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Orca Behavior And Subsequent Aggression Associated With Oceanarium Confinement, Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight Jul 2019

Orca Behavior And Subsequent Aggression Associated With Oceanarium Confinement, Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, Ph.D.

Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego’s SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional ...


Cognitive Intra-Individual Variability: The Effects Of Affect In A Healthy Young Adult Sample, Tovah M.D. Cowan Jun 2019

Cognitive Intra-Individual Variability: The Effects Of Affect In A Healthy Young Adult Sample, Tovah M.D. Cowan

LSU Master's Theses

Cognition is foundational to our experience of the world, but also to how psychologists understand dysfunctions. Cognitive impairment is a feature of a variety of mental disorders, but traditional assessment measures have key limitations in prediction and classification. A proposed alternative is cognitive intraindividual variability (cIIV), which is suggested to measure cognitive control or neural inefficiencies, fluctuating within a task, or over short periods of time. cIIV has been shown to be more sensitive in classification for a variety of conditions than overall performance, including in affective disorders. Further, some research suggests that cIIV is related to self-report cognitive abilities ...


The Effects Of Working Memory Capacity And Trait Anxiety On Visual Short-Term Memory Performance, Celene Gonzalez Jun 2019

The Effects Of Working Memory Capacity And Trait Anxiety On Visual Short-Term Memory Performance, Celene Gonzalez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Anxiety is of importance within the field of cognition because it is often associated with adverse effects on attention, information processing, learning and memory (Eysenck, 1992, 2007). In existing literature, it has been reported that trait anxiety hinders cognitive performance (i.e., working memory capacity WMC). However, the relationship between trait anxiety and cognitive performance might be moderated by working memory capacity (WMC). For example, Owens (2014) reported that trait anxiety was negatively correlated with cognitive performance in the low WMC group and positively correlated to cognitive performance in the high WMC group. Although, past research on the working memory ...


Cognitive Functioning, Depression, And Strengths As Predictors Of Quality Of Life In Multiple Sclerosis, Tara Annthea Crouch Jun 2019

Cognitive Functioning, Depression, And Strengths As Predictors Of Quality Of Life In Multiple Sclerosis, Tara Annthea Crouch

Clinical Psychology Dissertations

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at significant risk for decreased quality of life, partly due to associated cognitive impairment (Højsgaard Chow et al., 2018). A discrepancy often exists between objective and perceived measures of cognitive impairment (Middleton et al., 2006); the paths through which they predict quality of life for MS patients remain unclear (Baumstarck-Barrau, et al., 2011). Objective cognitive functioning as well as one’s perceptions of it may differentially impact quality of life, and therefore may or may not act through the same mechanisms to impact quality of life. Depression is one possible mediator known to impact ...


Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine May 2019

Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine

Psychology

The literature shows that words processed according to their survival relevance typically produce a memory advantage. Similarly, words containing an emotional connotation tend to lead to better memory. The current study examined whether combining both the survival processing effect and the emotion processing advantage would cause an interaction that amplified the effects on memory. Using a modified version of the traditional survival processing paradigm, participants rated emotion words (positive, negative, or neutral) on their relevance to a survival context or home-moving control context. They were later given a surprise recall task for the rated words. The results did not show ...


Executive Function And Motor Skills In Preschool Children, Meggin Kelley Apr 2019

Executive Function And Motor Skills In Preschool Children, Meggin Kelley

Distinction Papers

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a short-term motor program on the executive function and motor skills in preschool children utilizing a Pretest and Post test design. The present study was designed with two periods of program intervention- once in the fall and once in the spring. It was hypothesized that a 10-week motor intervention would demonstrate positive motor and executive function gains in the experimental (motor) group. Children ranging from 4 to 6 years of age participated in this study. Baseline motor and executive function scores were obtained during the Pretest phase. Subsequently ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott Apr 2019

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


Pre-Test Processing Differences Of Test-Anxious Students, Michelle Garcia Apr 2019

Pre-Test Processing Differences Of Test-Anxious Students, Michelle Garcia

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in persons with test anxiety (TA) compared to those without test anxiety to examine pre-test processing differences, specifically in terms of test preparation and study methods. This research is important to many individuals, as testing is a large part of education, and performance may affect a person's future opportunities. Further understanding of pre-testing differences in study methods of test-anxious students may lead to possible interventions to improve performance of those who experience TA. The research will collect data from 30 participants who will be administered the Cognitive Test Anxiety ...


