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Menthol Acts As A Positive Allosteric Modulator On Nematode Levamisole Sensitive Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Shivani Choudhary, Djordje S. Marjianović, Colin R. Wong, Xiaoyu Zhang, Melanie Abongwa, Joel R. Coats, Saša M. Trailović, Richard J. Martin, Alan P. Robertson Dec 2018

Menthol Acts As A Positive Allosteric Modulator On Nematode Levamisole Sensitive Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Shivani Choudhary, Djordje S. Marjianović, Colin R. Wong, Xiaoyu Zhang, Melanie Abongwa, Joel R. Coats, Saša M. Trailović, Richard J. Martin, Alan P. Robertson

Entomology Publications

The ongoing and widespread emergence of resistance to the existing anti-nematodal pharmacopeia has made it imperative to develop new anthelminthic agents. Historically, plants have been important sources of therapeutic compounds and offer an alternative to synthetic drugs. Monoterpenoids are phytochemicals that have been shown to produce acute toxic effects in insects and nematodes. Previous studies have shown nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to be possible targets for naturally occurring plant metabolites such as carvacrol and carveol. In this study we examined the effects of monoterpenoid compounds on a levamisole sensitive nAChR from Oesophagostomum dentatum and a nicotine sensitive nAChR from Ascaris ...


Inferring Processes Of Coevolutionary Diversification In A Community Of Panamanian Strangler Figs And Associated Pollinating Wasps, Jordan D. Satler, Edward Allen Herre, K. Charlotte Jandér, Deren A. R. Eaton, Carlos A. Machado, Tracy A. Heath, John D. Nason Dec 2018

Inferring Processes Of Coevolutionary Diversification In A Community Of Panamanian Strangler Figs And Associated Pollinating Wasps, Jordan D. Satler, Edward Allen Herre, K. Charlotte Jandér, Deren A. R. Eaton, Carlos A. Machado, Tracy A. Heath, John D. Nason

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The fig and pollinator wasp obligate mutualism is diverse (~750 described species), ecologically important, and ancient (~80-90 Ma), providing model systems for generating and testing many questions in evolution and ecology. Once thought to be a prime example of strict one-to-one cospeciation, current thinking suggests that genera of pollinator wasps coevolve with corresponding subsections of figs, but the degree to which cospeciation or other processes contributes to the association at finer scales is unclear. Here we use genome-wide sequence data from a community of Panamanian strangler figs (Ficus subgenus Urostigma, section Americana) and associated fig wasp pollinators (Pegoscapus spp.) to ...


Avicta And Clariva Affect The Biology Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Jared P. Jensen, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka Dec 2018

Avicta And Clariva Affect The Biology Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Jared P. Jensen, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Nematicidal seed treatments are a relatively new strategy for managing plant-parasitic nematodes in row crops. Two such seed treatments, Avicta (abamectin) and Clariva (Pasteuria nishizawae), are marketed by Syngenta for use against Heterodera glycines in soybean production in the upper Midwest. The specific effects of these seed treatments on the biology of the nematode have not been previously reported. The effects of Avicta and Clariva on H. glycines hatching, movement, attraction, penetration, development, and reproduction were determined in controlled-environment experiments. Avicta inhibited juvenile movement and penetration at the seed depth and 3 cm below the seed. Clariva inhibited juvenile movement ...


An Effector From The Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii Derepresses Host Rrna Genes By Altering Histone Acetylation, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Tarek Hewezi, Frederic Pontvianne, Thomas J. Baum Nov 2018

An Effector From The Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii Derepresses Host Rrna Genes By Altering Histone Acetylation, Paramasivan Vijayapalani, Tarek Hewezi, Frederic Pontvianne, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Cyst nematodes are plant-pathogenic animals that secrete effector proteins into plant root cells to alter host gene expression and reprogram these cells to form specialized feeding sites, known as syncytia. The molecular mechanisms of these effectors are mostly unknown. We determined that the sugar beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) 32E03 effector protein strongly inhibits the activities of Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylases including the HDT1 enzyme, which has a known function in the regulation of rRNA gene expression through chromatin modifications. We determined that plants expressing the 32E03 coding sequence exhibited increased acetylation of histone H3 along the rDNA chromatin. At ...


