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Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber Oct 2019

Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber

Master's Theses

Previous research suggests that the processing of affordances may require more perceptually relevant information than words can provide (Surber et al., 2018; Chainay & Humphreys, 2002). The present study investigates this hypothesis with the shoebox task used in Bowers and Turner (2003). A list of 81 object nouns (targets) and associated features (primes: affordance, semantic, and non-associates) was compiled from the McRae, Cree, Seidenberg, and McNorgan (2005) norms. Affordances denote possibilities for action in relation to the object (e.g. chair – sit), whereas semantic features indicate definitional characteristics (e.g. chair – has legs). Affordances and semantic features served as primes in ...


Understanding The Effect Of Font Type On Reading Comprehension/Memory Under Time-Constraints, Elizabeth Dressler Aug 2019

Understanding The Effect Of Font Type On Reading Comprehension/Memory Under Time-Constraints, Elizabeth Dressler

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

This research study investigated the effects that font type and amount of time had on the reading comprehension. It was predicted that students restricted with time and given difficult-to-read font (Haettenschweiler) would perform more poorly because more cognitive resources are being utilized to decode the typography compared to an easy-to-read font (Times New Roman). Consequently, there would be fewer cognitive resources available to comprehend and remember the material. Previous research has consistently shown that subjects perform better from reading or memorizing words in difficult-to-read font. However, almost all previous research has consisted of short passages, thereby limiting ecological validity. Results ...


The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson Aug 2019

The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. For example, after returning from war, a person might begin to experience fear in response to the sound of fireworks, a stimulus typically regarded as safe. When excessive, “overgeneralization” serves as a core feature of fear and anxiety-related disorders, such as PTSD. The present collection of studies sought to investigate the neural correlates and temporal dynamics of fear generalization in humans.

The first study sought to investigate the causal role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus in the generalization of fear. Contrary ...


Multiple Species Of Distinctiveness In Memory: Separating Task Distinctiveness From Statistical Distinctiveness, Matthew Robert Gretz Jul 2019

Multiple Species Of Distinctiveness In Memory: Separating Task Distinctiveness From Statistical Distinctiveness, Matthew Robert Gretz

Master's Theses

Distinctiveness refers to the memorial benefit of processing unique or item-specific features of a memory set relative to a non-distinctive control. Traditional distinctiveness effects are accounted for based on qualitative differences in how distinctive items are encoded at the time of study. This thesis project aims to evaluate whether a different species of distinctiveness—statistical distinctiveness—may provide a separate contribution to memory beyond traditional encoding-based processes. Statistical distinctiveness refers to the relative frequency with which a specific memory item or set is processed. The current study evaluated statistical distinctiveness through a series of mixed groups in which DRM lists ...


Clustering, Switching & Verbal Fluency Assessment: A Critical Evaluation Of Introspection And Interview-Based Scoring Procedures, Antonio M. Bottos Jun 2019

Clustering, Switching & Verbal Fluency Assessment: A Critical Evaluation Of Introspection And Interview-Based Scoring Procedures, Antonio M. Bottos

Senior Honors Theses

Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) is a neuropsychological assessment that requires respondents to rapidly generate words in specified semantic categories (e.g., different kinds of animals). It provides information on the integrity of examinees’ executive function and semantic memory by looking at clustering of words generated and switching between clusters. According to recent literature, extant methods for scoring clustering and switching based on examiner-identified semantic associations among words should be abandoned in favor of scores derived from asking participants post hoc how they think they generated their words the way they did (Body & Muskett, 2013). Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that leading questions, a demand characteristic inherent in interviewing a participant after administering SVF, lead to more clusters, clustered words, cluster switches (CS) and decreased hard switches (HS) on interview-based scoring procedures across low demand and high demand queries – evidence supporting a threat to internal validity inherent in Body & Muskett’s (2013) claim and methodology. Cueing three semantic categories (e.g., pets, sea creatures, farm animals) before administering SVF was also found to increase mean number of clusters, clustered words, CS and decrease HS compared to un-cued groups – evidence consistent with literature (Abwender, Preston, & Steffenella, 2003; Hurks, 2012) Additionally, HS on SVF traditional scoring ...


