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Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Joel R. Coats Dec 2012

Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

Extensive use of the agricultural herbicide atrazine has led to contamination of numerous ground and surface water bodies. Research has shown that it can have a variety of negative impacts on numerous non-target organisms in the environment. Phytoremediation is one strategy that has been studied to remove atrazine contamination. This paper investigates the hypothesis that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can exude metabolites of atrazine after uptake and degradation, which has been suggested by prior research. Pots planted with switchgrass were treated with a 4 ppm solution of atrazine spiked with [14C]atrazine. After 4 days, switchgrass plants were transplanted to new ...


New Options For Soybean Aphid Host Plant Resistance, Michael T. Mccarville Dec 2012

New Options For Soybean Aphid Host Plant Resistance, Michael T. Mccarville

Integrated Crop Management News

Host plant resistance for soybean aphid is the newest management tool for yield protection. In 2010, a single gene expression, called Rag1, was commercially released in the north central region. Aphids feeding on Rag1 plants do not live as long or produce as many offspring compared to when they feed on susceptible plants. In small plot evaluations of the Rag1 gene, there is a dramatic decrease in the seasonal accumulation of soybean aphid compared to aphids developing on susceptible varieties.


The Response Of Natural Enemies To Selective Insecticides Applied To Soybean, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Matthew E. O'Neal Dec 2012

The Response Of Natural Enemies To Selective Insecticides Applied To Soybean, Adam Jerry Varenhorst, Matthew E. O'Neal

Entomology Publications

Natural enemies of the invasive pest Aphis glycines Matsumura can prevent its establishment and population growth. However, current A. glycines management practices include the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that affect pests and natural enemies that are present in the field at the time of application. An alternative is the use of selective insecticides that affect the targeted pest species, although having a reduced impact on the natural enemies. We tested the effects of esfenvalerate, spirotetramat, imidacloprid, and a combination of spirotetramat and imidacloprid on the natural enemies in soybean during the 2009 and 2010 field season. The natural enemy community ...


Using Field-Evolved Resistance To Cry1f Maize In A Lepidopteran Pest To Demonstrate No Adverse Effects Of Cry1f On One Of Its Major Predators, Jun-Ce Tian, Hilda L. Collins, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton Dec 2012

Using Field-Evolved Resistance To Cry1f Maize In A Lepidopteran Pest To Demonstrate No Adverse Effects Of Cry1f On One Of Its Major Predators, Jun-Ce Tian, Hilda L. Collins, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton

Entomology Publications

Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) represents the first documented case of field-evolved resistance to a genetically engineered crop expressing an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In this case it was Cry1F-expressing maize (Mycogen 2A517). The ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata, is a common and abundant predator that suppresses pest populations in maize and many other cropping systems. Its larvae and adults are polyphagous, feeding on aphids, thrips, lepidopteran eggs and larvae, as well as plant tissues. Thus, C. maculata may be exposed to Bt proteins expressed in genetically engineered crops by several pathways. Using Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda larvae as prey, we ...


Differential Surface Deposition Of Complement Proteins On Logarithmic And Stationary Phase Leishmania Chagasi Promastigotes, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Soi Meng Lei, Bryan H. Bellaire, Jeffrey K. Beetham Dec 2012

Differential Surface Deposition Of Complement Proteins On Logarithmic And Stationary Phase Leishmania Chagasi Promastigotes, Amanda Ellen Ramer-Tait, Soi Meng Lei, Bryan H. Bellaire, Jeffrey K. Beetham

Entomology Publications

Previous works demonstrated that various species of Leishmania promastigotes exhibit differential sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis (CML) during development. Upon exposure to normal human serum (NHS), cultures of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes recently isolated from infected hamsters (fewer than 5 in vitro passages) are CML-sensitive when in the logarithmic growth phase but become CML-resistant upon transition to the stationary culture phase. Visualization by light and electron microscopy revealed dramatic morphological differences between promastigotes from the 2 culture phases following exposure to NHS. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that surface deposition of the complement components C3, C5, and C9 correlated inversely with promastigote CML-resistance ...