Tissue-Specific Transcription Of Proteases And Nucleases Across The Accessory Salivary Gland, Principal Salivary Gland And Gut Of Nezara Viridula, Sijun Liu, Purushottam R. Lomate, Bryony C. Bonning Oct 2018

Tissue-Specific Transcription Of Proteases And Nucleases Across The Accessory Salivary Gland, Principal Salivary Gland And Gut Of Nezara Viridula, Sijun Liu, Purushottam R. Lomate, Bryony C. Bonning

Entomology Publications

The phytophagous stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) infests multiple plant species and impacts agricultural production worldwide. We analyzed the transcriptomes of N. viridula accessory salivary gland (ASG), principal salivary gland (PSG) and gut, with a focus on putative digestive proteases and nucleases that present a primary obstacle for the stability of protein- or nucleic acid- based stink bug control approaches. We performed high throughput Illumina sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assemblies. We identified the sequences of 141 unique proteases and 134 nucleases from the N. viridula transcriptomes. Analysis of relative transcript abundance in conjunction with previously reported proteome data ...


Monarch Butterflies Show Differential Utilization Of Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species, Victoria Marie Pocius, John M. Pleasants, Diane M. Debinski, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Steven P. Bradbury, Sue L. Blodgett Oct 2018

Monarch Butterflies Show Differential Utilization Of Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species, Victoria Marie Pocius, John M. Pleasants, Diane M. Debinski, Keith G. Bidne, Richard L. Hellmich, Steven P. Bradbury, Sue L. Blodgett

Entomology Publications

Monarch butterfly overwintering numbers have declined over the past 20 years. Restoring habitat that includes milkweeds, the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies, is necessary to increase monarch numbers within the breeding range. The value of different milkweed species for restoration will depend, in part, on the extent to which they are utilized by ovipositing females. The number of eggs laid on different species over a season will be a function of plant size and phenology as well as female preference. We examined seasonal egg deposition and females' oviposition choices by comparing the number of eggs laid by free-flying ...


Tsetse Fly Evolution, Genetics And The Trypanosomiases - A Review, E. S. Krafsur, Ian Maudlin Oct 2018

Tsetse Fly Evolution, Genetics And The Trypanosomiases - A Review, E. S. Krafsur, Ian Maudlin

Entomology Publications

This reviews work published since 2007. Relative efforts devoted to the agents of African trypanosomiasis and their tsetse fly vectors are given by the numbers of PubMed accessions. In the last 10 years PubMed citations number 3457 for Trypanosoma brucei and 769 for Glossina. The development of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms afford much higher resolution of Glossina and Trypanosoma population structures than heretofore. Even greater resolution is offered by partial and whole genome sequencing. Reproduction in T. brucei sensu lato is principally clonal although genetic recombination in tsetse salivary glands has been demonstrated in T. b. brucei ...


The Plant‐Parasitic Cyst Nematode Effector Gland4 Is A Dna‐Binding Protein, Stacey N. Barnes, Catherine L. Wram, Melissa G. Mitchum, Thomas J. Baum Oct 2018

The Plant‐Parasitic Cyst Nematode Effector Gland4 Is A Dna‐Binding Protein, Stacey N. Barnes, Catherine L. Wram, Melissa G. Mitchum, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Cyst nematodes are plant pathogens that infect a wide range of economically important crops. One parasitic mechanism employed by cyst nematodes is the production and in planta delivery of effector proteins to modify plant cells and suppress defenses to favor parasitism. This study focused on GLAND4, an effector of Heterodera glycines and H. schachtii, the soybean and sugar beet cyst nematodes, respectively. We showed that GLAND4 is recognized by the plant cellular machinery and is transported to the plant nucleus, an organelle where little is known about plant nematode effector functions. We showed that GLAND4 has DNA-binding ability and repressed ...