Modeling Melodic Dictation, David John Baker Jun 2019

Modeling Melodic Dictation, David John Baker

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Melodic dictation is a cognitively demanding process that requires students to hear a melody, then without any access to an external reference, transcribe the melody within a limited time frame. Despite its ubiquity in curricula within School of Music settings, exactly how an individual learns a melody is not well understood. This dissertation aims to fill the gap in the literature between aural skills practitioners and music psychologists in order to reach conclusions that can be applied systematically in pedagogical contexts. In order to do this, I synthesize literature from music theory, music psychology, and music education in order to ...


Forget Me Not: Are Stronger Memories More Susceptible To Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?, Laura Lee Heisick Jun 2019

Forget Me Not: Are Stronger Memories More Susceptible To Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?, Laura Lee Heisick

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Successfully retrieving information sometimes causes forgetting of related, but unpracticed, information, termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). One explanatory mechanism of RIF suggests related, but currently irrelevant, information is inhibited during retrieval, resulting in poorer memory for competing representations. Critically, this perspective suggests stronger memories are more susceptible to RIF because stronger representations produce additional competition when unpracticed. To resolve this competition, strong competing items are inhibited, resulting in the counterintuitive prediction that stronger memories are more likely to be forgotten. The aim of the current experiments was to replicate and extend recent work suggesting non-typical objects and own-race faces, both of ...


Training To Inhibit Negative Content Affects Memory And Rumination, Shimrit Daches, Nilly Mor, Paula T. Hertel Jun 2019

Training To Inhibit Negative Content Affects Memory And Rumination, Shimrit Daches, Nilly Mor, Paula T. Hertel

Psychology Faculty Research

Depressive rumination, the tendency to engage in repetitive self-focus in response to distress, seems to be affected by a variety of cognitive biases that in turn maintain negative emotional states. The current study examined whether the difficulty in inhibiting attention to negative information contributes to rumination and to rumination-related biases in memory. Seventy-nine ruminators underwent a 3-week computer-based training, designed to increase either inhibition of negative words or attention to them. On immediate post-training trials, as well as on 2-week follow-up tests, we found evidence for transfer of inhibition training. Training effects also occurred on session-by-session and post-training measures of ...


Neurological Correlates Of The Dunning-Kruger Effect, Alana Lauren Muller Jun 2019

Neurological Correlates Of The Dunning-Kruger Effect, Alana Lauren Muller

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The Dunning-Kruger Effect is a metacognitive phenomenon in which individuals who perform poorly on a task believe they performed well, whereas individuals who performed very well believe their performance was only average. To date, this effect has only been investigated in the context of performance on mathematical, logical, or lexical tasks, but has yet to be explored for its generalizability in episodic memory task performance. We used a novel method to elicit the Dunning-Kruger Effect via a memory test of item and source recognition confidence. Participants studied 4 lists of words and were asked to make a simple decision about ...


Behavioral And Neural Correlates Of Misses During Cued Recall, Lindsey Sirianni Jun 2019

Behavioral And Neural Correlates Of Misses During Cued Recall, Lindsey Sirianni

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Recognition memory is thought to rely upon both recollection and familiarity. When people recall an episode from the past it is generally considered to reflect the memory process of recollection. Therefore, if people can successfully recall an item, they should be able to recognize it. However, in cued recall paradigms of memory research, participants sometimes correctly recall a studied target word in the presence of a strong semantic cue but then fail to recognize that word as actually having been studied. This paradox and underlying cognitive processes have been minimally studied by scientists, leaving this phenomenon poorly understood. Extant research ...


Training To Inhibit Negative Content Affects Memory And Rumination, Shimrit Daches, Nilly Mor, Paula T. Hertel May 2019

Training To Inhibit Negative Content Affects Memory And Rumination, Shimrit Daches, Nilly Mor, Paula T. Hertel

Paula T Hertel

Depressive rumination, the tendency to engage in repetitive self-focus in response to distress, seems to be affected by a variety of cognitive biases that in turn maintain negative emotional states. The current study examined whether the difficulty in inhibiting attention to negative information contributes to rumination and to rumination-related biases in memory. Seventy-nine ruminators underwent a 3-week computer-based training, designed to increase either inhibition of negative words or attention to them. On immediate post-training trials, as well as on 2-week follow-up tests, we found evidence for transfer of inhibition training. Training effects also occurred on session-by-session and post-training measures of ...


