Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Iowa State University

Plant Biology

Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 364

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg May 2020

Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg

Statistics Publications

Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This composition is influenced by several factors, including floral morphology, mechanism of nectar secretion, time of flowering, and visitation by pollinators. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of flowering time, plant phylogeny, and pollinator selection on nectar composition in Nicotiana. The main classes of nectar metabolites (sugars and amino acids) were quantified using gas ...


Genotype By Location Effects On Yield And Seed Nutrient Composition Of Common Bean, Rosemary Bulyaba, Donna M. Winham, Andrew W. Lenssen, Kenneth J. Moore, James D. Kelly, Mark A. Brick, Evan M. Wright, James B. Ogg Mar 2020

Genotype By Location Effects On Yield And Seed Nutrient Composition Of Common Bean, Rosemary Bulyaba, Donna M. Winham, Andrew W. Lenssen, Kenneth J. Moore, James D. Kelly, Mark A. Brick, Evan M. Wright, James B. Ogg

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple food crop in households worldwide. Genotype and location influence phenotypic nutrient composition. However, there are limited data on the magnitude of this variation for common bean yield and nutritive value. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of location on yield and seed nutritional composition. Four globally important varieties (dark red kidney/‘Montcalm’, great northern /‘Taurus’, black /‘Eclipse’ and yellow Mayocoba/‘MY06326’) were planted for two years in four locations (Iowa, Colorado, Michigan, in the USA, and Masaka, Uganda). Yield and seed weight differed among locations and varieties ...


Introducing Selective Agrochemical Manipulation Of Gibberellin Metabolism Into A Cereal Crop, Juan Zhang, Yushi Zhang, Jiapeng Xing, Haiyue Yu, Rui Zhang, Yiyao Chen, Delin Zhang, Ping Yin, Xiaoli Tian, Qiang Wang, Liusheng Duan, Mingcai Zhang, Reuben J. Peters, Zhaohu Li Feb 2020

Introducing Selective Agrochemical Manipulation Of Gibberellin Metabolism Into A Cereal Crop, Juan Zhang, Yushi Zhang, Jiapeng Xing, Haiyue Yu, Rui Zhang, Yiyao Chen, Delin Zhang, Ping Yin, Xiaoli Tian, Qiang Wang, Liusheng Duan, Mingcai Zhang, Reuben J. Peters, Zhaohu Li

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Use of growth retardants enables post-planting optimization of vegetative growth, which is particularly important with the on-going climate change. Mepiquat chloride is an economical and safe retardant widely applied in cotton, but is not uniformly effective. Here identification of its molecular target as the ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase that initiates gibberellin biosynthesis enabled introduction of selective agrochemical inhibition, leaving intact more specialized metabolism important for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.


Deconstructing The Genetic Architecture Of Iron Deficiency Chlorosis In Soybean Using Genome-Wide Approaches, Teshale Assefa, Jiaoping Zhang, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Arti Singh, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Asheesh K. Singh Jan 2020

Deconstructing The Genetic Architecture Of Iron Deficiency Chlorosis In Soybean Using Genome-Wide Approaches, Teshale Assefa, Jiaoping Zhang, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Arti Singh, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Asheesh K. Singh

Agronomy Publications

Background: Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development. Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), caused by calcareous soils or high soil pH, can limit iron availability, negatively affecting soybean (Glycine max) yield. This study leverages genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a genome-wide epistatic study (GWES) with previous gene expression studies to identify regions of the soybean genome important in iron deficiency tolerance.

Results: A GWAS and a GWES were performed using 460 diverse soybean PI lines from 27 countries, in field and hydroponic iron stress conditions, using more than 36,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Combining this ...


Non-Linear Behavior Of Protein And Tannin In Wine Produced By Cofermentation Of An Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis Spp.) And Vinifera Cultivar, Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert Sep 2019

Non-Linear Behavior Of Protein And Tannin In Wine Produced By Cofermentation Of An Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis Spp.) And Vinifera Cultivar, Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Wines produced from red interspecific hybrid grape cultivars (Vitis spp.) typically have lower tannin than wines produced from vinifera cultivars, which can be attributed to the lower concentration of tannins and higher concentration of tannin binding proteins of interspecific cultivars. Tannin in wines produced from hybrid cultivars could potentially be increased by blending hybrids with vinifera. We hypothesized that blending of grapes prior to fermentation (cofermentation) should result in final wine tannin concentrations lower than wine tannin concentrations predicted from the individual components due to protein-tannin binding, but that this effect should be absent from monovarietal wines blended post-fermentation. To ...