Identification Of Candidate Effector Genes Of Pratylenchus Penetrans, Paulo Vieira, Thomas R. Maier, Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Dana K. Howe, Inga Zasada, Thomas J. Baum, Jonathan D. Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo Aug 2018

Identification Of Candidate Effector Genes Of Pratylenchus Penetrans, Paulo Vieira, Thomas R. Maier, Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Dana K. Howe, Inga Zasada, Thomas J. Baum, Jonathan D. Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Pratylenchus penetrans is one of the most important species of root lesion nematodes (RLNs) because of its detrimental and economic impact in a wide range of crops. Similar to other plant‐parasitic nematodes (PPNs), P. penetrans harbours a significant number of secreted proteins that play key roles during parasitism. Here, we combined spatially and temporally resolved next‐generation sequencing datasets of P. penetrans to select a list of candidate genes aimed at the identification of a panel of effector genes for this species. We determined the spatial expression of transcripts of 22 candidate effectors within the oesophageal glands of P ...


Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed Jul 2018

Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality has independently evolved multiple times in the hymenoptera, but the patterns of adaptive molecular evolution underlying the evolution and elaboration of eusociality remain uncertain. Here, we performed a population genomics study of primitively eusocial Polistes (paper wasps), and compared their patterns of molecular evolution to two social bees; Bombus (bumblebees), and Apis (honey bees). This species triad allowed us to study molecular evolution across a gradient of social complexity (Polistes < Bombus < Apis) and compare species pairs that have similar (i.e. Polistes and Bombus) or different (i.e. Polistes and Apis) life histories, while controlling for phylogenetic distance. We ...


The Novel Cyst Nematode Effector Protein 30d08 Targets Host Nuclear Functions To Alter Gene Expression In Feeding Sites, Anju Verma, Chris Lee, Stephanie Morriss, Fiona Odu, Charlotte Kenning, Nancy Rizzo, William G. Spollen, Marriam Lin, Amanda G. Mcrae, Scott A. Givan, Tarek Hewezi, Richard Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum Jul 2018

The Novel Cyst Nematode Effector Protein 30d08 Targets Host Nuclear Functions To Alter Gene Expression In Feeding Sites, Anju Verma, Chris Lee, Stephanie Morriss, Fiona Odu, Charlotte Kenning, Nancy Rizzo, William G. Spollen, Marriam Lin, Amanda G. Mcrae, Scott A. Givan, Tarek Hewezi, Richard Hussey, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

• Cyst nematodes deliver effector proteins into host cells to manipulate cellular processes and establish a metabolically hyperactive feeding site. The novel 30D08 effector protein is produced in the dorsal gland of parasitic juveniles, but its function has remained unknown.

• We demonstrate that expression of 30D08 contributes to nematode parasitism, the protein is packaged into secretory granules, and is targeted to the plant nucleus where it interacts with SMU2 (homologue of suppressor of mec-8 and unc-52 2), an auxiliary spliceosomal protein.

• We show that SMU2 is expressed in feeding sites and a smu2 mutant is less susceptible to nematode infection. In ...


Transcytosis Of Junonia Coenia Densovirus Vp4 Across The Gut Epithelium Of Spodoptera Frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Mariah Kemmerer, Bryony Bonning Apr 2018

Transcytosis Of Junonia Coenia Densovirus Vp4 Across The Gut Epithelium Of Spodoptera Frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Mariah Kemmerer, Bryony Bonning

Entomology Publications

The Junonia coenia densovirus rapidly traverses the gut epithelium of the host lepidopteran without replicating in the gut cells. The ability of this virus to transcytose across the gut epithelium is of interest for the potential use of virus structural proteins as delivery vehicles for insecticidal peptides that act within the insect hemocoel, rather than in the gut. In this study, we used fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda to examine the binding of the virus to brush border membrane vesicle proteins by two-dimensional ligand blot analysis. We also assessed the rate of flux of the primary viral structural protein, VP4 fused ...