Differences In Stimulus-Response Prediction And Reorientation Of Attention Relative To Student Athletic Background, Madelyn Quirk, Jessica Green Apr 2019

Differences In Stimulus-Response Prediction And Reorientation Of Attention Relative To Student Athletic Background, Madelyn Quirk, Jessica Green

Senior Theses

Within the game of baseball, every hit, pitch, and catch, rely on a player’s ability to respond quickly and appropriately to the resulting play in a manner that allows them to be an asset on the field. The most successful athletes are those best able to allocate their attention to accomplish these goal-oriented tasks. To explore this attentional orientation, occipital neural recordings of alpha waves often show a preemptive shift in phase alignment according to temporal anticipations. Here we aimed to identify influences on voluntary attention using cueing paradigms to examine stimulus-response timing relative to validity and athletic background ...


Manipulating Belief Bias Across The Lifespan, William D. Carney Jan 2019

Manipulating Belief Bias Across The Lifespan, William D. Carney

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In today’s political climate, when basic facts and reasoning are seemingly up for debate, it is increasingly important to be able to identify well-reasoned arguments, regardless of one’s political leanings, and to retain this skill throughout the lifespan. Research has shown, however, a persistent belief bias—a tendency to judge an argument’s validity based on its conclusion’s agreement with one’s beliefs, rather than its logical quality. Other findings suggest that belief bias can be reduced by instruction to avoid belief bias. The current project seeks to explore whether older adults, believed to be more prone ...


Phonetic Convergence And Auditory Imagery In Reading, Josue E. Rodriguez Jan 2019

Phonetic Convergence And Auditory Imagery In Reading, Josue E. Rodriguez

Theses and projects

This study aimed to address whether phonetic convergence (speech imitation) and auditory imagery in reading are fundamentally governed by the same process — episodic encoding (c.f., Goldinger, 1998). A set of participants (talkers; N = 12) were recorded speaking sentences at a baseline level. Talkers were then exposed model speaker with either a fast or slow speech rate and then engaged in a reading phase where they read sentences thought to be written by that speaker. If episodic encoding predicts effects of phonetic convergence and auditory imagery in reading style, then talkers should be influenced by a speaker on three dimensions ...


Elucidating The Cognitive Processes Involved In The Note-Taking Effect, Lakshmi Arjan Lalchandani Jan 2019

Elucidating The Cognitive Processes Involved In The Note-Taking Effect, Lakshmi Arjan Lalchandani

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The fact that research on note taking extends as far back as the early 1900’s is unsurprising as it is a practice that is ubiquitous throughout our lives. Note taking helps us to retain information even when there is no opportunity to review the notes. This phenomenon is known as the encoding effect or the note-taking effect. Much of the research investigating the note-taking effect focuses on the impact of note-taking media or note-taking strategy on the size of the effect. However, there is no consensus on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the note-taking effect. When discussed, there are three ...


Octopi-Ing A Unique Niche In Comparative Psychology, Jennifer Vonk Jan 2019

Octopi-Ing A Unique Niche In Comparative Psychology, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience

Mather’s work has been fundamental in informing scientists of the relatively mysterious behavior and cognition of an understudied group of animals – the cephalopods. This work helps to fill a gap in the comparative literature that has historically sought evidence for complex behavior only in species that are closely related to humans or share important ecological features such as social complexity.


Pulling The Wool From Our Eyes, Jennifer Vonk Jan 2019

Pulling The Wool From Our Eyes, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience

Marino & Merskin review evidence of the complexity of sheep cognition, concluding that researchers ought to feel sheepish about misrepresenting ovine cognitive capacities. However, the failure to situate the data in critical context risks pulling the wool over readers’ eyes.


Is Knowing Enough To Change Human Attitudes And Actions?, Liv Baker Jan 2019

Is Knowing Enough To Change Human Attitudes And Actions?, Liv Baker

Animal Sentience

Marino & Merskin present evidence on key aspects of cognition, such as theory of mind, learning, emotional valence, and sociality, to make a convincing argument that sheep are due consideration as individual sentient beings. With this information, what will it take to produce a real, meaningful shift in our attitudes and actions towards other animals, including a species as disadvantaged as sheep? What else do we need to know?


Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin Jan 2019

Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin

Animal Sentience

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are among the earliest animals domesticated for human use. They are consumed worldwide as mutton, hogget, and lamb, kept as wool and milk producers, and used extensively in scientific research. The popular stereotype is that sheep are docile, passive, unintelligent, and timid, but a review of the research on their behavior, affect, cognition, and personality reveals that they are complex, individualistic, and social.


Domestication And Cognitive Complexity, David R. Brodbeck, Madeleine I. R. Brodbeck, Keeghan Rosso Jan 2019

Domestication And Cognitive Complexity, David R. Brodbeck, Madeleine I. R. Brodbeck, Keeghan Rosso

Animal Sentience

Marino and Merskin (2019) list a number of tasks that sheep can perform well. As comparative psychologists, we are not surprised by these results. Indeed, many domesticated animal species show similar abilities.


