional Assemblages Of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) In Montana Canola Fields, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. A. Ritter, Sue L. Blodgett, M. L. Taper

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fields sampled, averaging 60–99% of the total adult populations. Lygus borealis (Kelton), Lygus keltoni (Schwartz) and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot) were detected at much lower levels. Total lygus population density was greatest in the southwest and central regions. The northeast and southwest regions had the greatest lygus species diversity. The proportion of L. elisus ...


Effects Of Tillage On Microbial Populations Associated To Soil Aggregation In Dryland Spring Wheat System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Anthony J. Caesar, Upendra M. Sainju, John F. Gaskin Jan 2010

Effects Of Tillage On Microbial Populations Associated To Soil Aggregation In Dryland Spring Wheat System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Anthony J. Caesar, Upendra M. Sainju, John F. Gaskin

Andrew W. Lenssen

Tillage may influence the microbial populations involved in soil aggregation.We evaluated the effects of no till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT, tillage depth about 7 cm) continuous spring wheat system on culturable heterotrophic bacterial communities predominant in microaggregates (0.25e0.05 mm) and on soil-aggregating basidiomycete fungi in aggregate-size classes (4.75e2.00, 2.00e0.25, and 0.25e0.05 mm) at 0e20 cm depth of a Williams loam (fine-loamy, mixed, Typic Argiustolls) in dryland Montana, USA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to quantify antigenic response to basidiomycete cellwalls,was higher in NT than in CT in 4.75e2.00 ...


Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. T. Lartey, T. C. Caesar-Tonthat, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans Jan 2010

Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. T. Lartey, T. C. Caesar-Tonthat, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet, survives as pseudostromata in infected sugar beet residues in the soil. Under optimal conditions, overwintering propagules germinate and produce conidia that are dispersed as primary inoculum to initiate infection in sugar beet. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for rapid detection of C. beticola in field soils. Total DNA was first isolated from soil amended with C. beticola culture using the PowerSoil DNA Kit. The purified DNA was subjected to PCR in Extract- N-Amp PCR mix with CBACTIN primers over 35 cycles. The amplified products were ...


Management Strategies To Improve Yield And Nitrogen Use Of Spring Wheat And Field Pea In The Semi-Arid Northern Great Plains Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett Allen, Upendra Sainju, Thecan Caesar, Robert Lartey, Robert Evans Jan 2010

Management Strategies To Improve Yield And Nitrogen Use Of Spring Wheat And Field Pea In The Semi-Arid Northern Great Plains Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett Allen, Upendra Sainju, Thecan Caesar, Robert Lartey, Robert Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Available water and N fertility are primary constraints to crop production in the northern Great Plains of the USA. A field trial was initiated in 2004 to compare four crop rotations in a complete factorial of two tillage and two management systems. Rotations were continuous spring wheat (SW), pea-SW, barley hay-pea-SW, and barley hay-corn-pea-SW. Tillage systems were no till and field cultivator tillage, while management systems were conventional and ecological. Conventional management included broadcast nitrogen fertilizer, standard seeding rates, and short stubble height. Ecological management practices varied by crop, and included banded nitrogen fertilizer for cereals, increased seeding rate, delayed ...


Tillage And Cropping Sequence Impacts On Nitrogen Cycling In Dryland Farming In Eastern Montana, Usa, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, Robert G. Evans, Robert Kolberg May 2009

Tillage And Cropping Sequence Impacts On Nitrogen Cycling In Dryland Farming In Eastern Montana, Usa, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, Robert G. Evans, Robert Kolberg

Andrew W. Lenssen

Information on N cycling in dryland crops and soils as influenced by long-term tillage and cropping sequence is needed to quantify soil N sequestration, mineralization, and N balance to reduce N fertilization rate and N losses through soil processes. The 21-yr effects of the combinations of tillage and cropping sequences was evaluated on dryland crop grain and biomass (stems + leaves) N, soil surface residue N, soil N fractions, and N balance at the 0–20 cm depth in Dooley sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, frigid, Typic Argiboroll) in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were no-tilled continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW ...


