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Resurgence Of Cocaine-Seeking In Rats Following Long Access And Punishment, Rusty W. Nall Aug 2019

Resurgence Of Cocaine-Seeking In Rats Following Long Access And Punishment, Rusty W. Nall

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Strategies that provide access to alternative non-drug rewards are among the most effective at reducing substance use in individuals with substance use disorders, but relapse often occurs when alternative rewards are removed. Relapse induced by the loss of alternative rewards is called resurgence, and represents a challenge to otherwise effective strategies for reducing drug use. An animal model has been useful for studying resurgence, but the extant model has two limitations. First, humans usually refer to the negative consequences of drug use as the reason they stop taking drugs, but the extant model uses drug unavailability to reduce drug seeking ...


Inactivation Of The Medial-Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Interval Timing Precision, But Not Timing Accuracy Or Scalar Timing In A Peak-Interval Procedure In Rats, Catalin V. Buhusi, Marcelo B. Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A. Oprisan, Mona Buhusi Jun 2018

Inactivation Of The Medial-Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Interval Timing Precision, But Not Timing Accuracy Or Scalar Timing In A Peak-Interval Procedure In Rats, Catalin V. Buhusi, Marcelo B. Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A. Oprisan, Mona Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Motor sequence learning, planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors, and decision making rely on accurate time estimation and production of durations in the seconds-to-minutes range. The pathways involved in planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors include cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry modulated by dopaminergic inputs. A critical feature of interval timing is its scalar property, by which the precision of timing is proportional to the timed duration. We examined the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in timing by evaluating the effect of its reversible inactivation on timing accuracy, timing precision and scalar timing. Rats were trained to time two durations in a ...


The Role Of A High-Sugar Refined Diet On Food And Energy Intake, Body Weight, Exercise, And Motivation In Rats, Aaron P. Blaisdell May 2018

The Role Of A High-Sugar Refined Diet On Food And Energy Intake, Body Weight, Exercise, And Motivation In Rats, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of Gabapentin, Michael Zuidema May 2018

Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of Gabapentin, Michael Zuidema

All NMU Master's Theses

The present study sought to evaluate the discriminative stimulus effects of the anticonvulsant gabapentin in rats trained to discriminate 30.0 mg/kg gabapentin from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task. All of the ten rats tested were able to establish gabapentin as an interoceptive cue. Gabapentin produced full generalization (≥ 80% gabapentin-lever responding) for itself at 30.0, 60.0, and 120.0 mg/kg doses. Pentobarbital produced full substitution, while pregabalin, carbamazepine, fentanyl, and buspirone produced partial substitution (≥ 60% gabapentin-lever responding) for gabapentin. Ethanol and raclopride did not substitute for gabapentin. The psychostimulant amphetamine did not produce substitution ...


Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner Apr 2018

Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

The purpose of this study was to see what rats learn about the elements of a compound stimulus (a stimulus composed of two different stimuli), and whether their learning differs if the compound is from the same modality (intra-modal), i.e. both visual, or from different modalities (inter-modal), i.e. visual and auditory. We hypothesized that the rats would respond more to the compound stimuli than to the single stimuli (Pearce and Wilson, 1990), more to the compound modality of inter-modal elements than to the compound modality of intra-modal elements (Miller, 1971 and Gingras, 2009), equally to the intra-modal elements ...


Modified Single Prolonged Stress Reduces Cocaine Self-Administration During Acquisition Regardless Of Rearing Environment, Rebecca S. Hofford, Mark A. Prendergast, Michael T. Bardo Feb 2018

Modified Single Prolonged Stress Reduces Cocaine Self-Administration During Acquisition Regardless Of Rearing Environment, Rebecca S. Hofford, Mark A. Prendergast, Michael T. Bardo

Psychology Faculty Publications

Until recently, there were few rodent models available to study the interaction of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug taking. Like PTSD, single prolonged stress (SPS) produces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and alters psychostimulant self-administration. Other stressors, such as isolation stress, also alter psychostimulant self-administration. However, it is currently unknown if isolation housing combined with SPS can alter the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration. The current study applied modified SPS (modSPS; two hours restraint immediately followed by cold swim stress) to rats raised in an isolation condition (Iso), enrichment condition (Enr), or standard condition (Std) to measure changes in ...