Figs, Pollinators, And Parasites: A Longitudinal Study Of The Effects Of Nematode Infection On Fig Wasp Fitness, Justin Van Goor, Finn Piatscheck, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason Apr 2018

Figs, Pollinators, And Parasites: A Longitudinal Study Of The Effects Of Nematode Infection On Fig Wasp Fitness, Justin Van Goor, Finn Piatscheck, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Mutualisms are interactions between two species in which the fitnesses of both symbionts benefit from the relationship. Although examples of mutualism are ubiquitous in nature, the ecology, evolution, and stability of mutualism has rarely been studied in the broader, multispecies community context in which they occur. The pollination mutualism between figs and fig wasps provides an excellent model system for investigating interactions between obligate mutualists and antagonists. Compared to the community of non-pollinating fig wasps that develop within figs inflorescences at the expense of fig seeds and pollinators, consequences of interactions between female pollinating wasps and their host-specialist nematode parasites ...


Genomic Mechanisms Of Sympatric Ecological And Sexual Divergence In A Model Agricultural Pest, The European Corn Borer, Brad S. Coates, Erik B. Dopman, Kevin W. Wanner, Thomas W. Sappington Apr 2018

Genomic Mechanisms Of Sympatric Ecological And Sexual Divergence In A Model Agricultural Pest, The European Corn Borer, Brad S. Coates, Erik B. Dopman, Kevin W. Wanner, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a model species for elucidating mechanisms underlying adaptively differentiated subpopulations in the face of reciprocal gene flow, and is a major pest of cultivated maize in North America and Eurasia. Strains are characterized by different pheromone communication systems in combination with voltinism strains that are adapted to distinct local climate and photoperiod through adjustments in diapause traits. However, only partial barriers to inter-strain hybridization exist in areas of sympatry. Recent research shows that genes governing important strain-specific isolating traits are disproportionately located on the Z-chromosome. Furthermore, co-adapted combinations of some of these genes ...


Interrelation Of Mating, Flight, And Fecundity In Navel Orangeworm Females, Angela M. Rovnyak, Charles S. Burks, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington Apr 2018

Interrelation Of Mating, Flight, And Fecundity In Navel Orangeworm Females, Angela M. Rovnyak, Charles S. Burks, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Phycitini), is an economically important pest of nut crops in California, USA. Improved management will require better understanding of insect dispersal, particularly relative to when mating occurs. A previous study demonstrated a more robust laboratory flight capacity compared to other orchard moth pests, but it was unclear how mating affects dispersal, and how dispersal affects fecundity. In this study, 1‐ and 2‐day‐old females were allowed to fly overnight on a flight mill either before or after mating, respectively, and were then allowed to oviposit. Data on fecundity were compared between ...


Effects Of Endophytic Entomopathogenic Fungi On Soybean Aphid And Identification Of Metarhizium Isolates From Agricultural Fields, Eric H. Clifton, Stefan T, Jaronski, Brad S. Coates, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann Mar 2018

Effects Of Endophytic Entomopathogenic Fungi On Soybean Aphid And Identification Of Metarhizium Isolates From Agricultural Fields, Eric H. Clifton, Stefan T, Jaronski, Brad S. Coates, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Entomology Publications

Terrestrial plants can harbor endophytic fungi that may induce changes in plant physiology that in turn affect interactions with herbivorous insects. We evaluated whether the application of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum to soybean seeds could become endophytic and affect interactions with soybean aphid (Aphis glycinesMatsumura). It was found that A. glycines population sizes increased on plants with M. brunneum (strain F52) seed inoculum, but no significant effects were shown with analogous treatments with B. bassiana (strain GHA). Fungi recovered from soybean plant tissues indicate that endophytism was established, and that B. bassiana was more prevalent. Metarhizium ...


