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Why Empirical Studies Of The Groupthink Model Have Failed, Nolan Rajakumar Jan 2019

Why Empirical Studies Of The Groupthink Model Have Failed, Nolan Rajakumar

CMC Senior Theses

The theory of groupthink has been highly beneficial in the study of how groups make decisions. It has permeated almost every field containing decision making groups. Despite its popularity, there has been a surprising lack of empirical support for the model. It is the aim of this paper to suggest a possible explanation for the current state of groupthink research. First the groupthink model is described briefly, followed by a look at several selected empirical and case studies of groupthink. A potential reason for the dearth of empirical is then proposed along with a suggestion for future groupthink research.


Initial Development Of A Team Viability Measure, Jessica Nicole Cooperstein Jun 2017

Initial Development Of A Team Viability Measure, Jessica Nicole Cooperstein

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Team effectiveness has been studied greatly in organizational research, and many factors have been identified that contribute to team success. However, given that numerous work teams today are long-term, ongoing entities, performance alone may not be the most appropriate measure. Many teams need to be highly adaptive to meet environmental demands (Tannenbaum, Mathieu, Salas, & Cohen, 2012). These teams go through several performance episodes, often managing several tasks simultaneously (Marks, Mathieu, & Zaccaro, 2001). Team viability as a construct may be useful in determining how well a team will perform on subsequent tasks. Viability assesses the team’s potential for future success ...


The Influence Of Team Prosocial Motivation On Emergent States And Shared Leadership, Tyree David Mitchell Jun 2016

The Influence Of Team Prosocial Motivation On Emergent States And Shared Leadership, Tyree David Mitchell

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Despite the growing body of research on shared leadership, relatively little is known about the antecedents of shared leadership. The following study examined the effects of team prosocial motivation on team emergent states (i.e., team empowerment, psychological safety) and shared leadership. Drawing on motivational theories (e.g., self-determination theory), it was hypothesized that team empowerment and psychological safety would mediate the relationship between team prosocial motivation and shared leadership. Also, in line with the social identity and self-categorization perspectives, it was hypothesized that team surface-level diversity (racial diversity, gender diversity, faultline strength) would moderate the effects of team prosocial ...


Group-Level Differences Of Moral Foundations, Jeremy Winget Jan 2016

Group-Level Differences Of Moral Foundations, Jeremy Winget

Master's Theses

Previous research has started to map the moral domain for individual actors. In particular, Haidt and colleagues (Haidt, 2007, 2008; Haidt & Graham, 2007; Haidt & Joseph, 2004) have extended the moral domain beyond the traditional notions of justice and rights concerns. From this line of research, moral foundations theory emerged, which holds moral intuitions derive from innate psychological mechanisms that co-evolved with cultural institutions and practices. However, to date, there has not been a systematic demonstration of how these moral foundations operate within intergroup settings. Janoff-Bulman and Carnes (2013) have proposed a comprehensive model of the moral landscape that includes a group component; however, this model has received some criticism (e.g., Graham, 2013). The current study examined how moral foundations operate from a group perspective. Moreover, potential outgroup moderators of moral foundations were examined. Participants were placed into one of two conditions in which they rated the extent to which various concerns were relevant when making moral judgments about their ingroup and various outgroups. Two sets of three different outgroups conforming to the various quadrants of the stereotype content model ...


Performance Of Individuals And Teams On Cryptographic Tasks: Factors That Affect The Consideration Of Alternative Strategies, Joseph Bihary Jan 2016

Performance Of Individuals And Teams On Cryptographic Tasks: Factors That Affect The Consideration Of Alternative Strategies, Joseph Bihary

Dissertations

The two studies presented here examined factors that might affect teams’ and individuals’ tendency to follow outside advice when attempting to solve a complex problem known as letters-to-numbers. Past research on group dynamics suggests that a lack of group consensus or homogeneity reduces group members’ confidence in their group’s abilities, and may lead members both to seek and accept advice from outside the group. Study 1 experimentally manipulated group diversity in task performance strategies in order to investigate whether dyads whose members have divergent perspectives are more likely than homogeneous dyads to consider and use a problem-solving strategy presented ...