Nmda Receptor Blockade Specifically Impedes The Acquisition Of Incentive Salience Attribution, Jonathan J. Chow, Joshua S. Beckmann Feb 2018

Nmda Receptor Blockade Specifically Impedes The Acquisition Of Incentive Salience Attribution, Jonathan J. Chow, Joshua S. Beckmann

Psychology Faculty Publications

Glutamatergic signaling plays an important role in learning and memory. Using Pavlovian conditioned approach procedures, the mechanisms that drive stimulus-reward learning and memory have been investigated. However, there are instances where reward-predictive stimuli can function beyond being solely predictive and can be attributed with “motivational value” or incentive salience. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure consisting of two different but equally predictive stimuli (lever vs. tone) we investigated the role NMDA receptor function has in the attribution of incentive salience. The results revealed that the administration of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, during acquisition of Pavlovian conditioned approach promoted goal-tracking ...


Effects Of Social Interaction On Morphine Conditioned Place Preference In Adolescent Male Rats, Virginia G. Weiss Jan 2018

Effects Of Social Interaction On Morphine Conditioned Place Preference In Adolescent Male Rats, Virginia G. Weiss

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

The fact that adolescents commonly initiate drug use in social settings is well established. Both clinical and preclinical research has investigated how social interaction is altered by a variety of drugs of abuse. What is less understood is how the rewarding value of drugs of abuse is affected by the presence of social peers. This dissertation aimed to investigate the interaction of morphine and social play on conditioned place preference (CPP) in adolescent male Sprague Dawley rats, using both behavioral and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods. Rats were exposed to morphine (0, 1, or 3 mg/kg; s.c.), social interaction, or ...


Effects Of Delay And Signals On Choice Between Delayed Food Alone And Immediate Food With Delayed Shock, Forrest James Toegel Jan 2018

Effects Of Delay And Signals On Choice Between Delayed Food Alone And Immediate Food With Delayed Shock, Forrest James Toegel

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Much of the research in the area of self-control has examined choice between small immediate reinforcers and large delayed reinforcers, but many problems result from situations in which a single choice produces consequences of conflicting valence: Those in which the immediate outcome is reinforcing and the delayed outcome is aversive. Recent research has evaluated how preference for a large reinforcer which is followed by a delayed shock changes as a function of the delay to shock and how the intensity and duration of delayed shock affects the value of a large reinforcer. The present set of experiments investigated how the ...


Effects Of Reinforcement Rate On The Aversive Function Of Timeout From Positive Reinforcement, Cory Whirtley Jan 2018

Effects Of Reinforcement Rate On The Aversive Function Of Timeout From Positive Reinforcement, Cory Whirtley

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Although the use of timeout from positive reinforcement is widespread and has been shown to be an effective punisher in clinical settings, the factors responsible for its effectiveness are not fully understood. The present experiment was designed to evaluate one of these factors, the reinforcement rate underway during periods of time-in. Rats’ lever pressing was maintained on variable-interval schedules of food reinforcement in a multiple schedule with two components. In one component, no timeouts were delivered. In the other component, when a variable-ratio schedule was met, lever presses were followed by a 30-s timeout during which a tone sounded, the ...


Human-Like Behavior And Cognition: Not A Good Starting Point, Magnus Helgheim Blystad Jan 2018

Human-Like Behavior And Cognition: Not A Good Starting Point, Magnus Helgheim Blystad

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman make use of observations and studies that show how humans may not be as unique in our behaviour and cognition as previously thought. I wholeheartedly agree that our uniqueness might be small and that if it exists, it should not give our species any right to act cruelly towards other animals. However, this kind of logic can be problematic. I present a few of the issues in this commentary.


Effects Of Environmental Enrichment On Self-Administration Of The Short-Acting Opioid Remifentanil In Male Rats, Rebecca S. Hofford, Jonathan J. Chow, Joshua S. Beckmann, Michael T. Bardo Dec 2017

Effects Of Environmental Enrichment On Self-Administration Of The Short-Acting Opioid Remifentanil In Male Rats, Rebecca S. Hofford, Jonathan J. Chow, Joshua S. Beckmann, Michael T. Bardo

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background

Opioid abuse is a major problem around the world. Identifying environmental factors that contribute to opioid abuse and addiction is necessary for decreasing this epidemic. In rodents, environmental enrichment protects against the development of low dose stimulant self-administration, but studies examining the effect of enrichment and isolation (compared to standard housing) on the development of intravenous opioid self-administration have not been conducted. The present study investigated the role of environmental enrichment on self-administration of the short-acting μ-opioid remifentanil.

Methods

Rats were raised in an enriched condition (Enr), standard condition (Std), or isolated condition (Iso) beginning at 21 days of ...


