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Iowa State University

Plant Pathology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1981

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Control Of Translation During The Unfolded Protein Response In Maize Seedlings: Life Without Perks, Pulkit Kanodia, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Renu Srivastava, Ran Bi, Peng Liu, W. Allen Miller, Stephen H. Howell Jul 2020

Control Of Translation During The Unfolded Protein Response In Maize Seedlings: Life Without Perks, Pulkit Kanodia, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Renu Srivastava, Ran Bi, Peng Liu, W. Allen Miller, Stephen H. Howell

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) defines a condition called ER stress that induces the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR in mammalian cells attenuates protein synthesis initiation, which prevents the piling up of misfolded proteins in the ER. Mammalian cells rely on Protein Kinase RNA‐Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase (PERK) phosphorylation of eIF2α to arrest protein synthesis, however, plants do not have a PERK homolog, so the question is whether plants control translation in response to ER stress. We compared changes in RNA levels in the transcriptome to the RNA levels protected by ribosomes and ...


Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Leaf Rust Resistance In Five Spring Wheat Populations Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers, Firdissa E. Bokore, Ron E. Knox, Richard D. Cuthbert, Curtis J. Pozniak, Brent D. Mccallum, Amidou N’Diaye, Ron M. Depauw, Heather L. Campbell, Catherine Munro, Arti Singh, Colin W. Hiebert, Curt A. Mccartney, Andrew G. Sharpe, Asheesh K. Singh, Dean Spaner, D. B. Fowler, Yuefeng Ruan, Samia Berraies, Brad Meyer Apr 2020

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Associated With Leaf Rust Resistance In Five Spring Wheat Populations Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers, Firdissa E. Bokore, Ron E. Knox, Richard D. Cuthbert, Curtis J. Pozniak, Brent D. Mccallum, Amidou N’Diaye, Ron M. Depauw, Heather L. Campbell, Catherine Munro, Arti Singh, Colin W. Hiebert, Curt A. Mccartney, Andrew G. Sharpe, Asheesh K. Singh, Dean Spaner, D. B. Fowler, Yuefeng Ruan, Samia Berraies, Brad Meyer

Agronomy Publications

Growing resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L) varieties is an important strategy for the control of leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. This study sought to identify the chromosomal location and effects of leaf rust resistance loci in five Canadian spring wheat cultivars. The parents and doubled haploid lines of crosses Carberry/AC Cadillac, Carberry/Vesper, Vesper/Lillian, Vesper/Stettler and Stettler/Red Fife were assessed for leaf rust severity and infection response in field nurseries in Canada near Swift Current, SK from 2013 to 2015, Morden, MB from 2015 to 2017 and Brandon, MB in 2016, and in New ...


Low Ribosomal Rna Genes Copy Number Provoke Genomic Instability And Chromosomal Segment Duplication Events That Modify Global Gene Expression And Plant-Pathogen Response, Ariadna Picart-Picolo, Stefan Grob, Nathalie Picault, Michal Franek, Thierry Halter, Tom R. Maier, Christel Llauro, Edouard Jobet, Panpan Zhang, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Thomas J. Baum, Lionel Navarro, Martina Dvorackova, Marie Mirouze, Frederic Pontvianne Jan 2020

Low Ribosomal Rna Genes Copy Number Provoke Genomic Instability And Chromosomal Segment Duplication Events That Modify Global Gene Expression And Plant-Pathogen Response, Ariadna Picart-Picolo, Stefan Grob, Nathalie Picault, Michal Franek, Thierry Halter, Tom R. Maier, Christel Llauro, Edouard Jobet, Panpan Zhang, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Thomas J. Baum, Lionel Navarro, Martina Dvorackova, Marie Mirouze, Frederic Pontvianne

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Among the hundreds of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies organized as tandem repeats in the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), only a portion is usually actively expressed in the nucleolus and participate in the ribosome biogenesis process. The role of these extra-copies remains elusive, but previous studies suggested their importance in genome stability and global gene expression. Because the nucleolus is also a platform for nuclear organization, we tested the impact of a decreased amount of rRNA gene copies on the Arabidopsis thaliana 3D genome organization and stability, using an A. thaliana line only containing 20% of rRNA gene copies (20rDNA ...