Dryland Crop Yields And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Long-Term Tillage And Cropping Sequence, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Robert G. Evans Mar 2009

Dryland Crop Yields And Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By Long-Term Tillage And Cropping Sequence, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Robert G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Novel management practices are needed to improve the declining dryland crop yields and soil organic matter contents using conventional farming practices in the northern Great Plains. We evaluated the 21-yr effect of tillage and cropping sequence on dryland grain and biomass (stems + leaves) yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and pea (Pisum sativum L.) and soil organic matter at the 0- to 20-cm depth in eastern Montana, USA. Treatments were no-tilled continuous spring wheat (NTCW), spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall- and spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall- and spring-tilled spring wheat-barley (1984–1999) followed ...


Long-Term Tillage Frequency Effects On Dryland Soil Physical And Hydraulic Properties, Andrew W. Lenssen, J. D. Jabro, U. M. Sainju, W. B. Stevens, R. G. Evans Jan 2008

Long-Term Tillage Frequency Effects On Dryland Soil Physical And Hydraulic Properties, Andrew W. Lenssen, J. D. Jabro, U. M. Sainju, W. B. Stevens, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Soil tillage is considered one of most important practices in agricultural production due to its influence on physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment. The effect of a long-term tillage [no-till (NT), spring till (ST), and fall and spring till (FST)] was investigated on soil penetration resistance (PR), bulk density (BD), gravimetric water content (GWC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) under dryland conditions. Tillage effects on these physical properties were tested after 22 years on a Dooley sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed Typic Argiborolls) derived from glacial till parent material. The statistical design used was a randomized complete block ...


Evaluation Of Winter Cereals For Pasture In Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, A. N. Hafla, S. D. Cash, L. M. M. Surber, J. A. Paterson, A. L. Todd, M. S. Huffman Jan 2008

Evaluation Of Winter Cereals For Pasture In Montana, Andrew W. Lenssen, A. N. Hafla, S. D. Cash, L. M. M. Surber, J. A. Paterson, A. L. Todd, M. S. Huffman

Andrew W. Lenssen

In the southern Great Plains, it is common to graze winter wheat pastures prior to grain harvest to take advantage of economic returns from the grain crop and value added to livestock. In Montana, a similar management practice could provide complementary pasture for livestock in the late spring to relieve pressure on cool season native rangelands. A two year study was conducted to evaluate the forage yield and quality of winter cereals, when grazed at three growth stages, vegetative (V), boot stage (B), and at heading (H), prior to hay and grain harvest. Western white faced ewes were used to ...


Long-Term Tillage And Cropping Sequence Effects On Dryland Residue And Soil Carbon Fractions, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, Robert G. Evans, Robert Kolberg Nov 2007

Long-Term Tillage And Cropping Sequence Effects On Dryland Residue And Soil Carbon Fractions, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Andrew W. Lenssen, Robert G. Evans, Robert Kolberg

Andrew W. Lenssen

Long-term management practices are needed to increase dryland C storage and improve soil quality. We evaluated the 21-yr effects of combinations of tillage and cropping sequences on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) returned to the soil, residue C, and soil C fractions at the 0- to 20-cm depth in a Dooley sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, frigid, Typic Argiborolls) in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall- and spring-tilled continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall- and spring-tilled spring wheat–barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (1984–1999) followed by spring wheat–pea (Pisum ...


Diversified Cropping Systems In Semiarid Montana: Nitrogen Use During Drought, Andrew W. Lenssen, J. T. Waddell, G. D. Johnson, G. R. Carlson Jun 2007

Diversified Cropping Systems In Semiarid Montana: Nitrogen Use During Drought, Andrew W. Lenssen, J. T. Waddell, G. D. Johnson, G. R. Carlson

Andrew W. Lenssen

Improved nitrogen use efficiency would be beneficial to agroecosystem sustainability in the northern Great Plains of the USA. The most common rotation in the northern Great Plains is fallow–spring wheat. Tillage during fallow periods controls weeds, which otherwise would use substantial amounts of water and available nitrogen, decreasing the efficiency of fallow. Chemical fallow and zero tillage systems improve soil water conservation, and may improve nitrogen availability to subsequent crops. We conducted a field trial from 1998 through 2003 comparing nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of crops in nine rotations under two tillage systems, conventional and no-till. All ...