Ecological Factors Associated With Pre-Dispersal Predation Of Fig Seeds And Wasps By Fig-Specialist Lepidopteran Larvae, Finn Piatscheck, Justin Van Goor, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason Mar 2018

Ecological Factors Associated With Pre-Dispersal Predation Of Fig Seeds And Wasps By Fig-Specialist Lepidopteran Larvae, Finn Piatscheck, Justin Van Goor, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

In brood pollination mutualisms, predation of developing fruit can have large negative repercussions for both plant and pollinator population dynamics. The Sonoran Desert rock fig Ficus petiolaris and its highly-coevolved wasp pollinator are subject to frequent attack by lepidopteran larvae that consume fig fruit and the developing seeds and larval pollinators they contain. We used generalized linear mixed models to investigate how the phenology, quantity, and spatial distribution of fig fruits is associated with variation in lepidopteran damage intensity on individual trees at nine geographic locations spanning a 741 km latitudinal transect along Mexico’s Baja California Peninsula. We found ...


Colonization History Of The Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera) In North America: Insights From Random Forest Abc Using Microsatellite Data, Eric Lombaert, Marc Ciosi, Nicholas J. Miller, Thomas W. Sappington, Aurélie Blin, Thomas Guillemaud Mar 2018

Colonization History Of The Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera) In North America: Insights From Random Forest Abc Using Microsatellite Data, Eric Lombaert, Marc Ciosi, Nicholas J. Miller, Thomas W. Sappington, Aurélie Blin, Thomas Guillemaud

Entomology Publications

First described from western Kansas, USA, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is one of the worst pests of maize. The species is generally thought to be of Mexican origin and to have incidentally followed the expansion of maize cultivation into North America thousands of years ago. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated formally. In this study, the genetic variability of samples collected throughout North America was analysed at 13 microsatellite marker loci to explore precisely the population genetic structure and colonization history of D. v. virgifera. In particular, we used up-to-date approximate Bayesian computation methods based on ...


Novel Global Effector Mining From The Transcriptome Of Early Life Stages Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera Glycines, Michael Gardner, Andi Dhroso, Nathan Johnson, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G. Mitchum Feb 2018

Novel Global Effector Mining From The Transcriptome Of Early Life Stages Of The Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera Glycines, Michael Gardner, Andi Dhroso, Nathan Johnson, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G. Mitchum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is an obligate parasite that relies on the secretion of effector proteins to manipulate host cellular processes that favor the formation of a feeding site within host roots to ensure its survival. The sequence complexity and co-evolutionary forces acting upon these effectors remain unknown. Here we generated a de novo transcriptome assembly representing the early life stages of SCN in both a compatible and an incompatible host interaction to facilitate global effector mining efforts in the absence of an available annotated SCN genome. We then employed a dual effector prediction strategy coupling a newly ...


Movement And Motion Of Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Populations And Individuals In Response To Abamectin, Jared P. Jensen, Augustine Q. Beeman, Zach L. Njus, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka Feb 2018

Movement And Motion Of Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Glycines, Populations And Individuals In Response To Abamectin, Jared P. Jensen, Augustine Q. Beeman, Zach L. Njus, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L. Tylka

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Two new in vitro methods were developed to analyze plant-parasitic nematode behavior, at the population and the individual organism levels, through time-lapse image analysis. The first method employed a high-resolution flatbed scanner to monitor the movement of a population of nematodes over a 24-hour period at 25°C. The second method tracked multiple motion parameters of individual nematodes on a microscopic scale, using a high-speed camera. Changes in movement and motion of second-stage juveniles (J2s) of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, were measured after exposure to a serial dilution of abamectin (0.1 μg/ml to 100 μg ...