A New Mechanism For Translational Control In Plants, W. Allen Miller, Savithramma P. Dinesh-Kumar Aug 2019

A New Mechanism For Translational Control In Plants, W. Allen Miller, Savithramma P. Dinesh-Kumar

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

In unstressed conditions, the cap‐binding protein, eIF4E, binds the 5′ cap structure (m7G) on mRNA and recruits other translation initiation factors to bring the ribosome to the mRNA. Bruns et al. show that, in plants, phosphorylation of eIF4E by the master metabolic regulatory protein, sucrose nonfermenting‐related kinase 1 (SnRK1), reduces translation globally. This negative regulation of translation inhibits geminivirus infection and is speculated to be a response to various abiotic stresses.


Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro May 2019

Induction Of Ethylene Inhibits Development Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome By Inducing Defense-Related Genes And Reducing Fusarium Virguliforme Growth, Noor A. Abdelsamad, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Leonor F.S. Leandro

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Ethylene is a gaseous hormone that regulates plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To investigate the importance of ethylene in soybean resistance to Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), the causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), soybean cultivars Williams 82 (SDS-susceptible) and MN1606 (SDS-resistant) were treated 24 h before and 24h after Fv inoculation with either ethephon (ethylene inducer), cobalt chloride (ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor), or 1-MCP (ethylene perception inhibitor). Inoculated plants were grown for 21 days at 24°C in the greenhouse and then evaluated for SDS severity and expression of soybean defense genes. In both cultivars, plants treated with ethephon ...


A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell Apr 2019

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, INOSITOL REQUIRING ENZYME1 (IRE1). We have analyzed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ire1a ire1b bzip17 triple mutant, with defects in stress signaling, and found that the mutant is also impaired in vegetative plant growth under conditions without externally applied stress. This raised the possibility that the UPR functions in plant development in the same manner ...


Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo Mar 2019

Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo

Chemistry Publications

Background

Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for fast and reliable plant biomolecular analyses. Conventional methods for the isolation of nucleic acids are time-consuming and require multiple and often non-automatable steps to remove cellular interferences, with consequence that sample preparation is the major bottleneck in the bioanalytical workflow. New opportunities have been created by the use of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) thanks to their affinity for nucleic acids.

Results

In the present study, a MIL-based magnet-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (maDLLME) method was optimized for the extraction of genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh leaves. MILs containing different metal ...


Linking Autophagy To Abiotic And Biotic Stress Responses, Santiago Signorelli, Lukasz Pawel Tarkowski, Wim Van Den Ende, Diane C. Bassham Feb 2019

Linking Autophagy To Abiotic And Biotic Stress Responses, Santiago Signorelli, Lukasz Pawel Tarkowski, Wim Van Den Ende, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a process in which cellular components are delivered to lytic vacuoles to be recycled and has been demonstrated to promote abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. Here, we review how the responses triggered by stress conditions can affect autophagy and its signaling pathways. Besides the role of SNF-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) and TOR kinases in the regulation of autophagy, abscisic acid (ABA) and its signaling kinase SnRK2 have emerged as key players in the induction of autophagy under stress conditions. Furthermore, an interplay between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy is observed, ROS being able to induce autophagy and autophagy ...


Biology And Control Of Amaranthus Palmeri In Glycine Max, Tyler Vreugdenhil Jan 2019

Biology And Control Of Amaranthus Palmeri In Glycine Max, Tyler Vreugdenhil

Creative Components

No abstract provided.