International Student Support Groups: Understanding Experiences Of Group Members And Leaders, Nathaniel W. Page Jun 2015

International Student Support Groups: Understanding Experiences Of Group Members And Leaders, Nathaniel W. Page

Theses and Dissertations

A multi-site qualitative study explored the group experiences of 6 group leaders and 10 group members who participated in 7 different university counseling center international student support groups. Data collection and analysis phases followed the process of hermeneutic interpretation articulated by Kvale and Brinkmann (2009), which resulted in nine major themes and ten sub-themes organized into four sections: (a) Recruitment and group design, (b) Experiences of group members, (c) Experiences of group leaders, and (d) Additional considerations. Implications for international student support groups are discussed.


The Influence Of Perceived Similarity, Affect And Trust On The Performance Of Student Learning Groups, Jennifer Louise Lacewell Jan 2015

The Influence Of Perceived Similarity, Affect And Trust On The Performance Of Student Learning Groups, Jennifer Louise Lacewell

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

This study examined trust as one of the ways to improve satisfaction and performance in face-to-face student learning groups. A model was developed where trust mediates the relationship between perceived similarity, affect, and individual outcomes of satisfaction and performance (grades). Perceived similarity is positively related to trust, meaning that when students perceive themselves as similar to their group members they will be more likely to trust those group members. Negative affect was also negatively related to trust, but only in the beginning of the semester the group project/discussion. Positive affect was not related to trust. This suggests negative affect ...


Personality And Group Performance: The Importance Of Personality Composition And Work Tasks, Amit Kramer, Devasheesh P. Bhave, Tiffany D. Johnson Feb 2014

Personality And Group Performance: The Importance Of Personality Composition And Work Tasks, Amit Kramer, Devasheesh P. Bhave, Tiffany D. Johnson

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We examine whether group members’ Big Five personality composition (variability, minimum, and maximum) affects the group’s performance. We employed an experimental design where participants were paid based on their performance in two different group-based experimental tasks: an additive task (where group performance is based on the sum of efforts of all group members) and a conjunctive task (where group performance is based on the performance of the weakest group member). Results indicate that variability in extraversion is positively related to group performance on the additive task but not on the conjunctive task. Conversely, neuroticism maximum score is negatively related ...


How Do Teams Become Cohesive? A Meta-Analysis Of Cohesion's Antecedents, Rebecca Grossman Jan 2014

How Do Teams Become Cohesive? A Meta-Analysis Of Cohesion's Antecedents, Rebecca Grossman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While a wealth of research has deemed cohesion critical for team effectiveness (e.g., Mullen and Copper, 1994; Beal, et al., 2003), less emphasis has been placed on understanding how to get it. Multiple studies do examine cohesion antecedents, but these studies have not yet been integrated in either theoretical or empirical manners. The purpose of this study was thus to begin addressing this gap in the literature. I conducted a series of meta-analyses to identify and explore various antecedents of cohesion, as well as moderators of antecedent-cohesion relationships. Findings revealed a variety of cohesion antecedents. Specifically, team behaviors, emergent ...


Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth Sep 2013

Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth

Donelson R. Forsyth

To understand leaders and leadership, one must understand groups and their dynamics. This chapter describes group-centered leadership, leading change in groups, leaders in groups, decision-making and leadership and social influence and leadership.


The Effects Of Group Essence Survival On Group Morale, Mark R. Wojda Jan 2012

The Effects Of Group Essence Survival On Group Morale, Mark R. Wojda

ETD Archive

Morale has been defined as, "the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose" (Leighton, 1949, p. 78). What is missing in our understanding of morale is knowing precisely what generates, increases, and decreases morale. One purpose of the current project is to explore these aspects of morale. Specifically, one factor that may boost or drive morale is the survival of the group's identity, or common purpose. The "essence" of a group includes their values, ideals, and identity that may live on even after current members of the group ...