Spider Mite Management For Corn And Soybean, Erin W. Hodgson, Mike Mccarville Nov 2012

Spider Mite Management For Corn And Soybean, Erin W. Hodgson, Mike Mccarville

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Arachnida: Acari: Tetranychidae), is an occasional pest of corn and soybean in Iowa. However, spider mite damage is more pronounced in crops during moisture-stressed growing conditions (Haile and Higley 2003). In 2012, many fields had significant spider mite feeding and subsequent yield loss (Hodgson 2012).


Soybean Aphid-Resistant Soybean Varieties For Iowa, Michael T. Mccarville, Erin W. Hodgson, Matthew E. O'Neal Nov 2012

Soybean Aphid-Resistant Soybean Varieties For Iowa, Michael T. Mccarville, Erin W. Hodgson, Matthew E. O'Neal

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

The soybean aphid is an economically damaging pest that has caused yield loss in parts of Iowa in seven of the past twelve years. This publication looks at how to choose, when to use, and the effects of aphid-resistant varieties.


Current Challenges In Managing Corn Rootworm, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann Nov 2012

Current Challenges In Managing Corn Rootworm, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Corn rootworm is a major pest of corn in the United States. In the last decade, Iowa farmers have seen many changes for managing corn rootworm. With the commercial release of transgenic Bt-rootworm corn in 2003, many farmers reduced or eliminated soil-applied insecticides to manage larvae. Western corn rootworm is adapting to transgenic technologies throughout the Corn Belt. Some continuous cornfields have larvae that can now survive at high numbers and cause severe root injury to Bt corn. We encourage farmers to use multiple strategies to protect corn.


Mobilizing The Genome Of Lepidoptera Through Novel Sequence Gains And End Creation By Non-Autonomous Lep1 Helitrons, Brad S. Coates, Richard L. Hellmich, David M. Grant, Craig A. Abel Nov 2012

Mobilizing The Genome Of Lepidoptera Through Novel Sequence Gains And End Creation By Non-Autonomous Lep1 Helitrons, Brad S. Coates, Richard L. Hellmich, David M. Grant, Craig A. Abel

Entomology Publications

Transposable elements (TEs) can affect the structure of genomes through their acquisition and transposition of novel DNA sequences. The 134-bp repetitive elements, Lep1, are conserved non-autonomous Helitrons in lepidopteran genomes that have characteristic 5'-CT and 3'-CTAY nucleotide termini, a 3'-terminal hairpin structure, a 5'- and 3'-subterminal inverted repeat (SIR), and integrations that occur between AT or TT nucleotides. Lep1 Helitrons have acquired and propagated sequences downstream of their 3'-CTAY termini that are 57-344-bp in length and have termini composed of a 3'-CTRR preceded by a 3'-hairpin structure and a region complementary to the ...


Iowa Ipm Notes—Prevention, Detection, And Control Of Bed Bugs In The Home, Laura C. H. Jesse Oct 2012

Iowa Ipm Notes—Prevention, Detection, And Control Of Bed Bugs In The Home, Laura C. H. Jesse

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Bug bugs are embarrassing and annoying. This fact sheet answers common questions related to preventing, detecting and controlling bed bugs in the home.


Regulation Of Anti-Plasmodium Immunity By A Litaf-Like Transcription Factor In The Malaria Vector Anopheles Gambiae, Ryan C. Smith, Abraham G. Eappen, Andrea J. Radtke, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena Oct 2012

Regulation Of Anti-Plasmodium Immunity By A Litaf-Like Transcription Factor In The Malaria Vector Anopheles Gambiae, Ryan C. Smith, Abraham G. Eappen, Andrea J. Radtke, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

Ryan C. Smith

The mosquito is the obligate vector for malaria transmission. To complete its development within the mosquito, the malaria parasite Plasmodium must overcome the protective action of the mosquito innate immune system. Here we report on the involvement of the Anopheles gambiae orthologue of a conserved component of the vertebrate immune system, LPS-induced TNFα transcription factor (LITAF), and its role in mosquito anti-Plasmodium immunity. An. gambiae LITAF-like 3 (LL3) expression is up-regulated in response to midgut invasion by both rodent and human malaria parasites. Silencing of LL3 expression greatly increases parasite survival, indicating that LL3 is part of an anti-Plasmodium defense ...