Dryland Plant Biomass And Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Fractions On Transient Land As Influenced By Tillage And Crop Rotation, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Thonthat, Jed Waddell Apr 2007

Dryland Plant Biomass And Soil Carbon And Nitrogen Fractions On Transient Land As Influenced By Tillage And Crop Rotation, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Thonthat, Jed Waddell

Andrew W. Lenssen

Soil and crop management practices may alter the quantity, quality, and placement of plant residues that influence soil C and N fractions. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)] and five crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (CW), spring wheat–fallow (W–F), spring wheat–lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) (W–L), spring wheat–spring wheat–fallow (W–W–F), and spring wheat–pea (Pisum sativum L.)–fallow (W–P–F)] on transient land previously under 10 years of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) planting on the amount of plant biomass (stems + leaves ...


Incorporating Sheep Into Dryland Grain Production Systems Iii. Impact On Changes In Soil Bulk Density And Soil Nutrient Profiles, P. G. Hatfield, H. B. Goosey, T. M. Spezzano, Sue L. Blodgett, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. W. Kott, C. B. Marlow Jan 2007

Incorporating Sheep Into Dryland Grain Production Systems Iii. Impact On Changes In Soil Bulk Density And Soil Nutrient Profiles, P. G. Hatfield, H. B. Goosey, T. M. Spezzano, Sue L. Blodgett, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. W. Kott, C. B. Marlow

Andrew W. Lenssen

Changes in soil bulk density and soil nutrient profiles are a major concern of dryland grain producers considering grazing sheep on cereal stubble fields. Our objective was to compare burned, grazed, tilled, trampled and clipped wheat stubble fields on changes in soil bulk density and soil nutrient profiles. Treatments were evaluated in a series of three experiments using a randomized complete block design and four replications at each site. Contrast statements were used to make pre-planned comparisons among treatments. For Experiment 1, treatments were fall tilled, fall grazed, spring grazed, fall and spring combined (Fall/Spr) grazed, and an untreated ...


Incorporating Sheep Into Dryland Grain Production Systems Ii. Impact On Changes In Biomass And Weed Density, P. G. Hatfield, Andrew W. Lenssen, T. M. Spezzano, Sue L. Blodgett, H. B. Goosey, R. W. Kott, C. B. Marlow Jan 2007

Incorporating Sheep Into Dryland Grain Production Systems Ii. Impact On Changes In Biomass And Weed Density, P. G. Hatfield, Andrew W. Lenssen, T. M. Spezzano, Sue L. Blodgett, H. B. Goosey, R. W. Kott, C. B. Marlow

Andrew W. Lenssen

Weed control in fallow management to conserve soil moisture and nutrients is the largest variable cost to dryland grain production. Our objective was to compare burning, grazing, tilling, trampling and clipping wheat stubble fields on changes in total above ground biomass and weed density. Treatments were evaluated in three experiments using a randomized complete block design for each experiment with four replications at each site. Contrasts statements were used to make pre-planned comparisons. For experiment 1, treatments were fall tilled, fall grazed, spring grazed, fall and spring combined (Fall/Spr) grazed, and an untreated control. For grazing treatments, five mature ...


Comparative Structural Study Of Leaf Spot Disease Of Safflower And Sugar Beet By Cercospora Beticola, Robert T. Lartey, Andrew W. Lenssen, Robert G. Evans, Soumitra Ghoshroy Jan 2007

Comparative Structural Study Of Leaf Spot Disease Of Safflower And Sugar Beet By Cercospora Beticola, Robert T. Lartey, Andrew W. Lenssen, Robert G. Evans, Soumitra Ghoshroy

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sugar beet and safflower are sometimes rotated or grown side by side in the Sidney, MT region of the Lower Yellowstone River Basin (LYRB). Cercospora beticola and C. carthami infect sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) respectively. C. beticola is ubiquitous in sugar beet, but C. carthami has not been reported in LYRB. Observations of unusual leaf spots on safflower in Sidney led to investigation and subsequent identification of safflower as a host of C. beticola. We describe a comparative structural study of progression of C. beticola infection and disease development in both sugar beet and safflower. The ...