A Social Relations Analysis Of Transactive Memory In Groups, Sarah J. Ross Jun 2011

A Social Relations Analysis Of Transactive Memory In Groups, Sarah J. Ross

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transactive memory is the knowledge of what others in a group know and the exchange of that knowledge. In groups with effective transactive memory systems, members know “who knows what”, send knowledge to the appropriate individuals, and develop strategies for retrieving that information (Mohammed & Dumville, 2001; Wegner, 1995). Transactive memory studies tend to focus on the group as a whole, but useful information might be gathered by investigating transactive memory in dyads within groups. The purpose of this research was to use the social relations model (Kenny & LaVoie, 1984) as the basis for operationalizing transactive memory and to examine this new operationalization of transactive memory as it related to group performance. In social relations model terms, an effective transactive memory system was operationalized as consensus about expertise and knowledge seeking. Data were collected from two samples of student engineering project groups (n = 55 groups and n = 77 groups) and a sample of organizational engineering project groups (n = 7 groups). Groups whose members had spent significant time working together were hypothesized to have effective transactive memory systems and to exhibit significant consensus. Groups whose members had spent relatively less time with one another were hypothesized to have poorer transactive memory systems and to make use of unique relations in the group and assimilation as the basis for identifying expertise. The hypotheses were partially supported. In groups whose members spent relatively more time together, there was some agreement about who was expert and from whom to seek knowledge; however, knowledge exchange tended to be mostly based on seeking knowledge from no one or ...


Group Processes And The Chilean Mine Disaster, Donelson R. Forsyth Jun 2011

Group Processes And The Chilean Mine Disaster, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

We are used to hearing about groups and problems they can cause, but the rescue of the Chilean miners is a story of everyday individuals who, by banding together, can do great good.


Group Dynamics, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2011

Group Dynamics, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Engagement-elevating activities used in a course such as group dynamics fall into two broad categories: topic-focused short-term activities and problem-focused, longer-term projects. Topic-focused activities are, in most cases, deliberate applications of a concept or process in a group-based experience and are typically tied to the content of the course in a direct way. For example, when students study group decision-making they may meet in small groups to make a series of decisions. Afterwards, they examine their group’s decisions, and gauge for themselves the extent to which their group reacted as theory and research would suggest. Problem-focused projects, in contrast ...


Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2010

Groups And Teams, Crystal L. Hoyt, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

To understand leaders and leadership, one must understand groups and their dynamics. This chapter describes group-centered leadership, leading change in groups, leaders in groups, decision-making and leadership and social influence and leadership.


Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette Jan 2010

Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Social behavior is often group behavior. People are in many respects individuals seeking their personal, private objectives, yet they are also members of social collectives that bind members to one another. The tendency to join with others is perhaps the most important single characteristic of humans. The processes that take place within these groups influence, in fundamental ways, their members and society-at-large. Just as the dynamic processes that occur in groups--such as the exchange of information among members, leading and following, pressures put on members to adhere to the group's standards, shifts in friendship alliances, and conflict and collaboration-change ...


What Do People Desire In Others? A Sociofunctional Perspective On The Importance Of Different Valued Characteristics, Catherine A. Cottrell, Steven L. Neuberg, Norman P. Li Feb 2007

What Do People Desire In Others? A Sociofunctional Perspective On The Importance Of Different Valued Characteristics, Catherine A. Cottrell, Steven L. Neuberg, Norman P. Li

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Humans, as discriminately social creatures, make frequent judgments about others' suitability for interdependent social relations. Which characteristics of others guide these judgments and, thus, shape patterns of human affiliation? Extant research is only minimally useful for answering this question. On the basis of a sociofunctional analysis of human sociality, the authors hypothesized that people highly value trustworthiness and (to a lesser extent) cooperativeness in others with whom they may be interdependent, regardless of the specific tasks, goals, or functions of the group or relationship, but value other favorable characteristics (e.g., intelligence) differentially across such tasks, goals, or functions. Participants ...


Effective Group Meetings And Decision Making, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2006

Effective Group Meetings And Decision Making, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Single individuals do much to advance the cause of peace, but much of the work - the decisions, advocacy, planning, and organizing - is handled by groups. In groups we pool our knowledge and abilities, give each other feedback, and tackle problems too overwhelming to face alone. Group members give us emotional and social support and can stimulate us to become more creative, insightful, and committed to our goals. When we work with others who share our values and goals, we often come to understand ourselves, and our objectives, more clearly.

Not every group, however, realizes these positive consequences. Often we dread ...