Fluency & Over The Counter Drug Warning Labels, Jonathan M. Cecire May 2019

Fluency & Over The Counter Drug Warning Labels, Jonathan M. Cecire

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Fluency is defined as the ease with which something is processed (Jacoby & Dallas, 1981; Okuhara, 2017). Recent research has shown that the fluency of a drug’s name can have an effect on people’s perceptions and evaluation judgments (Dohle & Siegrist, 2013, Dohle & Montoya, 2017). Research has also shown that the fluency of information can have an effect on people’s memory and performance (Diemand-Yauman, Oppenheimer, & Vaughan, 2011). The purpose of this study was to see how manipulating the fluency of warning labels could affect people’s perceptions, adherence, memory, and behaviors. Results showed that labels with fluent formats improved purchasing preferences and memory; labels with fluent colors were also shown to improve purchasing preferences. However, neither the fluency of the format nor color affected participant’s judgments of adherence or perceived hazardousness. The results are of particular importance because a product’s label is the key source of safety information for the consumer (Goyal et al., 2012).


The Revelation Effect In Autobiographical Memory, Vincent A. Medina May 2019

The Revelation Effect In Autobiographical Memory, Vincent A. Medina

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The revelation effect is a memory illusion in recognition memory where items are more likely to be considered old if they are immediately preceded by a cognitive task (for a review, see Abfalg, Bernstein, & Hockley, 2017). Recent research has shown that the revelation effect appears in past and future episodic judgments so long as the tasks are autobiographical in nature (Westerman, Miller, & Lloyd, 2017). Aging is a factor that has not yet been studied in the revelation effect literature in terms of autobiographical memory. It has implications because of aging’s significant impact on mental time travel. During this experiment ...


Over Certain Undecidedness These Heartstring Intimations, Martha Hemingway May 2019

Over Certain Undecidedness These Heartstring Intimations, Martha Hemingway

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

over certain undecidedness these heartstring intimations is the culmination of a two-year-long abstracted cycle of textured conversation, internal eye contact, and endless playlist-making. Hemingway’s work is based in process-oriented reflections on habitual behavior, manifestation of sentiment, and sense of self. Her paintings draw inspiration from the ways in which we approach and avoid our internal and external routines – how degrees of our subconscious considerations affect how we extend ourselves to others. Individual auditory preferences of different colliding souls have carved a space for her in a language of empathetic abstraction – attempting to elaborate the curious beauty and pain of ...


Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson May 2019

Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson

Theses and Dissertations

The term “ambient images” has begun to show up in much of the current literature on facial recognition. Ambient images refer to naturally occurring views of a face that captures the idiosyncratic ways in which a target face may vary (Ritchie & Burton, 2017). Much of the literature on ambient images have concluded that exposing people to ambient images of a target face can lead to improved facial recognition for that target face. Some studies have even suggested that familiarity is the result of increased exposure to ambient images of a target face (Burton, Kramer, Ritchie, & Jenkins, 2016). The current study ...


Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine May 2019

Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine

Psychology

The literature shows that words processed according to their survival relevance typically produce a memory advantage. Similarly, words containing an emotional connotation tend to lead to better memory. The current study examined whether combining both the survival processing effect and the emotion processing advantage would cause an interaction that amplified the effects on memory. Using a modified version of the traditional survival processing paradigm, participants rated emotion words (positive, negative, or neutral) on their relevance to a survival context or home-moving control context. They were later given a surprise recall task for the rated words. The results did not show ...


The Effects Of Language In Music On Memory, Cat Terrell Apr 2019

The Effects Of Language In Music On Memory, Cat Terrell

Undergraduate Theses

This thesis focused on the effect of both instrumental and vocal music on performance on cognitive tests designed to test memory in order to gain more insight into whether the presence of language in music affects memory. Four hypotheses were tested concerning the effect of music type, question type, the interaction of the two, and personal experience with music/music training on memory assessment performance. The study found no significant effect of background condition on memory assessment performance, a significant effect of question type on memory assessment performance, no significant effect of the interaction between background condition and question type ...