Moral Relevance Of Cognitive Complexity, Empathy And Species Differences In Suffering, John Lazarus Jan 2019

Moral Relevance Of Cognitive Complexity, Empathy And Species Differences In Suffering, John Lazarus

Animal Sentience

I qualify two criticisms made by commentators on Chapman & Huffman’s target article. Responding to the view that differences between humans and other animals are irrelevant to deciding how we should treat other species, I point out that differences between any species in their capacity to suffer are morally relevant. And in response to the claim that suffering is the sole criterion for the moral treatment of animals, I argue that cognitive complexity and a capacity for empathy also have moral relevance to the extent that they influence suffering.


More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers Jan 2019

More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman have highlighted observations of animals performing, in nature, complex behaviour once thought to be unique to humans. Just as relevant to their argument are examples of cognition shown by domesticated species tested in controlled conditions. These strengthen the case for human/nonhuman similarities in behaviour and cognition. Recent research has brought to our attention the ability of nonhuman species to perform many tasks previously considered to be the hallmark of humans. Even though different species may use different ways of solving these tasks, the very fact that they can do it undermines the notion of human superiority.


Sheeple? The Need For More Research On Sheep Cognition, Michael Colombo, Damian Scarf Jan 2019

Sheeple? The Need For More Research On Sheep Cognition, Michael Colombo, Damian Scarf

Animal Sentience

Marino & Merskin (2019) provide a comprehensive review of the cognitive abilities of sheep. If research with other animals is any guide, there may be justification for the view that the abilities of sheep have been underestimated, and their review will likely stimulate more research into sheep cognition.


What Should We Do About Sheep? The Role Of Intelligence In Welfare Considerations, Heather Browning Jan 2019

What Should We Do About Sheep? The Role Of Intelligence In Welfare Considerations, Heather Browning

Animal Sentience

Marino & Merskin (2019) demonstrate that sheep are more cognitively complex than typically thought. We should be cautious in interpreting the implications of these results for welfare considerations to avoid perpetuating mistaken beliefs about the moral value of intelligence as opposed to sentience. There are, however, still important ways in which this work can help improve sheeps’ lives.


How Instruction, Math Anxiety, And Math Achievement Affect Learning A Novel Math Task: Evidence For Better Instruction, Amy Jane Mcauley Dec 2018

How Instruction, Math Anxiety, And Math Achievement Affect Learning A Novel Math Task: Evidence For Better Instruction, Amy Jane Mcauley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The primary goal of this paper is to test how math anxiety, achievement, and instruction affect learning a novel math task. Currently, most research measures achievement and math anxiety on previously learned tasks. A two-part study was proposed to measure the effects of math anxiety on learning modular arithmetic (MA), a novel math task that involves subtraction and division. Participants of varying degrees of anxiety and achievement were randomly assigned to either a specific or vague instruction condition. Participants were either taught how to solve the task or given minimal information about how to solve the task. Before moving on ...


Circumventing Spatio-Numeric Biases Through Non-Numeric Assessments Of Perceived Causal Strength, Daniel William Czarnowski Dec 2018

Circumventing Spatio-Numeric Biases Through Non-Numeric Assessments Of Perceived Causal Strength, Daniel William Czarnowski

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Knowledge of cause and effect allows individuals to meaningfully interpret the events they perceive in the world, and the understanding of causality is thought to be grounded in the understanding of forces (Wolf, Ritter, & Holmes, 2014). Previous research has linked handedness with both the ability to exert force (e.g., Linkenauger et al., 2005) and causal learning (e.g., Goedert & Czarnowski, 2017). Historically, number lines have been used to assess causality, but because handedness has a strong spatial element, SNARC effects may influence judgments (Fias, 1996). The current experiment replicates previous work by Goedert and Czarnowski (2017) but changes the ...


Validation Of The Barkley Deficits Of Executive Functioning Scale-Short Form, Brian Sheble Oct 2018

Validation Of The Barkley Deficits Of Executive Functioning Scale-Short Form, Brian Sheble

Dissertations

The Barkley Deficits of Executive Functioning-Short Form (BDEFS-SF) is a short rating scale measuring executive functioning in adults. The BDEFS-SF was developed using the 5 highest loading questions from the BDEFS-LF. Consequently, the psychometric qualities of the BDEFS-SF were not investigated using formal methods. In this study, the psychometric attributes of the BDEFS-SF were examined using two separate but similar groups. The first group of 264 men and women aged 18-35 years old completed the BDEFS-SF via an internet survey. The second group of 36 men and women aged 18-35 years old completed the BDEFS-SF and individualized assessments of executive ...