Tracking Climate Impacts On The Migratory Monarch Butterfly, Elise F. Zipkin, Leslie Ries, Rick Reeves, James Regetz, Karen S. Oberhauser Oct 2012

Tracking Climate Impacts On The Migratory Monarch Butterfly, Elise F. Zipkin, Leslie Ries, Rick Reeves, James Regetz, Karen S. Oberhauser

Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium Publications

Understanding the impacts of climate on migratory species is complicated by the fact that these species travel through several climates that may be changing in diverse ways throughout their complete migratory cycle. Most studies are not designed to tease out the direct and indirect effects of climate at various stages along the migration route. We assess the impacts of spring and summer climate conditions on breeding monarch butterflies, a species that completes its annual migration cycle over several generations. No single, broad-scale climate metric can explain summer breeding phenology or the substantial year-to-year fluctuations observed in population abundances. As such ...


Measuring The Benefit Of Biological Control For Single Gene And Pyramided Host Plant Resistance For Aphis Glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Management, Michael T. Mccarville, Matthew E. O'Neal Oct 2012

Measuring The Benefit Of Biological Control For Single Gene And Pyramided Host Plant Resistance For Aphis Glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Management, Michael T. Mccarville, Matthew E. O'Neal

Entomology Publications

The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an economically important pest in the north central United States. In the state of Iowa, economically damaging populations occurred in seven of 11 growing seasons from 2001 to 2011. The high frequency and economic impact of the soybean aphid makes it an ideal candidate for management by using host plant resistance. We compared an aphid-susceptible line to near-isolines that contain Rag1 and Rag2, both alone and pyramided together, to suppress aphid populations and protect yield. Each of four near-isolines, were artificially infested with aphids and grown in small plots in which ...


Comparison Of Reproductive And Flight Capacity Of Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Developing From Diapause And Non-Diapause Larvae, Daosong Xie, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang Oct 2012

Comparison Of Reproductive And Flight Capacity Of Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Developing From Diapause And Non-Diapause Larvae, Daosong Xie, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang

Entomology Publications

The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), uses both diapause and migration as life history strategies. To determine the role of diapause plays in the population dynamics of L. sticticalis, the reproductive and flight potentials of adults originating from diapause and nondiapause larvae were investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Preoviposition period, lifetime fecundity, and daily egg production of females originating from diapause larvae were not significantly different from those originating from nondiapause larvae, showing that diapause has no significant effect on reproductive capacity when adults are provided with an adequate carbohydrate source. However, females that developed from diapause larvae ...


Fate Of Atrazine In Switchgrass-Soil Column System., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Ian J. Murphy, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats Sep 2012

Fate Of Atrazine In Switchgrass-Soil Column System., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Ian J. Murphy, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

Atrazine, a broad-leaf herbicide, has been used widely to control weeds in corn and other crops for several decades and its extensive used has led to widespread contamination of soils and water bodies. Phytoremediation with switchgrass and other native prairie grasses is one strategy that has been suggested to lessen the impact of atrazine in the environment. The goal of this study is to characterize: (1) the uptake of atrazine into above-ground switchgrass biomass; and (2) the degradation and transformation of atrazine over time. A fate study was performed using mature switchgrass columns treated with an artificially-created agricultural runoff containing ...