Social Comparison And Influence In Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2000

Social Comparison And Influence In Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

This chapter is a reminder of social comparison theory's foundations in group processes rather than an extension of social comparison to groups. Social comparison research and theory, by tradition, stress individualistic, psychological purposes of comparison, such as satisfying basic drives, defining and enhancing the self, and alleviating distress or anxiety; but Festinger (1954) used the theory to explain shifts in members' opinions, elevated motivation and competition among members, opinion debates, and the rejection of dissenters in groups (Allen & Wilder, 1977; Goethals & Darley, 1987; Singer, 1981; Turner, 1991; Wheeler, 1991). This chapter revisits the theory's roots in groups before sampling some of the ...


Canada's "Respect Project" Poses Some Questions About Groups Apr 1999

Canada's "Respect Project" Poses Some Questions About Groups

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The article discusses Canada's online Respect Project is mainly concerned with ethical, logical, epistemological, social, and cultural topics. It aims at the integral respect of cultures and persons.


The Functions Of Groups: A Psychometric Analysis Of The Group Resources Inventory, Donelson R. Forsyth, Timothy R. Elliott, Josephine A. Welsh Jan 1999

The Functions Of Groups: A Psychometric Analysis Of The Group Resources Inventory, Donelson R. Forsyth, Timothy R. Elliott, Josephine A. Welsh

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

What do groups do for their members? A functional model that assumes groups satisfy a number of basic survival, psychological, informational, interpersonal, and collective needs is offered. The authors examined the comprehensiveness of the model by asking members of various types of naturally occurring groups to describe the benefits they gained through membership. Analysis of those descriptions identified 16 key interpersonal functions of groups (such as social comparison, social exchange, social control, social esteem, social identity, and social learning), and individuals' evaluations of the quality of their group were systematically related to their ratings of the group's functionality. The ...


Reference Group, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 1995

Reference Group, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Any group, including general social groupings based on demographic similarities (e.g., race or culture), that individuals use as a basis for social comparison.


Foundations And Applications Of Group Psychotherapy: A Sphere Of Influence (Book Review), Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 1993

Foundations And Applications Of Group Psychotherapy: A Sphere Of Influence (Book Review), Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Using groups to help people achieve personal goals and therapeutic change is an old idea. Indeed, Ettin (1992), in his book Foundations and Applications of Group Psychotherapy: A Sphere of Influence, suggests that Socrates was perhaps the first group psychotherapist. After all, he regularly convened small groups of scholars who sought intellectual, ethical, and interpersonal insights. Even the sage Socrates, however, could not have anticipated the widespread use of groups that exists today. When individuals experience problems in adjustment, in behavior, or in health, they often rely on groups to solve these problems.


The Pecking Order, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 1990

The Pecking Order, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

How can you increase your status? A clearly defined role and a central position in the group's communication network are essential. Good verbal skills and positive body language can help you make the right impression.


Assertion Training Groups: Therapist-Directed And Self-Directed Goal Orientation Methods, Lawrence George Jarvis May 1980

Assertion Training Groups: Therapist-Directed And Self-Directed Goal Orientation Methods, Lawrence George Jarvis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of two methods of goal specification in Assertion Training groups as assessed by two self-report measures, the Goal Attainment Scaling process and the Assertion Inventory. An Assertion Training group method having specific behavioral steps for approaching individualized goals was represented as the Therapist-Directed Assertion Training group. The second Assertion Training group was a Self-Directed group that allowed subjects to independently set and approach their own goals without the assistance of therapists in setting goals. Subjects were selected from among individuals who volunteered for the Assertion Training group in response to solicitation ...


Expressed Group Member Satisfaction And Measured Group Difference Between Trained And Untrained Group Members, Dennis Randall Kilstrom May 1972

Expressed Group Member Satisfaction And Measured Group Difference Between Trained And Untrained Group Members, Dennis Randall Kilstrom

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In college programs utilizing the quarter system there arise problems in the development of encounter groups due to a limited amount of time available. A short training program in evaluating group processes might be one way to facilitate group development. In order to test one such program two hypotheses were generated. Hypotheses I was tested for a significant difference between a Treatment Group, receiving training, and a Control Group, receiving no training, in expressed member satisfaction. Hypothesis II was tested for a significant difference in the therapeutic value of rated interaction between the Treatment and Control Group. Expressed member satisfaction ...