“Cyst-Ained” Research Into Heterodera Parasitism, Parijat S. Juvale, Thomas J. Baum Feb 2018

“Cyst-Ained” Research Into Heterodera Parasitism, Parijat S. Juvale, Thomas J. Baum

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Nematodes are roundworms that constitute the phylum Nematoda. Only a small fraction of nematode genera contains plant-parasitic or animal-parasitic species, while the majority of nematodes are free-living [1]. Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is a plant-parasitic nematode causing major damage to soybean production worldwide. Annual United States yield loss estimates due to H. glycines range up to $1.2 billion, likely making this nematode the most serious pathogen threat to sustainable soybean production [2]. While cyst nematode-resistant soybean cultivars are available, they do not control all H. glycines biotypes present in a given field and, therefore, select for virulent ...


Genomes Of The Hymenoptera, Michael G. Branstetter, Anna K. Childers, Diana Cox-Foster, Keith R. Hopper, Karen M. Kapheim, Amy L. Toth, Kim C. Worley Feb 2018

Genomes Of The Hymenoptera, Michael G. Branstetter, Anna K. Childers, Diana Cox-Foster, Keith R. Hopper, Karen M. Kapheim, Amy L. Toth, Kim C. Worley

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Hymenoptera is the second-most sequenced arthropod order, with 52 publically archived genomes (71 with ants, reviewed elsewhere), however these genomes do not capture the breadth of this very diverse order (Figure 1, Table 1). These sequenced genomes represent only 15 of the 97 extant families. Although at least 55 other genomes are in progress in an additional 11 families (see Table 2), stinging wasps represent 35 (67%) of the available and 42 (76%) of the in progress genomes. A more comprehensive catalog of hymenopteran genomes is needed for research into the evolutionary processes underlying the expansive diversity in terms of ...


Visualization Methods For Genealogical And Rna-Sequencing Studies: Pertinence, Software, And Applications, Lindsay Rutter Jan 2018

Visualization Methods For Genealogical And Rna-Sequencing Studies: Pertinence, Software, And Applications, Lindsay Rutter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As is the case in many fields, biological disciplines are now facing the challenges of increasingly large and complex data. Biologists must now process and meaningfully interpret a deluge of data, and one necessary approach toward accomplishing this goal is through the use of visualization. Ultimately, the objective of developing visualization tools for biological data is to provide biologists with enhanced insight into the processes within organelles, cells, organs, and even whole organisms. R is a free interpretive programming language for statistical computing and graphics. It is widely used by statisticians to develop statistical software and data analysis tools, and ...


Lc-Ms/Ms Method For Estimating The Exposure To Neonicotinoid Residues In Pollinator Attractive Habitat Adjacent To Corn And Soybean Fields, Maura J. Hall, Viet Dang, Ge Zhang, Matthew O'Neal, David Borts, Steven P. Bradbury, Joel R. Coats Jan 2018

Lc-Ms/Ms Method For Estimating The Exposure To Neonicotinoid Residues In Pollinator Attractive Habitat Adjacent To Corn And Soybean Fields, Maura J. Hall, Viet Dang, Ge Zhang, Matthew O'Neal, David Borts, Steven P. Bradbury, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Recent research has suggested that neonicotinoid insecticides applied to crops can be detected in adjacent pollinator-attractive habitats and pollen collected by honey bees. Honey bees, native bees, and monarchs could be exposed to neonicotinoids through ingestion of contaminated pollen, nectar, and milkweed leaves. Although these studies indicate that neonicotinoids can be detected in pollinator-attractive habitats, the magnitude and extent of potential adverse effects to honey bees, native bees and monarch larvae is an active area of research. In this study, we developed and validated an innovative method to simultaneously evaluate concentrations of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam, and two imidacloprid metabolites ...