A Nuclear-Derived Proteinaceous Matrix Embeds The Microtubule Spindle Apparatus During Mitosis, Changfu Yao, Uttama Rath, Helder Maiato, David Sharp, Jack Girton, Kristen M. Johansen, Jorgen Johansen Sep 2012

A Nuclear-Derived Proteinaceous Matrix Embeds The Microtubule Spindle Apparatus During Mitosis, Changfu Yao, Uttama Rath, Helder Maiato, David Sharp, Jack Girton, Kristen M. Johansen, Jorgen Johansen

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

The concept of a spindle matrix has long been proposed. Whether such a structure exists, however, and what its molecular and structural composition are have remained controversial. In this study, using a live-imaging approach in Drosophilasyncytial embryos, we demonstrate that nuclear proteins reorganize during mitosis to form a highly dynamic, viscous spindle matrix that embeds the microtubule spindle apparatus, stretching from pole to pole. We show that this “internal” matrix is a distinct structure from the microtubule spindle and from a lamin B–containing spindle envelope. By injection of 2000-kDa dextran, we show that the disassembling nuclear envelope does ...


Deep Sequencing Of The Transcriptomes Of Soybean Aphid And Associated Endosymbionts, Sijun Liu, Nanasaheb P. Chougule, Diveena Vijayendran, Bryony C. Bonning Sep 2012

Deep Sequencing Of The Transcriptomes Of Soybean Aphid And Associated Endosymbionts, Sijun Liu, Nanasaheb P. Chougule, Diveena Vijayendran, Bryony C. Bonning

Entomology Publications

Background

The soybean aphid has significantly impacted soybean production in the U.S. Transcriptomic analyses were conducted for further insight into leads for potential novel management strategies.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Transcriptomic data were generated from whole aphids and from 2,000 aphid guts using an Illumina GAII sequencer. The sequence data were assembled de novo using the Velvet assembler. In addition to providing a general overview, we demonstrate (i) the use of the Multiple-k/Multiple-C method for de novo assembly of short read sequences, followed by BLAST annotation of contigs for increased transcript identification: From 400,000 contigs ...


Yield, Pests, And Water Use Of Durum And Selected Crucifer Oilseeds In Two-Year Rotations, Andrew W. Lenssen, William M. Iversen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Sue L. Blodgett, Brett L. Allen, Robert G. Evans Sep 2012

Yield, Pests, And Water Use Of Durum And Selected Crucifer Oilseeds In Two-Year Rotations, Andrew W. Lenssen, William M. Iversen, Upendra M. Sainju, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Sue L. Blodgett, Brett L. Allen, Robert G. Evans

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Cool-season oilseed crops are potential feedstock for biofuel production, but few studies have compared oilseed-durum (Triticum durum Desf.) rotations on yield, quality, water use, and pests associated with crops. We conducted an experiment under dryland conditions during 2007 to 2010 near Culbertson, MT, comparing crop productivity, water balance, and key weed and arthropod pests of 2-yr oilseed-durum rotations under zero tillage. Rotations included durum with three Brassicaceae sp., camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz], crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R.E. Fries), and canola-quality Brassica juncea L., and fallow. Over 4 yr, B. juncea had the highest seed and oil yields ...


Managing Western Corn Rootworm With Bt Corn, Aaron J. Gassmann, Erin W. Hodgson Aug 2012

Managing Western Corn Rootworm With Bt Corn, Aaron J. Gassmann, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

During the summer of 2011, the ISU Corn Entomology Lab visited several fields in Iowa in response to complaints for rootworm injury to Bt rootworm corn, and to follow-up on fields that were visited in 2010 in response to grower complaints. To date, resistance of western corn rootworm has been found only for Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1, which was originally released as YieldGard Rootworm and is now the rootworm trait found in VTTriple and VTTriple Pro. Cry3Bb1 also is present as a pyramid with Bt toxin Cry35/35Ab1 in SmartStax.


Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships Of Monoterpenoid Binding Activities To The Housefly Gaba Receptor, Fan Tong, Joel R. Coats Aug 2012

Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships Of Monoterpenoid Binding Activities To The Housefly Gaba Receptor, Fan Tong, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

BACKGROUND: Monoterpenoids are a large group of plant secondary metabolites. Many of these naturally occurring compounds have shown good insecticidal potency on pest insects. Previous studies in this laboratory have indicated that some monoterpenoids have positive modulatory effects on insect GABA receptors. In this study, the key properties of monoterpenoids involved in monoterpenoid binding activity at the housefly GABA receptor were determined by developing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, and the relationship between the toxicities of these monoterpenoids and their GABA receptor binding activities was evaluated.

RESULTS: Two QSAR models were determined for nine monoterpenoids showing significant effects on [3 ...


Assessment Of Iowa Soybean Growers For Insect Pest Management Practices, Erin W. Hodgson, Mari R. Kemis, Brandi N. Geisinger Aug 2012

Assessment Of Iowa Soybean Growers For Insect Pest Management Practices, Erin W. Hodgson, Mari R. Kemis, Brandi N. Geisinger

Entomology Publications

In 2009, Iowa soybean growers were surveyed about current insect pest management practices. The purpose was to better understand how often growers were scouting and what they perceived as the primary pests in Iowa soybean. Soybean aphid is the primary pest throughout the state. There was a 1423% increase of insecticides applied to soybean since 2000. Respondents indicated they are regularly scouting for soybean insects to make treatment decisions. Iowa growers are getting pest management information via Extension and industry.


Adaptation By Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) To Bt Maize: Inheritance, Fitness Costs, And Feeding Preference, Jennifer L. Petzold-Maxwell, Ximena Cibils, B. Wade French, Aaron J. Gassmann Aug 2012

Adaptation By Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) To Bt Maize: Inheritance, Fitness Costs, And Feeding Preference, Jennifer L. Petzold-Maxwell, Ximena Cibils, B. Wade French, Aaron J. Gassmann

Entomology Publications

We examined inheritance of resistance, feeding behavior, and fitness costs for a laboratory-selected strain of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), with resistance to maize (Zea maize L.) producing the Bacillus thuringiensisBerliner (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1. The resistant strain developed faster and had increased survival on Bt maize relative to a susceptible strain. Results from reciprocal crosses of the resistant and susceptible strains indicated that inheritance of resistance was nonrecessive. No fitness costs were associated with resistance alleles in the presence of two entomopathogenic nematode species, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar. Larval feeding studies indicated ...


High-Throughput Transcriptome Sequencing For Snp And Gene Discovery In A Moth, Nicholas J. Miller, Jing Sun, Thomas W. Sappington Aug 2012

High-Throughput Transcriptome Sequencing For Snp And Gene Discovery In A Moth, Nicholas J. Miller, Jing Sun, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Leptidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of corn (Zea mays L.) and dry beans that underwent a dramatic range expansion in North America during the 1st decade of the 21st century. Research into the population genetics of this species has been hindered by a lack of genetic markers. The transcriptome of adult male S. albicostawas partially sequenced using Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis. Assembly of the sequence reads yielded 16,847 transcript sequences, of which 6,631 could be assigned a putative function. A search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified 2,487 candidate SNPs distributed ...


Changes In Pesticide Applicator Certification And Licenses, Kristine J. P. Schaefer, Gretchen Elizabeth Paluch Jul 2012

Changes In Pesticide Applicator Certification And Licenses, Kristine J. P. Schaefer, Gretchen Elizabeth Paluch

Integrated Crop Management News

The Iowa Legislature recently passed changes to the Iowa Code that will affect commercial, public, and private pesticide applicators. Previously, commercial, public, and private applicators had the option of paying one-year or three-year certification fees. Effective July 1, 2012, one-year certification fees are no longer available. All individual pesticide applicator certification fees will now cover three years. Certified pesticide applicators that currently pay one-year fees but are in a three-year qualification cycle will be eligible to pay the one-year certification renewal fee until the existing cycle expiration date.