The Rna Of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus - The Essential Virus In Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease - Is Translated Via A Panicum Mosaic Virus-Like Cap-Independent Translation Element, Elizabeth Carino, Kay Scheets, W. Allen Miller Jan 2020

The Rna Of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus - The Essential Virus In Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease - Is Translated Via A Panicum Mosaic Virus-Like Cap-Independent Translation Element, Elizabeth Carino, Kay Scheets, W. Allen Miller

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) combines with a potyvirus in maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND), an emerging disease worldwide that often causes catastrophic yield loss. To inform resistance strategies, we characterized the translation initiation mechanism of MCMV. We report that, like other tombusvirids, MCMV RNA contains a cap-independent translation element (CITE) in its 3’ untranslated region (UTR). The MCMV 3’ CITE (MTE) was mapped to nucleotides 4164-4333 in the genomic RNA. SHAPE probing revealed that the MTE is a variant of the panicum mosaic virus-like 3’ CITE (PTE). Like the PTE, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) indicated that eukaryotic translation ...


De Novo Transcriptome Of Phakopsora Pachyrhizi Uncovers Putative Effector Repertoire During Infection, Manjula G. Elmore, Sagnik Banerjee, Kerry F. Pedley, Amy Ruck, Steven A. Whitham Jan 2020

De Novo Transcriptome Of Phakopsora Pachyrhizi Uncovers Putative Effector Repertoire During Infection, Manjula G. Elmore, Sagnik Banerjee, Kerry F. Pedley, Amy Ruck, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Phakopsora pachyrhizi, which causes Asian soybean rust (ASR), secretes effector proteins to manipulate host immunity and promote disease. To date, only a small number of effectors have been identified from transcriptome studies. To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of P. pachyrhizi candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs), we sequenced the transcriptome using two next-generation sequencing technologies. Short-read Illumina RNA-Seq data was used for reducing base-calling errors for long-read PacBio Iso-Seq. After initial de novo assemblies for RNA-seq and error correction of transcripts for Iso-Seq followed by filtering, we obtained 8,528, 27,647, 26,895, and 17,141 non-plant, non-soybean transcripts ...


A Rapid And Simple Quantitative Method For Specific Detection Of Smaller Co-Terminal Rna By Pcr (Desco-Pcr): Application To The Detection Of Viral Subgenomic Rnas, Pulkit Kanodia, K. Reddisiva Prasanth, Vicky C. Roa-Linares, Shelton S. Bradrick, Mariano A. Garcia-Blanco, W. Allen Miller Jan 2020

A Rapid And Simple Quantitative Method For Specific Detection Of Smaller Co-Terminal Rna By Pcr (Desco-Pcr): Application To The Detection Of Viral Subgenomic Rnas, Pulkit Kanodia, K. Reddisiva Prasanth, Vicky C. Roa-Linares, Shelton S. Bradrick, Mariano A. Garcia-Blanco, W. Allen Miller

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

RNAs that are 5’-truncated versions of a longer RNA, but share the same 3’ terminus can be generated by alternative promoters in transcription of cellular mRNAs or by replicating RNA viruses. These truncated RNAs cannot be distinguished from the longer RNA by a simple two-primer RT-PCR because primers that anneal to the cDNA from the smaller RNA also anneal to - and amplify - the longer RNA-derived cDNA. Thus, laborious methods, such as northern blot hybridization, are used to distinguish shorter from longer RNAs. For rapid, low-cost and specific detection of these truncated RNAs, we report Detection of Smaller Co-terminal RNA ...