Farming Systems Research On Crop Diversification, Tillage, And Management Effects On Yield, Pests, And Environmental Quality In A Semi-Arid Environment, Andrew W. Lenssen, U. Sainju, T. Caesar-Tonthat, B. Allen, R. Lartey Jan 2007

Farming Systems Research On Crop Diversification, Tillage, And Management Effects On Yield, Pests, And Environmental Quality In A Semi-Arid Environment, Andrew W. Lenssen, U. Sainju, T. Caesar-Tonthat, B. Allen, R. Lartey

Andrew W. Lenssen

Available water, depleted soil quality, and weed competition are important constraints to crop production in the northern Great Plains. The traditional rotation in the region has been spring wheat with summer fallow, which is used to accrue additional soil moisture for the subsequent wheat crop. Tillage during fallow periods controls weeds, which otherwise would use substantial amounts of water and inorganic nitrogen, decreasing the efficiency of fallow and increasing soil erosion. Chemical fallow and zero tillage systems improve soil water status for subsequent crops (Lenssen et al., 2007a), allowing for increased cropping intensity and improved nutrient cycling (Lenssen et al ...


Incorporating Sheep Into Dryland Grain Production Systems I. Impact On Over-Wintering Larva Populations Of Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus Cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), P. G. Hatfield, Sue L. Blodgett, T. M. Spezzano, H. B. Goosey, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. W. Kott, C. B. Marlow Jan 2007

Incorporating Sheep Into Dryland Grain Production Systems I. Impact On Over-Wintering Larva Populations Of Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus Cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), P. G. Hatfield, Sue L. Blodgett, T. M. Spezzano, H. B. Goosey, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. W. Kott, C. B. Marlow

Andrew W. Lenssen

Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) is the most damaging insect pest to Montana’s $1 billion dollar per year grain industry. Current WSS control methods are either expensive, reduce wheat yields, or are not effective. Our objective was to compare burning, grazing, tilling, trampling and clipping wheat stubble fields on over-wintering WSS larval populations. Treatments were evaluated in three experiments using a randomized complete block design and four replications at each site. Eight, six, and two sites were used for Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Contrast statements were used to make pre-planned comparisons among treatments ...


Sheep Grazing Wheat Summer Fallow And The Impact On Soil Nitrogen, Moisture, And Crop Yield, Andrew W. Lenssen, E. E. Snyder, H. B. Goosey, P. G. Hatfield Jan 2007

Sheep Grazing Wheat Summer Fallow And The Impact On Soil Nitrogen, Moisture, And Crop Yield, Andrew W. Lenssen, E. E. Snyder, H. B. Goosey, P. G. Hatfield

Andrew W. Lenssen

In typical dryland farming areas of Montana, annual precipitation is not sufficient for annual harvest of small grains. Summer fallow in alternate years, is a common method of conserving soil moisture to produce a crop in the following season. Current methods of fallow management are primarily mechanical tillage and spraying with herbicides. Although these methods are effective, they are expensive, making fallow management the highest variable cost associated with dryland grain production. The objectives of this study were to compare the impact of grazing small grains stubble with sheep, as a fallow management tactic, against traditional management practices of chemical ...


Carbon Sequestration In Dryland Soils And Plant Residue As Influenced By Tillage And Crop Rotation, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Thonthat, Jed Waddell Jul 2006

Carbon Sequestration In Dryland Soils And Plant Residue As Influenced By Tillage And Crop Rotation, Andrew W. Lenssen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Thonthat, Jed Waddell

Andrew W. Lenssen

Long-term use of conventional tillage and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–fallow systems in the northern Great Plains have resulted in low soil organic carbon (SOC) levels. We examined the effects of two tillage practices [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], five crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (CW), spring wheat–fallow (W–F), spring wheat–lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) (W–L), spring wheat–spring wheat–fallow (W–W–F), and spring wheat–pea (Pisum sativum L.)–fallow (W–P–F)], and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) planting on plant C input, SOC, and particulate organic carbon (POC). A field experiment was conducted ...