Scout For Twospotted Spider Mites This Summer, Erin W. Hodgson Jul 2012

Scout For Twospotted Spider Mites This Summer, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

As mentioned in an earlier ICM News article, twospotted spider mites are problematic in droughty years. We recommend scouting corn and soybean fields for mite infestations this year because they thrive in hot and dry conditions. Twospotted spider mites can aggregate at the field edges, especially if there are weeds surrounding the borders. Eventually they can disperse with the wind to develop a field-wide infestation. I encourage people to look at the edge rows first to see if mites can be found. If their presence is confirmed, then estimate populations throughout the field by walking a “Z” or “W” pattern.


Do You Need To Treat For Adult Corn Rootworm This Year?, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann Jul 2012

Do You Need To Treat For Adult Corn Rootworm This Year?, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Integrated Crop Management News

As reported in an earlier article, corn rootworm egg hatch in 2012 was slightly ahead of a normal year. Adults were first detected in Illinois last week and around Iowa this week. We’ve been getting many questions about when or if it is appropriate to treat the adults. Three factors must be taken into account before a foliar insecticide application is warranted.


Understanding Successful Resistance Management: The European Corn Borer And Bt Corn In The United States, Blair D. Siegfried, Richard L. Hellmich Jul 2012

Understanding Successful Resistance Management: The European Corn Borer And Bt Corn In The United States, Blair D. Siegfried, Richard L. Hellmich

Entomology Publications

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard ...


Western Bean Cutworm Scouting Update 2012, Adam J. Sisson, Laura C. H. Jesse, Erin W. Hodgson Jun 2012

Western Bean Cutworm Scouting Update 2012, Adam J. Sisson, Laura C. H. Jesse, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Western bean cutworm (WBC) moths have been reported in several Iowa counties. The first reported moth of 2012 was captured in Benton County, located in the east central part of the state, on June 18th. With the higher than average accumulated heat units, moths may have emerged prior to this date, before traps were in place.


Spatially Explicit Land-Use And Land-Cover Scenarios For The Great Plains Of The United States, Terry L. Sohl, Benjamin M. Sleeter, Kristi L. Sayler, Michelle A. Bouchard, Ryan R. Reker, Stacie L. Bennett, Rachel R. Sleeter, Ronald L. Kanengieter, Zhiliang Zhu Jun 2012

Spatially Explicit Land-Use And Land-Cover Scenarios For The Great Plains Of The United States, Terry L. Sohl, Benjamin M. Sleeter, Kristi L. Sayler, Michelle A. Bouchard, Ryan R. Reker, Stacie L. Bennett, Rachel R. Sleeter, Ronald L. Kanengieter, Zhiliang Zhu

Iowa Monarch Conservation Consortium Publications

The Great Plains of the United States has undergone extensive land-use and land-cover change in the past 150 years, with much of the once vast native grasslands and wetlands converted to agricultural crops, and much of the unbroken prairie now heavily grazed. Future land-use change in the region could have dramatic impacts on ecological resources and processes. A scenario-based modeling framework is needed to support the analysis of potential land-use change in an uncertain future, and to mitigate potentially negative future impacts on ecosystem processes. We developed a scenario-based modeling framework to analyze potential future land-use change in the Great ...


Scouting For Japanese Beetle, Erin W. Hodgson Jun 2012

Scouting For Japanese Beetle, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Adult Japanese beetles first emerged in some areas of Iowa around the end of May. This is very early compared to a normal year. At the same time, many other beetles in this large insect family (Scarabaeidae) are becoming active and causing confusion with identification. In general, scarabs are stout beetles that are boxy in shape, have clubbed antennae and thick legs adapted for digging. Adults can be active during the night or day depending on the species; regardless, they are clumsy fliers. Some species are scavengers that feed on dung, carrion or decomposing organic materials; others can be significant ...