The Effects Of Pre-Trial Event Stimulus Properties On Timing In The Peak Interval Procedure, Daniel A. Garces Sep 2017

The Effects Of Pre-Trial Event Stimulus Properties On Timing In The Peak Interval Procedure, Daniel A. Garces

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the peak interval procedure, intruded conditioned stimuli produce shifts in peak/middle time towards later values, regardless of whether these stimuli are presented prior to or during the timing signal. Although the effects of during-trial stimulus properties—temporal location, duration, and salience—have been previously reported, no research exists on how before-trial stimulus properties influence the extent of shifts in middle time. In the present study, we manipulated within subjects both the temporal location and type (i.e., cue alone, response-independent reinforcer alone, or cue and response-contingent reinforcer together) of the pre-trial event. An individual-trial analysis suggested that the ...


Effects Of Early Adolescent Exposure To D-Amphetamine In A Rodent Model Of Nicotine Reward, Eric Louis Harvey Aug 2017

Effects Of Early Adolescent Exposure To D-Amphetamine In A Rodent Model Of Nicotine Reward, Eric Louis Harvey

Dissertations

Previous studies with rodents have found that adolescent exposure to psychoactive drugs can alter neurophysiology and produce behavioral effects that persist into adulthood. While several studies have examined the effects of adolescent exposure to nicotine on the subsequent rewarding value of various drugs of abuse in adulthood, to date, no known studies have examined the converse of this relationship. d-Amphetamine (i.e., dextroamphetamine, ProCentra®) is a potent psychostimulant that is commonly used in the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. The present study assessed the effects of adolescent exposure to d-amphetamine on the rewarding value of ...


The Influence Of Training Procedures On Generalization Performance In Scent-Detection Rats, Erin Watkins Apr 2017

The Influence Of Training Procedures On Generalization Performance In Scent-Detection Rats, Erin Watkins

Dissertations

The global illicit trade in tobacco products leads to an overall increase in the availability of tobacco, and this increase in tobacco availability and consumption undermines effective health, safety, and taxation policies in place to protect current and future populations. Dogs working at ports and customs have been trained to detect tobacco products and research has shown rats can detect tobacco-soaked filters (Mahoney et al., 2014). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use, and cigarettes are the most commonly trafficked product in the illicit tobacco trade. In the current study, rats were trained to respond to filter ...


Tribute To Jaak Panksepp, Jonathan Balcombe Jan 2017

Tribute To Jaak Panksepp, Jonathan Balcombe

Animal Sentience

No abstract provided.


Series Of Intermittent Heroin Injections Enhances Acquisition Of Operant Responding For Cues Paired With Natural Rewards, Jennifer Morrison Sep 2016

Series Of Intermittent Heroin Injections Enhances Acquisition Of Operant Responding For Cues Paired With Natural Rewards, Jennifer Morrison

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Repeated-intermittent heroin use has been implicated in altering learning processes. Ranaldi et al. (2009) and Morrison et al. (2011) demonstrated that repeated-intermittent heroin administration leads to an enhancement of conditioned reinforcement by a food-paired light stimulus; however, the mechanism governing this effect is still largely unknown. The aims of the present study were to examine modifications in Pavlovian and operant associations for cues paired with natural rewards after a series of intermittent heroin injections. The study consisted of three phases: (1) Pavlovian Conditioning Phase (4 days)- in which three groups of rats had a light stimulus paired with food, and ...


Examination Of Methamphetamine Reinstatement In Female And Male Rats: A Pre-Clinical Model Of Relapse, Steven T. Pittenger Jun 2016

Examination Of Methamphetamine Reinstatement In Female And Male Rats: A Pre-Clinical Model Of Relapse, Steven T. Pittenger

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Methamphetamine (meth) dependence is often characterized by persistent and chronic relapse (i.e., return to drug use). There is growing pre-clinical and human evidence suggesting females are at greater risk to relapse. The set of studies presented in this dissertation extended this limited evidence by identifying sex-dependent neural substrates correlated with meth-triggered reinstatement (Experiment 1) and by examining sex-differences in reinstatement triggered by drugs of abuse that are commonly co-abused with meth (Experiment 2). Female and male rats were trained to self-administer meth, received subsequent extinction sessions, and then tested for reinstatement. In Experiment 1, rats were perfused following reinstatement ...