The Effects Of Cognitive Stimulation Of Instagram On Anxiety, Fear Of Missing Out, Memory, And Self-Esteem, Anna Destino Apr 2019

The Effects Of Cognitive Stimulation Of Instagram On Anxiety, Fear Of Missing Out, Memory, And Self-Esteem, Anna Destino

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

With the increasing use of social media in the daily lives of undergraduate college students, it is important to investigate the effects of social media on psychological well-being and cognitive function. Lillard and Peterson (2011) found that overstimulating children’s televisions shows, such as SpongeBob, negatively impacted children’s impulsive behaviors and attention. The current research focused on emerging adults and considered the effect of overstimulation of social media, specifically Instagram, on anxiety level, self-esteem, fear of missing out (FoMo), and memory. Participants were randomly assigned into either the control (coloring on an Ipad) or experimental (Instagram stimulation) group and ...


An Evaluation Of Police Interviewing Methods: A Psychological Perspective, Cassandra Neal Mar 2019

An Evaluation Of Police Interviewing Methods: A Psychological Perspective, Cassandra Neal

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This paper discusses false confessions and memory’s fallibility and how they can decrease the reliability of an investigative interview. In an effort to remedy this issue, the three most popular interview techniques utilized by police officers during an investigation were examined to decipher which one elicits the most reliable testimony. In order to determine which of the three methods out of the Reid Technique, Cognitive Interview, and PEACE Method is the most reliable, literature on the different techniques was examined to see which method resulted in the most accurate information, free from false statements. As a result of this ...


Semantic Priming Of Familiar Songs, Sarah K. Johnson, Andrea R. Halpern Jan 2019

Semantic Priming Of Familiar Songs, Sarah K. Johnson, Andrea R. Halpern

Andrea Halpern

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck ...


Perception Of Mode, Rhythm, And Contour In Unfamiliar Melodies: Effects Of Age And Experience, Andrea R. Halpern, James C. Bartlett, W. Jay Dowling Jan 2019

Perception Of Mode, Rhythm, And Contour In Unfamiliar Melodies: Effects Of Age And Experience, Andrea R. Halpern, James C. Bartlett, W. Jay Dowling

Andrea Halpern

We explored the ability of older (60-80 years old) and younger (18-23 years old) musicians and nonmusicians to judge the similarity of transposed melodies varying on rhythm, mode, and/or contour (Experiment 1) and to discriminate among melodies differing only in rhythm, mode, or contour (Experiment 2). Similarity ratings did not vary greatly among groups, with tunes differing only by mode being rated as most similar. In the same/different discrimination task, musicians performed better than nonmusicians, but we found no age differences. We also found that discrimination of major from minor tunes was difficult for everyone, even for musicians ...


Mental Concerts: Musical Imagery And Auditory Cortex, Robert J. Zatorre, Andrea R. Halpern Jan 2019

Mental Concerts: Musical Imagery And Auditory Cortex, Robert J. Zatorre, Andrea R. Halpern

Andrea Halpern

Most people intuitively understand what it means to “hear a tune in your head.” Converging evidence now indicates that auditory cortical areas can be recruited even in the absence of sound and that this corresponds to the phenomenological experience of imagining music. We discuss these findings as well as some methodological challenges. We also consider the role of core versus belt areas in musical imagery, the relation between auditory and motor systems during imagery of music performance, and practical implications of this research.


Mental Scanning In Auditory Imagery For Songs, Andrea R. Halpern Jan 2019

Mental Scanning In Auditory Imagery For Songs, Andrea R. Halpern

Andrea Halpern

Four experiments examined how people operate on memory representations of familiar songs. The tasks were similar to those used in studies of visual imagery. In one task, subjects saw a one-word lyric from a song and then saw a second lyric; then they had to say if the second lyric was from the same song as the first. In a second task, subjects mentally compared pitches of notes corresponding to song lyrics. In both tasks, reaction time increased as a function of the distance in beats between the two lyrics in the actual song, and in some conditions reaction time ...