Refuge-In-A-Bag Approach For Sustainable Management Of Virulent Soybean Aphids In The Field, Jessica Hohenstein, Matthew Kaiser, Erin Hodgson, Matthew O'Neal Jan 2018

Refuge-In-A-Bag Approach For Sustainable Management Of Virulent Soybean Aphids In The Field, Jessica Hohenstein, Matthew Kaiser, Erin Hodgson, Matthew O'Neal

Farm Progress Reports

The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in the Midwest. An unmanaged aphid outbreak has the potential to reduce yield by up to 40 percent. During the summer, aphids rapidly reproduce, resulting in exponential population growth. Foliar-applied insecticides are the most widely used management strategy for protecting yield loss from soybean aphids. Using varieties carrying aphid resistance genes (i.e. Rag) also is an effective means to suppress aphids. However, virulent aphid biotypes can colonize resistant plants. Use of only aphid-resistant plants throughout a landscape could lead to the fixation of virulence in the ...


Soybean Aphid Efficacy Evaluation In Northwest Iowa, Erin Hodgson, Greg Vannostrand, Terry Tuttle Jan 2018

Soybean Aphid Efficacy Evaluation In Northwest Iowa, Erin Hodgson, Greg Vannostrand, Terry Tuttle

Farm Progress Reports

Soybean, Glycine max (L.), grown in Iowa and most of the north central region of the United States has not required regular insecticide usage. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most important soybean pest in Iowa and is capable of reducing yield by 40 percent. Nymphs and adults feed on sap within the phloem and can vector several plant viruses. In Iowa, soybean aphids have been a persistent pest that can colonize fields from June through September. Their summer population dynamics are dependent on weather and other environmental conditions.


Evaluation Of Various Technologies For Management Of Larval Corn Rootworm In Central Iowa, Aaron Gassmann, Patrick Weber Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Various Technologies For Management Of Larval Corn Rootworm In Central Iowa, Aaron Gassmann, Patrick Weber

Farm Progress Reports

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-Bt corn, Bt corn, and soil insecticide, either alone or in combination, for management of larval corn rootworm. The Bt trait packages evaluated in this study were DeKalb Smartstax RIB, Pioneer AcreMax Xtreme (AMXT), and Pioneer AcreMax Xtra (AMX). Two soil-applied insecticides, Aztec-SB 9.34G and Index 2.80 CS, also were evaluated.


Evaluation Of Soil-Applied Insecticides For Management Of Corn Rootworm Larvae In Southeast Iowa, Aaron Gassmann, Patrick Weber Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Soil-Applied Insecticides For Management Of Corn Rootworm Larvae In Southeast Iowa, Aaron Gassmann, Patrick Weber

Farm Progress Reports

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various soil-applied insecticides for management of corn rootworm larvae. This study used non-rootworm Bt seed DeKalb brand VT2P (DKC 62-98 VT2 RIB).


Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species, Victoria Pocius, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski Jan 2018

Monarch Oviposition And Larval Survivalon Nine Native Milkweed Species, Victoria Pocius, Richard Hellmich, Diane Debinski

Farm Progress Reports

The Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium was established in March 2015. Adding milkweeds to agricultural landscapes is one of many Consortium goals. In order to further monarch butterfly conservation efforts, scientists need more information about milkweed phenology and persistence on the landscape, and how monarchs are using these plants because milkweeds are now absent from most agricultural fields.


Evaluation Of Various Management Techniques For Corn Rootworm Larvae, Aaron Gassmann, Patrick Weber Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Various Management Techniques For Corn Rootworm Larvae, Aaron Gassmann, Patrick Weber

Farm Progress Reports

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-Bt corn, Bt corn, and soil insecticide, either alone or in combination, for management of larval corn rootworm. Evaluation of corn hybrids included DeKalb non-RW Bt, DeKalb Smartstax RIB, Pioneer Optimum AcreMax Xtreme, and Pioneer Optimum AcreMax1. Soil insecticides evaluated were Aztec-SB 9.34G and Index 2.80 CS.