Phytonematode Peptide Effectors Exploit A Host Post‐Translational Trafficking Mechanism To The Er Using A Novel Translocation Signal, Jianying Wang, Andi Dhroso, Xunliang Liu, Thomas J. Baum, Richard S. Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Xiaohong Wang, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G. Mitchum Jan 2020

Phytonematode Peptide Effectors Exploit A Host Post‐Translational Trafficking Mechanism To The Er Using A Novel Translocation Signal, Jianying Wang, Andi Dhroso, Xunliang Liu, Thomas J. Baum, Richard S. Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Xiaohong Wang, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Summary

  • Cyst nematodes induce a multicellular feeding site within roots called a syncytium. It remains unknown how root cells are primed for incorporation into the developing syncytium. Furthermore, it is an enigma how CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE) peptide effectors secreted into the cytoplasm of the initial feeding cell could have an effect on plant cells so distant from where the nematode is feeding as the syncytium expands.
  • Here we describe a novel translocation signal within nematode CLE effectors that is recognized by plant cell secretory machinery to redirect these peptides from the cytoplasm to the apoplast of plant cells.
  • We show ...


Targeted Suppression Of Soybean Bag6‐Induced Cell Death In Yeast By Soybean Cyst Nematode Effectors, Jianying Wang, Greg Yeckel, Pramod K. Kandoth, Lakmini Wasala, Richard S. Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum Jan 2020

Targeted Suppression Of Soybean Bag6‐Induced Cell Death In Yeast By Soybean Cyst Nematode Effectors, Jianying Wang, Greg Yeckel, Pramod K. Kandoth, Lakmini Wasala, Richard S. Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

While numerous effectors that suppress plant immunity have been identified from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete pathogens, relatively little is known for nematode effectors. Several dozen effectors have been reported from the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Previous studies suggest that a hypersensitive response‐like programmed cell death is triggered at nematode feeding sites in soybean during an incompatible interaction. However, virulent SCN populations overcome this incompatibility using unknown mechanisms. A soybean BAG6 (Bcl‐2 associated anthanogene 6) gene previously reported by us to be highly up‐regulated in degenerating feeding sites induced by SCN in a resistant soybean line was attenuated ...


Screening Soybean Cyst Nematode Effectors For Their Ability To Suppress Plant Immunity, Gennady Pogorelko, Jianying Wang, Parijat S. Juvale, Melissa G. Mitchum, Thomas J. Baum Jan 2020

Screening Soybean Cyst Nematode Effectors For Their Ability To Suppress Plant Immunity, Gennady Pogorelko, Jianying Wang, Parijat S. Juvale, Melissa G. Mitchum, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines , is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybeans. SCN is an obligate and sedentary parasite that transforms host plant root cells into an elaborate permanent feeding site, a syncytium. Formation and maintenance of a viable syncytium is an absolute requirement for nematode growth and reproduction. In turn, sensing pathogen attack, plants activate defence responses and may trigger programmed cell death at the sites of infection. For successful parasitism, H. glycines must suppress these host defence responses to establish and maintain viable syncytia. Similar to other pathogens, H. glycines engages in these molecular ...


Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell Dec 2019

Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Background: Assessing the impact of the environment on plant performance requires growing plants under controlled environmental conditions. Plant phenotypes are a product of genotype × environment (G × E), and the Enviratron at Iowa State University is a facility for testing under controlled conditions the effects of the environment on plant growth and development. Crop plants (including maize) can be grown to maturity in the Enviratron, and the performance of plants under different environmental conditions can be monitored 24 h per day, 7 days per week throughout the growth cycle.

Results: The Enviratron is an array of custom-designed plant growth chambers that ...


Protein Expression And Gene Editing In Monocots Using Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vectors, Yu Mei, Bliss Beernink, Evan E. Ellison, Eva Konečná, Anjanasree K. Neelakandan, Daniel F. Voytas, Steven A. Whitham Nov 2019

Protein Expression And Gene Editing In Monocots Using Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vectors, Yu Mei, Bliss Beernink, Evan E. Ellison, Eva Konečná, Anjanasree K. Neelakandan, Daniel F. Voytas, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Plant viruses can be engineered to carry sequences that direct silencing of target host genes, expression of heterologous proteins, or editing of host genes. A set of foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) vectors was developed that can be used for transient gene expression and single guide RNA delivery for Cas9‐mediated gene editing in maize, Setaria viridis, and Nicotiana benthamiana. This was accomplished by duplicating the FoMV capsid protein subgenomic promoter, abolishing the unnecessary open reading frame 5A, and inserting a cloning site containing unique restriction endonuclease cleavage sites immediately after the duplicated promoter. The modified FoMV vectors transiently expressed green ...