A Growers Guide To Quality Potato Seed, Emily M. Merk Jan 2019

A Growers Guide To Quality Potato Seed, Emily M. Merk

Creative Components

Unlike traditional true seed, potato seed is a vegetatively propagated crop. A potato tuber can be uncut (single drop), cut once, twice or in some cases, three times. These seed pieces are then treated with some fungicide or pesticide, covered in a protective coating and planted into the ground. Starting with a healthy mother plant that produces daughter tubers for cutting is important because those characteristics exhibited in the mother plant will also be exhibited within the daughter tubers. For this reason there are many factors that should go into choosing the right quality of seed to utilize for commercial ...


Genetic And Environmental Variation Impact The Cuticular Hydrocarbon Metabolome On The Stigmatic Surfaces Of Maize, Tesia Dennison, Wenmin Qin, Derek M. Loneman, Samson G. F. Condon, Nick Lauter, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson Jan 2019

Genetic And Environmental Variation Impact The Cuticular Hydrocarbon Metabolome On The Stigmatic Surfaces Of Maize, Tesia Dennison, Wenmin Qin, Derek M. Loneman, Samson G. F. Condon, Nick Lauter, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Background: Simple non-isoprenoid hydrocarbons accumulate in discrete regions of the biosphere, including within bacteria and algae as a carbon and/or energy store, and the cuticles of plants and insects, where they may protect against environmental stresses. The extracellular cuticular surfaces of the stigmatic silks of maize are rich in linear hydrocarbons and therefore provide a convenient system to study the biological origins and functions of these unique metabolites.

Results: To test the hypotheses that genetics and environment influence the accumulation of surface hydrocarbons on silks and to examine the breadth of metabolome compositions across diverse germplasm, cuticular hydrocarbons were ...


Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham Dec 2018

Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Various environmental stresses or artificial reagents can trigger unfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to the folding capacity of the ER being exceeded. This is termed ER stress, and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). Assays for activation of the UPR in plants include Tunicamycin (Tm)- or dithiothreitol (DTT)-mediated root growth inhibition, analysis of splicing of the UPR-responsive transcription factor bZIP60 (basic Leucine Zipper Domain 60), and upregulation of relevant UPR genes. We provide here a quick and robust method to detect UPR signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. This assay can also be applied to other ...


Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham Dec 2018

Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a major degradation and recycling pathway in plants. It functions to maintain cellular homeostasis and is induced by environmental cues and developmental stimuli. Over the past decade, the study of autophagy has expanded from model plants to crop species. Many features of the core machinery and physiological functions of autophagy are conserved among diverse organisms. However, several novel functions and regulators of autophagy have been characterized in individual plant species. In light of its critical role in development and stress responses, a better understanding of autophagy in crop plants may eventually lead to beneficial agricultural applications. Here, we ...


A Third Class: Functional Gibberellin Biosynthetic Operon In Beta-Proteobacteria, Raimund Nagel, John E. Bieber, Mark G. Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S. Nett, Reuben J. Peters Nov 2018

A Third Class: Functional Gibberellin Biosynthetic Operon In Beta-Proteobacteria, Raimund Nagel, John E. Bieber, Mark G. Schmidt-Dannert, Ryan S. Nett, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The ability of plant-associated microbes to produce gibberellin A (GA) phytohormones was first described for the fungal rice pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi in the 1930s. Recently the capacity to produce GAs was shown for several bacteria, including symbiotic alpha-proteobacteria (α-rhizobia) and gamma-proteobacteria phytopathogens. All necessary enzymes for GA production are encoded by a conserved operon, which appears to have undergone horizontal transfer between and within these two phylogenetic classes of bacteria. Here the operon was shown to be present and functional in a third class, the beta-proteobacteria, where it is found in several symbionts (β-rhizobia). Conservation of function was examined by ...


Ire1b Degrades Rnas Encoding Proteins That Interfere With The Induction Of Autophagy By Er Stress In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yan Bao, Yunting Pu, Xiang Yu, Brian D. Gregory, Renu Srivastava, Stephen H. Howell, Diane C. Bassham Aug 2018

Ire1b Degrades Rnas Encoding Proteins That Interfere With The Induction Of Autophagy By Er Stress In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yan Bao, Yunting Pu, Xiang Yu, Brian D. Gregory, Renu Srivastava, Stephen H. Howell, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotes that contributes to cell survival in response to stress. Previously, we found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces autophagy in plants via a pathway dependent upon AT5G24360/IRE1B (INOSITOL REQUIRING 1–1), an ER membrane-anchored factor involved in the splicing of AT1G42990/BZIP60 (basic leucine zipper protein 60) mRNA. IRE1B is a dual protein kinase and ribonuclease, and here we determined the involvement of the protein kinase catalytic domain, nucleotide binding and RNase domains of IRE1B in activating autophagy. We found that the nucleotide binding and RNase activity of IRE1B, but not ...