Memory Biases In Left Versus Right Implied Motion, Andrea R. Halpern, Michael H. Kelly Jan 2019

Memory Biases In Left Versus Right Implied Motion, Andrea R. Halpern, Michael H. Kelly

Andrea Halpern

People remember moving objects as having moved farther along in their path of motion than is actually the case; this is known as representational momentum (RM). Some authors have argued that RM is an internalization of environmental properties such as physical momentum and gravity. Five experiments demonstrated that a similar memory bias could not have been learned from the environment. For right-handed Ss, objects apparently moving to the right engendered a larger memory bias in the direction of motion than did those moving to the left. This effect, clearly not derived from real-world lateral asymmetries, was relatively insensitive to changes ...


Dynamic Aspects Of Musical Imagery, Andrea Halpern Jan 2019

Dynamic Aspects Of Musical Imagery, Andrea Halpern

Andrea Halpern

Auditory imagery can represent many aspects of music, such as the starting pitches of a tune or the instrument that typically plays it. In this paper, I concentrate on more dynamic, or time-sensitive aspects of musical imagery, as demonstrated in two recently published studies. The first was a behavioral study that examined the ability to make emotional judgments about both heard and imagined music in real time. The second was a neuroimaging study on the neural correlates of anticipating an upcoming tune, after hearing a cue tune. That study found activation of several sequence-learning brain areas, some of which varied ...


Introduction To The Neurosciences And Music Iv: Learning And Memory, Andrea Halpern Jan 2019

Introduction To The Neurosciences And Music Iv: Learning And Memory, Andrea Halpern

Andrea Halpern

The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory" was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism ...


Audience Reactions To Repeating A Piece On A Concert Programme, Andrea R. Halpern, Chloe H.K. Chan, Daniel Müllensiefen, John Sloboda Jan 2019

Audience Reactions To Repeating A Piece On A Concert Programme, Andrea R. Halpern, Chloe H.K. Chan, Daniel Müllensiefen, John Sloboda

Andrea Halpern

Repetition of a piece on a concert programme is a well-established, but uncommon performance practice. Musicians have presumed that repetition benefits audience enjoyment and understanding but no research has examined this. In two naturalistic and one lab study, we examined audience reaction to repeated live performances of contemporary pieces played by the same ensemble. In all studies, we asked listeners to rate their enjoyment and willingness to hear the piece again (Affective), and perceived understanding and predicted memory of the piece (Cognitive). In Study 3, we assessed immediate recognition memory of each excerpt. In all studies, Cognitive variables increased significantly ...


The Role Of Encoding Specificity In Incidental Learning: Implications For Explicit And Implicit False Memories, Cassady Mclaughlin Jan 2019

The Role Of Encoding Specificity In Incidental Learning: Implications For Explicit And Implicit False Memories, Cassady Mclaughlin

Theses and projects

This research investigated false memories via spreading activation and the influence of encoding specificity on explicit and implicit memory tests in incidental learning situations. It was hypothesized that congruent conditions would have higher rates of both false memories for associated items as well as more accurate memories for presented items. It was also expected that this effect would be larger among those in implicit memory conditions compared to explicit conditions. The participants (n=175) were presented with Deese-Roediger-McDermott semantically associated word lists via a Stroop task, in which they were not told to remember the words presented, but to instead ...


Domestication And Cognitive Complexity, David R. Brodbeck, Madeleine I. R. Brodbeck, Keeghan Rosso Jan 2019

Domestication And Cognitive Complexity, David R. Brodbeck, Madeleine I. R. Brodbeck, Keeghan Rosso

Animal Sentience

Marino and Merskin (2019) list a number of tasks that sheep can perform well. As comparative psychologists, we are not surprised by these results. Indeed, many domesticated animal species show similar abilities.


A Wizard Hat For The Brain: Predicting Long-Term Memory Retention Using Electroencephalography, Noah Libby Jan 2019

A Wizard Hat For The Brain: Predicting Long-Term Memory Retention Using Electroencephalography, Noah Libby

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Learning is a ubiquitous process that transforms novel information and events into stored memory representations that can later be accessed. As a learner acquires new information, any feature of a memory that is shared with other memories may produce some level of retrieval- competition, making accurate recall more difficult. One of the most effective ways to reduce this competition and create distinct representations for potentially confusable memories is to practice retrieving all of the information through self-testing with feedback. As a person tests themself, competition between easily-confusable memories (e.g. memories that share similar visual or semantic features) decreases and ...