New Methods Of Removing Debris And High-Throughput Counting Of Cyst Nematode Eggs Extracted From Field Soil, Kalwa Upender, Christopher Legner, Elizabeth Wlezien, Gregory Tylka, Santosh Pandey Oct 2019

New Methods Of Removing Debris And High-Throughput Counting Of Cyst Nematode Eggs Extracted From Field Soil, Kalwa Upender, Christopher Legner, Elizabeth Wlezien, Gregory Tylka, Santosh Pandey

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is the most damaging pathogen of soybeans in the United States. To assess the severity of nematode infestations in the field, SCN egg population densities are determined. Cysts (dead females) of the nematode must be extracted from soil samples and then ground to extract the eggs within. Sucrose centrifugation commonly is used to separate debris from suspensions of extracted nematode eggs. We present a method using OptiPrep as a density gradient medium with improved separation and recovery of extracted eggs compared to the sucrose centrifugation technique. Also, computerized methods were developed to automate ...


Candidate Effectors From Uromyces Appendiculatus, The Causal Agent Of Rust On Common Bean, Can Be Discriminated Based On Suppression Of Immune Responses, Mingsheng Qi, Yu Mei, James P. Grayczyk, Luana M. Darben, Martin E. G. Rieker, Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele, Steven A. Whitham, Tobias I. Link Oct 2019

Candidate Effectors From Uromyces Appendiculatus, The Causal Agent Of Rust On Common Bean, Can Be Discriminated Based On Suppression Of Immune Responses, Mingsheng Qi, Yu Mei, James P. Grayczyk, Luana M. Darben, Martin E. G. Rieker, Janina M. Seitz, Ralf T. Voegele, Steven A. Whitham, Tobias I. Link

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Rust fungi are devastating pathogens for several important crop plants. The biotrophic lifestyle of rust fungi requires that they influence their host plants to create a favorable environment for growth and reproduction. Rust fungi secrete a variety of effector proteins that manipulate host target proteins to alter plant metabolism and suppress defense responses. Because of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle of rust fungi, direct evidence for effector function is difficult to obtain, and so suites of experiments utilizing expression in heterologous systems are necessary. Here, we present results from a yeast cell death suppression assay and assays for suppression of PAMP-triggered ...


Iowa Soybean Research Center 2019 Stakeholder Report, Kara Berg, Jill Cornelis, Steve May, Gregory L. Tylka Sep 2019

Iowa Soybean Research Center 2019 Stakeholder Report, Kara Berg, Jill Cornelis, Steve May, Gregory L. Tylka

Iowa Soybean Research Center Reports

The Iowa Soybean Research Center works in partnership with the Iowa Soybean Association, industry leaders, farmers and researchers at Iowa State University. The goal of this collaborative effort is to identify and fund research in the areas of soybean production and protection. The information in this report gives an overview of the Iowa Soybean Research Center, its partnerships, and the research projects that have been funded.


A New Mechanism For Translational Control In Plants, W. Allen Miller, Savithramma P. Dinesh-Kumar Aug 2019

A New Mechanism For Translational Control In Plants, W. Allen Miller, Savithramma P. Dinesh-Kumar

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

In unstressed conditions, the cap‐binding protein, eIF4E, binds the 5′ cap structure (m7G) on mRNA and recruits other translation initiation factors to bring the ribosome to the mRNA. Bruns et al. show that, in plants, phosphorylation of eIF4E by the master metabolic regulatory protein, sucrose nonfermenting‐related kinase 1 (SnRK1), reduces translation globally. This negative regulation of translation inhibits geminivirus infection and is speculated to be a response to various abiotic stresses.


Auxin Induces Widespread Proteome Remodeling In Arabidopsis Seedlings, Natalie M. Clark, Zhouxin Shen, Steven P. Briggs, Justin W. Walley, Dior R. Kelley Aug 2019

Auxin Induces Widespread Proteome Remodeling In Arabidopsis Seedlings, Natalie M. Clark, Zhouxin Shen, Steven P. Briggs, Justin W. Walley, Dior R. Kelley

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

It is known that auxin induces rapid gene expression changes throughout plant development, but how these transcriptional responses relate to changes in protein abundance is not well characterized. This report identifies early auxin responsive proteins in whole Arabidopsis seedlings using an iTRAQ (isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification)-based quantitative proteomics approach. Approximately 25% of the detected proteins (1045 out of 4257 proteins) were auxin responsive, which is in line with the central role of auxin in the regulation of plant growth and development. Several well-known auxin pathway proteins were identified as differentially expressed, validating this quantitative proteomics approach ...


A Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Vector For Gene Expression In Maize, Yu Mei, Guanjun Liu, Chunquan Zhang, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham Aug 2019

A Sugarcane Mosaic Virus Vector For Gene Expression In Maize, Yu Mei, Guanjun Liu, Chunquan Zhang, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Zea mays L. ssp. mays (maize) is an important crop plant as well as model system for genetics and plant biology. The ability to select among different virus‐based platforms for transient gene silencing or protein expression experiments is expected to facilitate studies of gene function in maize and complement experiments with stable transgenes. Here, we describe the development of a sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) vector for the purpose of protein expression in maize. An infectious SCMV cDNA clone was constructed, and heterologous genetic elements were placed between the protein 1 (P1) and helper component‐proteinase (HC‐Pro) cistrons in ...


Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta Jun 2019

Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Background

Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays L.) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return on fungicide investment (ROI) across multiple locations.

Objective

Compare yield response of fungicide application timing across multiple fungicide classes and calculate the probability of ...


Re‐Targeting Of A Plant Defense Protease By A Cyst Nematode Effector, Gennady V. Pogorelko, Parijat S. Juvale, William B. Rutter, Marion Hütten, Thomas R. Maier, Tarek Hewezi, Judith Paulus, Renier Al Van Der Hoorn, Florian Mw Grundler, Shahid Siddique, Vincenzo Lionetti, Olga A. Zabotina, Thomas J. Baum Jun 2019

Re‐Targeting Of A Plant Defense Protease By A Cyst Nematode Effector, Gennady V. Pogorelko, Parijat S. Juvale, William B. Rutter, Marion Hütten, Thomas R. Maier, Tarek Hewezi, Judith Paulus, Renier Al Van Der Hoorn, Florian Mw Grundler, Shahid Siddique, Vincenzo Lionetti, Olga A. Zabotina, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Plants mount defense responses during pathogen attacks, and robust host defense suppression by pathogen effector proteins is essential for infection success. 4E02 is an effector of the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing the effector‐coding sequence showed altered expression levels of defense response genes, as well as higher susceptibility to both the biotroph H. schachtii and the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, indicating a potential suppression of defenses by 4E02. Yeast two‐hybrid analyses showed that 4E02 targets A. thaliana vacuolar papain‐like cysteine protease (PLCP) ‘Responsive to Dehydration 21A’ (RD21A), which has been shown to function ...


Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro May 2019

Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone that regulates plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the importance of ethylene in soybean resistance to Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), the causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), soybean cultivars Williams 82 (SDS-susceptible) and MN1606 (SDS-resistant) were treated 24 h before and 24h after Fv inoculation with either ethephon (ethylene inducer), cobalt chloride (ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor), or 1-MCP (ethylene perception inhibitor). Inoculated plants were grown for 21 days at 24°C in the greenhouse and then evaluated for SDS severity and expression of soybean defense genes. In both cultivars, plants treated with ethephon ...


The Effects Of Ilevo And Votivo On Root Penetration And Behavior Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Augustine Q. Beeman, Zach L. Njus, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka Mar 2019

The Effects Of Ilevo And Votivo On Root Penetration And Behavior Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Augustine Q. Beeman, Zach L. Njus, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ILeVO (fluopyram) and VOTiVO (Bacillus firmus I-1582) seed treatments on Heterodera glycines second-stage juvenile (J2) root penetration and behavior. In a growth chamber experiment, roots of soybeans grown from treated or untreated seeds were inoculated with H. glycines J2s at soil depths of 2.5, 5, or 7.5 cm. ILeVO significantly reduced H. glycines root penetration compared with the untreated control, but only when J2s were inoculated at a soil depth of 2.5 cm, which was near the seed. Changes in nematode behavior were assessed by collecting ...