Direct Determination Of The Site Of Addition Of Glucosyl Units To Maltooligosaccharide Acceptors Catalyzed By Maize Starch Synthase I, Ying Xie, Adam W. Barb, Tracie A. Hennen-Bierwagen, Alan M. Myers Aug 2018

Direct Determination Of The Site Of Addition Of Glucosyl Units To Maltooligosaccharide Acceptors Catalyzed By Maize Starch Synthase I, Ying Xie, Adam W. Barb, Tracie A. Hennen-Bierwagen, Alan M. Myers

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Starch synthase (SS) (ADP-glucose:1,4-α-D-glucan 4-α-D-glucosyltransferase) elongates α-(1→4)-linked linear glucans within plastids to generate the storage polymers that constitute starch granules. Multiple SS classes are conserved throughout the plant kingdom, indicating that each provides a unique function responsible for evolutionary selection. Evidence has been presented arguing for addition of glucosyl units from the ADPglucose donor to either the reducing end or the non-reducing end of the acceptor substrate, although until recently direct evidence addressing this question was not available. Characterization of newly incorporated glucosyl units determined that recombinant maize (Zea mays L.) SSIIa elongates its substrates ...


Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg Jul 2018

Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The accuracy of machine learning tasks critically depends on high quality ground truth data. Therefore, in many cases, producing good ground truth data typically involves trained professionals; however, this can be costly in time, effort, and money. Here we explore the use of crowdsourcing to generate a large number of training data of good quality. We explore an image analysis task involving the segmentation of corn tassels from images taken in a field setting. We investigate the accuracy, speed and other quality metrics when this task is performed by students for academic credit, Amazon MTurk workers, and Master Amazon MTurk ...


Direct Production Of Dihydroxylated Sesquiterpenoids By A Maize Terpene Synthase, Jin Liang, Jiang Liu, Reid Brown, Meirong Jia, Ke Zhou, Reuben J. Peters, Qiang Wang Jun 2018

Direct Production Of Dihydroxylated Sesquiterpenoids By A Maize Terpene Synthase, Jin Liang, Jiang Liu, Reid Brown, Meirong Jia, Ke Zhou, Reuben J. Peters, Qiang Wang

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The astounding structural and biological diversity of the large class of terpenoid natural products are imparted by both their complex hydrocarbon backbones and further elaboration by the addition of multiple hydroxyl groups, which provide both solubility and specific binding properties. While the role of terpene synthases in generating hydrocarbons with complex backbones is well known, these also are known to generate (singly) hydroxylated products by the addition of water prior to terminating deprotonation. Here a maize sesquiterpene synthase was unexpectedly found to generate dually hydroxylated products directly from (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate, primarily eudesmane-2,11-diol, along with two closely related ...


Inferring Roles In Defense From Metabolic Allocation Of Rice Diterpenoids, Xuan Lu, Juan Zhang, Benjamin Brown, Riqing Li, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Aileen Berasategui, Bo Liu, Meimei Xu, Dangping Luo, Zhiqiang Pan, Scott R. Baerson, Jonathan Gershenzon, Zhaohu Li, Ane Sesma, Bing Yang, Reuben J. Peters May 2018

Inferring Roles In Defense From Metabolic Allocation Of Rice Diterpenoids, Xuan Lu, Juan Zhang, Benjamin Brown, Riqing Li, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Aileen Berasategui, Bo Liu, Meimei Xu, Dangping Luo, Zhiqiang Pan, Scott R. Baerson, Jonathan Gershenzon, Zhaohu Li, Ane Sesma, Bing Yang, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Among their responses to microbial infection, plants deploy an arsenal of natural antibiotic products. Historically these have been identified on the basis of their antibiotic activity in vitro, which leaves open the question of their relevance to defense in planta. The vast majority of such natural products from the important crop plant rice (Oryza sativa) are diterpenoids whose biosynthesis proceeds via either ent- or syn-copalyl diphosphate (CPP) intermediates, which were isolated on the basis of their antibiotic activity against the fungal blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. However, rice plants in which the gene for the syn-CPP synthase Os-CPS4 is ...