Effects Of Visual And Geometric Cues In Rat Foraging, Kyle Rubini Jan 2016

Effects Of Visual And Geometric Cues In Rat Foraging, Kyle Rubini

Undergraduate Honours Theses

The purpose of the current study was to investigate cue competition in rat foraging. Rats were placed in a food tower maze comprised of 25 towers arranged in a 5 x 5 matrix. Four towers within the maze were baited and arranged in a diamond spatial pattern. The rat’s objective during each trial was to find each baited tower. The rats in the Visual + Pattern (V+P) condition had an additional, visual cue in the form of striped sleeves placed on all four baited towers. There were 80 trials in total, split into two phases of 40 trials. Rats ...


The Effects Of Visual Cue Facilitation In Spatial Pattern Learning In Rats, Sachia M. Grogan Jan 2015

The Effects Of Visual Cue Facilitation In Spatial Pattern Learning In Rats, Sachia M. Grogan

Undergraduate Honours Theses

Recently published research has shown that a consistent but not coincident visual pattern facilitated the learning of a diamond spatial pattern in humans (Katz, Brown & Sturz, 2014). The purpose of the present experiment was to examine if this could be done in rats, using a square spatial pattern. For each trial, 16 towers were arranged in a 4 X 4 matrix, with one of the nine possible 2 X 2 baiting patterns baited with cheese. The visual pattern group also had four striped towers placed in a 2 X 2 spatial pattern within the larger matrix, while the visual random ...


An Exploration Of The Wheel-Induced Feeding-Suppression, Stephen Benjamin Peckham Jan 2015

An Exploration Of The Wheel-Induced Feeding-Suppression, Stephen Benjamin Peckham

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Anorexia nervosa is an enigmatic human condition typified by food-restriction that is often accompanied by extensive exercise. This has been modeled in rats in the wheel-induced feeding-suppression (WIFS) model. In this model, animals are given access to a running-wheel, which induces a volitional drop in food-consumption. Short periods of wheel access have induced a feeding-suppression which is effectively reversed by chlorpromazine administration (Adams et al., 2009). Recent attempts at replicating Adams et al.’s (2009) feeding-suppression have, however, been unsuccessful (Peckham et al., 2013). These attempts raised questions as to whether or not the existing methodology is most effective at ...


Bursts And Heavy Tails In Temporal And Sequential Dynamics Of Foraging Decisions, Kanghoon Jung, Hyeran Jang, Jerald D. D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong Aug 2014

Bursts And Heavy Tails In Temporal And Sequential Dynamics Of Foraging Decisions, Kanghoon Jung, Hyeran Jang, Jerald D. D. Kralik, Jaeseung Jeong

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A fundamental understanding of behavior requires predicting when and what an individual will choose. However, the actual temporal and sequential dynamics of successive choices made among multiple alternatives remain unclear. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that there is a general bursting property in both the timing and sequential patterns of foraging decisions. We conducted a foraging experiment in which rats chose among four different foods over a continuous two-week time period. Regarding when choices were made, we found bursts of rapidly occurring actions, separated by time-varying inactive periods, partially based on a circadian rhythm. Regarding what was ...


Spatial And Temporal Response Patterns On The Eight-Arm Radial Maze, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

Spatial And Temporal Response Patterns On The Eight-Arm Radial Maze, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

Six maze-experienced hooded rats were timed during five trials on which they collected water from all arms of an eight-arm radial maze, then made five more choices. All subjects frequently exhibited a “task-completion pause:” The subjects rarely spent more than 1 sec in the center of the maze between choices until they had entered all eight arms, then stopped in the center of the maze. In contrast, the time spent in each arm gradually increased until all of the water had been obtained, then decreased slightly. Four subjects began every trial by choosing eight consecutive adjacent arms. The task-completion pause ...


The Relative Attenuation Of Self-Stimulation, Eating And Drinking Produced By Dopamine-Receptor Blockade, E. T. Rolls, B. J. Rolls, P. H. Kelly, S. G. Shaw, R. J. Wood, Robert H.I. Dale Jun 2014

The Relative Attenuation Of Self-Stimulation, Eating And Drinking Produced By Dopamine-Receptor Blockade, E. T. Rolls, B. J. Rolls, P. H. Kelly, S. G. Shaw, R. J. Wood, Robert H.I. Dale

Robert H. I. Dale

Spiroperidol, which blocks dopamine (DA) receptors, attenuated self-stimulation of the nucleus accumbens, septal area, hippocampus, anterior hypothalamus and ventral tegmental area. Dopamine is thus involved in self-stimulation of many sites (in addition to the lateral hypothalamus). The attenuation was not a simple motor impairment of the speed of bar-pressing in that the nucleus accumbens and septal self-stimulation rates were lower than those in treated animals self-stimulating at other sites (Experiment 1). Feeding was partly attenuated, and drinking was much less attenuated by the spiroperidol. Since the rats bar-pressed for brain- stimulation reward, chewed pellets to eat, and licked a tube ...