Detecting Cognitive, Functional And Behavioral Response To Donepezil In Alzheimer’S Disease: The Role Of Attention Tasks, Clara Vila-Castelar Sep 2018

Detecting Cognitive, Functional And Behavioral Response To Donepezil In Alzheimer’S Disease: The Role Of Attention Tasks, Clara Vila-Castelar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Introduction: Cholinesterase Inhibitors (ChEIs) used in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) have modest effects, heterogeneous treatment response, and it has been difficult to detect treatment response. The standard research and clinical outcome measure, the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) aggregates multiple cognitive domains, and has limited sensitivity. We propose that because acetylcholine is directly linked to the cognitive domain of attention, and ChEIs increase available acetylcholine, measures of attention under high-load conditions could predict long-term cognitive, functional and behavioral response, and thus, unlike global measures, could be sensitive to treatment efficacy.

Method: We conducted a longitudinal, open label donepezil ...


What Are The Overall Benefits Of Dance Improvisation, And How Do They Affect Cognition And Creativity?, Carley Wright Jul 2018

What Are The Overall Benefits Of Dance Improvisation, And How Do They Affect Cognition And Creativity?, Carley Wright

Honors College Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to define the terms improvisation, cognition, and creativity, and therefore find the direct correlation between all three, and how they can all be involved within dance. The main intention is to determine whether or not improvisational dance can positively influence one’s creative mindset, thus improving the cognitive learning process. Furthermore, it is to discover if the development of a creative mindset can be established through dance improvisation at an early age. In this exploration, the majority of my research will come from the examination of previously conducted experiments, as well as guiding and ...


Dual Route Model Of Idiom Processing In The Bilingual Context, Tianshu Zhu Jun 2018

Dual Route Model Of Idiom Processing In The Bilingual Context, Tianshu Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The dual route model predicts that idiomatic phrases show a processing advantage over matched novel phrases. This model postulates that familiar phrases are processed by a faster direct route, and novel phrases are processed by an indirect route. This thesis investigated the role of familiar form and concept in direct route activation. Study 1 provided norming evidence for experimental stimuli selection. Study 2 examined whether direct route can be activated for translated Chinese idioms in Chinese-English bilinguals. Bilinguals listened to the idiom up until the last word (e.g., draw a snake and add), then saw either the idiom ending ...


The Immediate And Long-Lasting Cognitive Consequences Of Adolescent Chronic Sleep Restriction, Kerry Howard May 2018

The Immediate And Long-Lasting Cognitive Consequences Of Adolescent Chronic Sleep Restriction, Kerry Howard

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Adolescence is a critical developmental period. An important change that occurs in adolescence is the neurological maturation for adult-type cognitive abilities. Research has linked adequate sleep quantity to successful learning and memory capabilities. However, due to a shift in sleep timing drive in adolescence, in combination with early awakening for school, the adolescent population is experiencing chronic sleep restriction (CSR). What repercussions to long-term memory capabilities could CSR in adolescence have immediately and are the consequences long-lasting? The present study modeled human adolescent CSR in rats through four hours of sleep deprivation for five days, followed by two days of ...


Examining The Influence Of Executive Resources And Mathematical Abilities On Framing Biases, Gabriel Allred May 2018

Examining The Influence Of Executive Resources And Mathematical Abilities On Framing Biases, Gabriel Allred

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The finding that the presentation of a choice (i.e., either as a loss or a gain) can affect and bias our willingness to engage in risk is one of the paramount findings of behavioral economics. First discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1981), the framing effect demonstrates that when given two choices framed as a loss, we tend to become risk seeking. However, when the exact same outcome is presented as a gain, we become risk averse, choosing the more conservative option, regardless of the actual expected value. The effect is not limited to general research samples but has been ...


The Effect Of Facial Familiarity On Change Detection Ability In A 'Flicker Task', Michael Cataluna, Brooke Robinson May 2018

The Effect Of Facial Familiarity On Change Detection Ability In A 'Flicker Task', Michael Cataluna, Brooke Robinson

Student Showcase

Evidence from a previously conducted study regarding change blindness appears to show that changes are more accurately detected in gradually changed images if those image contain a famous face as opposed to ones with a novel face. The current study seeks to expand upon this finding using a ‘flicker change detection task’ and recording the accuracy and reaction times of subjects in detecting changes in faces or the colors of objects while either a famous or novel face is present. It is expected that detection of both faces and object colors will show a shorter reaction time when a famous ...