Linking Autophagy To Abiotic And Biotic Stress Responses, Santiago Signorelli, Lukasz Pawel Tarkowski, Wim Van Den Ende, Diane C. Bassham Feb 2019

Linking Autophagy To Abiotic And Biotic Stress Responses, Santiago Signorelli, Lukasz Pawel Tarkowski, Wim Van Den Ende, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a process in which cellular components are delivered to lytic vacuoles to be recycled and has been demonstrated to promote abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Here, we review how the responses triggered by stress conditions can affect autophagy and its signaling pathways. Besides the role of SNF-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) and TOR kinases in the regulation of autophagy, abscisic acid (ABA) and its signaling kinase SnRK2 have emerged as key players in the induction of autophagy under stress conditions. Furthermore, an interplay between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy is observed, ROS being able to induce autophagy and autophagy ...


Heterodera Glycines Utilizes Promiscuous Spliced Leaders And Demonstrates A Unique Preference For A Species-Specifc Spliced Leader Over C. Elegans Sl1, Stacey N. Barnes, Rick E. Masonbrink, Tom R. Maier, Arun S. Seetharam, Anoop S. Sindhu, Andrew J. Severin, Thomas J. Baum Feb 2019

Heterodera Glycines Utilizes Promiscuous Spliced Leaders And Demonstrates A Unique Preference For A Species-Specifc Spliced Leader Over C. Elegans Sl1, Stacey N. Barnes, Rick E. Masonbrink, Tom R. Maier, Arun S. Seetharam, Anoop S. Sindhu, Andrew J. Severin, Thomas J. Baum

Office of Biotechnology Publications

Spliced leader trans-splicing (SLTS) plays a part in the maturation of pre-mRNAs in select species across multiple phyla but is particularly prevalent in Nematoda. The role of spliced leaders (SL) within the cell is unclear and an accurate assessment of SL occurrence within an organism is possible only after extensive sequencing data are available, which is not currently the case for many nematode species. SL discovery is further complicated by an absence of SL sequences from high-throughput sequencing results due to incomplete sequencing of the 5'-ends of transcripts during RNA-seq library preparation, known as 5'-bias. Existing datasets and ...


Disease And Insect Pest Management In Organic Cucurbit Production, Hayley Nelson Jan 2019

Disease And Insect Pest Management In Organic Cucurbit Production, Hayley Nelson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Organic production of cucurbit crops in the Midwest is limited by several insect pests (e.g., striped cucumber beetle, spotted cucumber beetle, squash bug, squash vine borer) and the bacterial diseases they vector (e.g., cucurbit bacterial wilt and cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD)). Current management strategies – low tunnels and insecticides – fail to provide reliable protection, are not durable, and are harmful to beneficial insects such as pollinators. Organic producers in the Midwest need more effective pest management options to consistently produce cucurbit crops.

A 3-year field experiment aimed to develop new row cover strategies for full-season, organic control of ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Cover Crops And The Soybean Cyst Nematode Through Lab, Greenhouse, And Field Studies, Chelsea Jean Harbach Jan 2019

Investigating The Interactions Between Cover Crops And The Soybean Cyst Nematode Through Lab, Greenhouse, And Field Studies, Chelsea Jean Harbach

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the past decade, the acres on which cover crops have been planted in agricultural systems in the United States has increased. In traditional row cropping, cover crops are sown shortly before or after the harvest of corn or soybean and grown through the fall to provide ground cover for approximately one third of the year during which the soil would otherwise be bare. Cover crops have many known environmental benefits, but the effects they may have on soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, are not well established. This dissertation describes experiments conducted i) in the laboratory and greenhouse to ...