Metabolic Coupling On Roots, Gwyn A. Beattie Apr 2018

Metabolic Coupling On Roots, Gwyn A. Beattie

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The coupling of root exudation of nutrients with microbial nutrient uptake preferences helps drive the assembly of rhizosphere microbiomes, enabling the use of metabolite interaction traits for engineering favorable microbial communities on roots.


Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Leaf-Related Traits In An Ibm Syn10 Dh Maize Population Across Three Environments, Langlang Ma, Zhongrong Guan, Zhiteng Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Yanling Zhang, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Guangtang Pan, Michael Lee, Yaou Shen, Thomas Lubberstedt Feb 2018

Identification Of Quantitative Trait Loci For Leaf-Related Traits In An Ibm Syn10 Dh Maize Population Across Three Environments, Langlang Ma, Zhongrong Guan, Zhiteng Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Yanling Zhang, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Guangtang Pan, Michael Lee, Yaou Shen, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Leaf-related traits (leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and leaf angle) are very important for the yield of maize (Zea mays L) due to their influence on plant type. Therefore, it is necessary to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for leaf-related traits. In this report, 221 doubled haploid lines (DHLs) of an IBM Syn10 DH population were provided for QTL mapping. In total, 54 QTLs were detected for leaf-related traits in single environments using a high-density genetic linkage map. Among them, only eight common QTLs were identified across two or three environments, and the common QTLs for the four traits ...


Extent Of Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow And Seed Longevity In Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.): Implications For Biosafety Procedures, Hsiaochi Chang, Allison A. Snow, Evans Mutegi, Emily M. Lewis, Emily A. Heaton, Maria N. Miriti Feb 2018

Extent Of Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow And Seed Longevity In Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.): Implications For Biosafety Procedures, Hsiaochi Chang, Allison A. Snow, Evans Mutegi, Emily M. Lewis, Emily A. Heaton, Maria N. Miriti

Agronomy Publications

New switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) bioenergy cultivars are being bred through genetic engineering; however, baseline information is urgently needed to establish guidelines for small scale field trials prior to commercialization. In this study, we documented the pattern of pollen mediated gene flow and the extent of seed longevity in field experiments. To mimic crop-to wild, pollen-mediated gene flow, we planted wild recipient switchgrass ramets at various distances away from cultivar donor ramets at two sites in Ohio. Percent hybridization at each distance was estimated from seed set on recipient ramets, which were self-incompatible clones. The pattern of gene flow was ...


Cellular Dynamics: Cellular Systems In The Time Domain, Dan Szymanski, Diane Bassham, Teun Munnik, Wataru Sakamoto Jan 2018

Cellular Dynamics: Cellular Systems In The Time Domain, Dan Szymanski, Diane Bassham, Teun Munnik, Wataru Sakamoto

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Plant cells are the fundamental building blocks of growth and development. For each cell type, the size, shape, and mechanical properties of the cell wall are customized for particular physiological functions (Szymanski and Cosgrove, 2009; Winship et al., 2011). The morphogenesis of highly polarized cell types such as trichoblasts and pollen tubes is internally programmed and occurs largely in the absence of a neighbor. Most cell types differentiate in the context of a tissue. Therefore, their growth and shape change can operate at larger spatial scales to influence tissue- and organ-level processes. Because plant cells grow symplastically and are mechanically ...