Does Nicotine Alter What Is Learned About Non-Drug Incentives?, Tarra L. Baker May 2014

Does Nicotine Alter What Is Learned About Non-Drug Incentives?, Tarra L. Baker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs known to man, yet it has limited reinforcing effects in humans and non-human animals when it is not self-administered in tobacco products. One hypothesis for these paradoxical effects of nicotine is that the effects of the drug in the brain alter acquisition of incentive learning. The hypothesis for this study is that nicotine will increase the value of cues paired with a reward. To test this hypothesis, 26 Sprague Dawley Male rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups Pre-NIC (the critical experimental group), Post-NIC and SAL. Each group received a ...


Attention Deficit Associated With Early Life Interictal Spikes In A Rat Model Is Improved With Acth, Amanda E. Hernan, Abigail Alexander, Pierre-Pascal Lenck-Santini, Rod C. Scott Feb 2014

Attention Deficit Associated With Early Life Interictal Spikes In A Rat Model Is Improved With Acth, Amanda E. Hernan, Abigail Alexander, Pierre-Pascal Lenck-Santini, Rod C. Scott

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Children with epilepsy often present with pervasive cognitive and behavioral comorbidities including working memory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder. These non-seizure characteristics are severely detrimental to overall quality of life. Some of these children, particularly those with epilepsies classified as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome or continuous spike and wave during sleep, have infrequent seizure activity but frequent focal epileptiform activity. This frequent epileptiform activity is thought to be detrimental to cognitive development; however, it is also possible that these IIS events initiate pathophysiological pathways in the developing brain that may be independently associated with cognitive deficits. These ...


Observational Pattern Learning In Rats, Tristan J. Bell Knowlton Jan 2014

Observational Pattern Learning In Rats, Tristan J. Bell Knowlton

Undergraduate Honours Theses

Previous research has shown that rats can profit from watching an expert demonstrator preform a simple foraging task. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine whether observing a skilled rat perform a difficult foraging task could influence performance by the observer. The present research also examined whether familiarity with the demonstrator would have an effect on imitation. In this experiment, the testing arena contained 12 towers arranged in a circle with six of them baited. The cues to finding the bait were three different and distinctive wall posters and the pattern of the baited towers. Twelve rats were ...


Assessing Empathy In Rats: The Role Of Shared Experience, Dylan Richmond Jan 2014

Assessing Empathy In Rats: The Role Of Shared Experience, Dylan Richmond

Summer Research

Previous research has searched for empathy in rats (Rattus norvegicus) by placing a trapped rat inside a restricting tube, and giving a donor rat the opportunity to free it (Ben-Ami Bartal et al., 2011; Silberberg et al., 2014). It is unclear if freeing behavior is due to empathetic responses by donors, or if it is motivated by desire for social contact, or some other factor. The current study utilized a novel method to measure empathy in rats. Donors had the opportunity to free trapped rats from a restricting tube into an adjacent chamber. Half the donor rats spent time in ...


Assessing The Generality Of A Bout Analysis In The Description Of Operant Behavior, J. Adam Bennett Aug 2013

Assessing The Generality Of A Bout Analysis In The Description Of Operant Behavior, J. Adam Bennett

Dissertations

Operant psychologists typically use response rate as a primary measure of behavior. Although response rate has proven a useful dependent measure resulting in the identification of many important behavioral regularities, many researchers have argued that the measure has significant limitations. Primarily, response rate treats all responses in the measured response class as functionally equivalent and distributed uniformly across time. This conceptualization of behavior is useful as long as all responses are affected similarly by different experimental manipulations. Research has shown, however, that certain manipulations differentially affect responses with relatively short or long interresponse times. This has led to a new ...


Information Seeking In Rats On The Radial Maze, Chelsea R. Kirk Jul 2013

Information Seeking In Rats On The Radial Maze, Chelsea R. Kirk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Metacognition is awareness of what one does and does not know. Students given a choice between studying material they have learned well and material they have learned poorly prefer to study the less mastered material (Metcalfe, 2009). Recent studies suggest that primates also know about the state of their own knowledge and will seek unknown information to complete a task (Call & Carpenter, 2001; Hampton et al., 2004). Two experimental paradigms can be used to test for the presence of metacognition within a species: uncertainty tasks and information seeking tasks. Uncertainty tasks ask animals to judge their confidence in the information that they ...