Recent Advances In Cucurbit Downy Mildew Research And Their Contribution To The Development Of Integrated Protection Of Cucurbits, Aleš Lebeda, Eva Křístková, Božena Sedláková, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 2019

Recent Advances In Cucurbit Downy Mildew Research And Their Contribution To The Development Of Integrated Protection Of Cucurbits, Aleš Lebeda, Eva Křístková, Božena Sedláková, Mark P. Widrlechner

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Proceedings, Presentations and Posters

Knowledge of the recent distribution, host range, virulence, DNA profiles, and resistance to fungicides of Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Rostovzev, and sources of host resistance to this pathogen are reviewed (Lebeda and Cohen, 2011; 2012; Cohen et al., 2015). P. cubensis is widely distributed in all continents, with a high capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions and new regions. Its host-plant range includes more than 60 species and 20 genera of Cucurbitaceae (Lebeda and Schwinn, 1994; Lebeda and Cohen, 2011). P. cubensis exhibits clear host specialization, with shifts in host range and an increasing spectrum of new host species (Lebeda et al., 2011).


The Genome Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera Glycines) Reveals Complex Patterns Of Duplications Involved In The Evolution Of Parasitism Genes, Rick E. Masonbrink, Tom R. Maier, Usha Muppirala, Arun S. Seetharam, Etienne Lord, Parijat S. Juvale, Jeremy Schmutz, Nathan T. Johnson, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G. Mitchum, Benjamin Mimee, Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Matthew Hudson, Andrew J. Severin, Thomas J. Baum Jan 2019

The Genome Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera Glycines) Reveals Complex Patterns Of Duplications Involved In The Evolution Of Parasitism Genes, Rick E. Masonbrink, Tom R. Maier, Usha Muppirala, Arun S. Seetharam, Etienne Lord, Parijat S. Juvale, Jeremy Schmutz, Nathan T. Johnson, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G. Mitchum, Benjamin Mimee, Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Matthew Hudson, Andrew J. Severin, Thomas J. Baum

Office of Biotechnology Publications

Background: Heterodera glycines, commonly referred to as the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is an obligatory and sedentary plant parasite that causes over a billion-dollar yield loss to soybean production annually. Although there are genetic determinants that render soybean plants resistant to certain nematode genotypes, resistant soybean cultivars are increasingly ineffective because their multi-year usage has selected for virulent H. glycines populations. The parasitic success of H. glycines relies on the comprehensive re-engineering of an infection site into a syncytium, as well as the long-term suppression of host defense to ensure syncytial viability. At the forefront of these complex molecular interactions ...


The Impact Of Fungicide Application Method On Soybean Canopy Coverage, Disease, Yield, Seed Quality, And Seed Fill Duration., Joshua Viggers Jan 2019

The Impact Of Fungicide Application Method On Soybean Canopy Coverage, Disease, Yield, Seed Quality, And Seed Fill Duration., Joshua Viggers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As input costs continue to rise and profits fluctuate, soybean farmers have maintained interest in new fungicide applications methods. Customarily, fungicides are applied directly over the top of the soybean canopy as are herbicides and insecticides. However, fungicide application methods that could improve fungicide coverage within the canopy, such as undercover applications, has gained considerable interest. Undercover applications spray fungicides between the soybean rows, using multidirectional nozzles, and over the canopy with nozzles placed above the canopy. During 2017 and 2018, field experiments located in Iowa were used to investigate the effect of fungicide application methods on coverage, disease severity ...


Homeostasis In The Soybean Mirna396–Grf Network Is Essential For Productive Soybean Cyst Nematode Infections, Jason B. Noon, Tarek Hewezi, Thomas J. Baum Jan 2019

Homeostasis In The Soybean Mirna396–Grf Network Is Essential For Productive Soybean Cyst Nematode Infections, Jason B. Noon, Tarek Hewezi, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, penetrates soybean roots and migrates to the vascular cylinder where it forms a feeding site called the syncytium. MiRNA396 (miR396) targets growth-regulating factor (GRF) genes, and the miR396–GRF1/3 module is a master regulator of syncytium development in model cyst nematode H. schachtii infection of Arabidopsis. Here, we investigated whether this regulatory system operates similarly in soybean roots and is likewise important for H. glycines infection. We found that a network involving nine MIR396 and 23 GRF genes is important for normal development of soybean roots and that GRF function is specified in ...


Effects Of Soil Ph On Heterodera Glycines, Stith N. Wiggs Jan 2019

Effects Of Soil Ph On Heterodera Glycines, Stith N. Wiggs

Creative Components

No abstract provided.