From Arabidopsis To Crops: The Arabidopsis Qqs Orphan Gene Modulates Nitrogen Allocation Across Species, Seth O'Conner, Andrea Neudorf, Wenguang Zheng, Mingsheng Qi, Xuefeng Zhao, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Ling Li Jan 2018

From Arabidopsis To Crops: The Arabidopsis Qqs Orphan Gene Modulates Nitrogen Allocation Across Species, Seth O'Conner, Andrea Neudorf, Wenguang Zheng, Mingsheng Qi, Xuefeng Zhao, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Ling Li

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

To improve the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crops to increase yields, one approach is to develop crops with improved NUE. Qua Quine Starch (QQS), a species-specific orphan gene present only in Arabidopsis thaliana, has a novel, unexpected functionality. Approximately 0.5- 8% of genes in a given species are uniquely present in that species, having no homologs in other species. They represent a significant fraction of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes, and are thought to be a determinant of the character of a species. However, little is known about the functional significance of these so-called species-specific or orphan genes. QQS ...


Maize And Soybean Root Front Velocity And Maximum Depth In Iowa, Usa, Raziel A. Ordonez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield, Matthew J. Helmers, Mark A. Licht, Matthew Liebman, Ranae Dietzel, Rafael Martinez-Feria, Javed Iqbal, Laila A. Puntel, S. Carolina Cordova, Kaitlin Togliatti, Emily E. Wright, Sotirios V. Archontoulis Jan 2018

Maize And Soybean Root Front Velocity And Maximum Depth In Iowa, Usa, Raziel A. Ordonez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield, Matthew J. Helmers, Mark A. Licht, Matthew Liebman, Ranae Dietzel, Rafael Martinez-Feria, Javed Iqbal, Laila A. Puntel, S. Carolina Cordova, Kaitlin Togliatti, Emily E. Wright, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy Publications

Quantitative measurements of root traits can improve our understanding of how crops respond to soil and weather conditions, but such data are rare. Our objective was to quantify maximum root depth and root front velocity (RFV) for maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) crops across a range of growing conditions in the Midwest USA. Two sets of root measurements were taken every 10–15 days: in the crop row (in-row) and between two crop rows (center-row) across six Iowa sites having different management practices such as planting dates and drainage systems, totaling 20 replicated experimental treatments. Temporal root data ...


Dynamics Of Autophagosome Formation, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Xiaohong Zhuang, Liwen Jiang, Diane C. Bassham Jan 2018

Dynamics Of Autophagosome Formation, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Xiaohong Zhuang, Liwen Jiang, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy, literally defined as “self-eating,” functions as a degradation process by recycling cytoplasmic contents under stress conditions or during development. Upon activation of autophagy, a membrane structure known as a phagophore forms and expands, finally closing to form a double-membrane vesicle called an autophagosome (Fig. 1; Lamb et al., 2013; Yin et al., 2016). The completed autophagosome, which contains the autophagic cargo, is delivered to the vacuole (plants and yeast) or lysosome (animals). The outer membrane fuses with the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane, and the inner membrane and contents are released into the vacuole/lysosome as an autophagic body and are ...


A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology For Tall Biomass Crops, Maria G. Salas Fernandez, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Patrick Schnable Dec 2017

A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology For Tall Biomass Crops, Maria G. Salas Fernandez, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Patrick Schnable

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Recent advances in "omics" technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum ...


A Pectin Methylesterase Zmpme3 Is Expressed In Gametophyte Factor1-S (Ga1-S) Silks And Maps To That Locus In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Michael G. Muszynski, Ryan D. Huffman, M. Paul Scott Nov 2017

A Pectin Methylesterase Zmpme3 Is Expressed In Gametophyte Factor1-S (Ga1-S) Silks And Maps To That Locus In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Michael G. Muszynski, Ryan D. Huffman, M. Paul Scott

Agronomy Publications

The ga1 locus of maize confers unilateral cross incompatibility, preventing cross pollination between females carrying the incompatible Ga1-s allele and males not carrying a corresponding compatible allele. To characterize this system at the molecular level, we carried out a transcript profiling experiment in which silks from near isogenic lines carrying the Ga1-sand ga1 alleles were compared. While several differentially expressed genes were identified, only one mapped to the known location of ga1. This gene is a pectin methylesterase (PME), which we designated as ZmPme3, and is present and expressed only in Ga1-s genotypes. While a functional ZmPME3 is ...