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Memory Bias Toward Emotional Information In Burnout And Depression, Renzo Bianchi, Eric Laurent, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Lucas M. Bietti, Eric Mayor Sep 2020

Memory Bias Toward Emotional Information In Burnout And Depression, Renzo Bianchi, Eric Laurent, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Lucas M. Bietti, Eric Mayor

Publications and Research

A sample of 1015 educational staff members, exhibiting various levels of burnout and depressive symptoms, underwent a memory test involving incident encoding of positive and negative words and a free recall task. Burnout and depression were each found to be associated with increased recall of negative items and decreased recall of positive items. Results remained statistically significant when controlling for history of depressive disorders. Burnout and depression were not related to mistakes in the reported words, or to the overall number of recalled words. This study suggests that burnout and depression overlap in terms of memory biases toward emotional information.


Depression, Music Choice, And Affective Outcomes In Daily Life, Sunkyung Yoon Jun 2020

Depression, Music Choice, And Affective Outcomes In Daily Life, Sunkyung Yoon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Persons with depression consistently report a preference for sad music. Are such preferences maladaptive or beneficial? We tested this question in a 3-part study that examined 77 participants’ (39 with and 38 without clinical depression) music choice in daily life, affective outcomes, and the reasons for music choice. During a 3-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA), participants chose a song from a pre-set music library of happy and sad songs and rated their affect before and after hearing the chosen song. In addition, we analyzed the characteristics (e.g., tempo) of participants’ free song choices over 7 days (from participants’ Spotfiy ...


The Biological, Psychological, Cognitive, And Social Perspectives On Aging: The Design Of A Healthy Aging Program For Older Adults, Melissa Santiago Jun 2020

The Biological, Psychological, Cognitive, And Social Perspectives On Aging: The Design Of A Healthy Aging Program For Older Adults, Melissa Santiago

Dissertations

Aging is an inevitable process, accompanied by changes in physiological, cognitive, psychological, and social facets. Researchers have investigated the physiological, cognitive, psychological, and social risk factors associated with aging and have encouraged the use of physical activity, cognitive training, and dietary interventions to alleviate risk factors. However, holistic programs dedicated to promoting successful aging among older adults are uncommon. This review sought to promote successful aging by identifying physiological, cognitive, psychological, and social risk factors that affect older adults and develop a comprehensive program to holistically mitigate these risk factors. Risk factors associated with unsuccessful aging include the development of ...


Veridical And False Memory Performance As A Function Of The Timing Of High-Intensity Acute Exercise, Claire Sanderson May 2020

Veridical And False Memory Performance As A Function Of The Timing Of High-Intensity Acute Exercise, Claire Sanderson

Honors Theses

Background: Our recent experimental work demonstrated that high-intensity acute exercise improved veridical (true) memories and also increased the rate of false memories. The present experiment was designed to re-evaluate these effects for replication purposes. We also extend this literature by evaluating whether these effects are influenced by the timing of acute exercise. Methods: The sample included young adults (N=37; Mage = 21.16 years). We employed a three-condition, within-group, counterbalanced controlled design, consisting of two exercise conditions and a control condition. The exercise conditions involved a 15-minute bout of high-intensity acute exercise. These conditions included the bout of exercise ...


Off-Topic Verbosity And Sustained Attention Among Young Adult And Older Adult Age Cohorts, Jessica H. Helphrey May 2020

Off-Topic Verbosity And Sustained Attention Among Young Adult And Older Adult Age Cohorts, Jessica H. Helphrey

Psychology and Counseling Theses

Off-topic verbosity (OTV) is tangential discourse with excessive and irrelevant information. Older adults have been historically labeled as having high OTV, and research has suggested that high OTV in older adults may be linked with cognitive decline. While past studies have utilized brief cognitive measures to further expound upon the links between cognition and OTV, studies have lacked consistency and lengthy measures. This study sought to elucidate the relationship between OTV and cognition in both older adult and young adult age cohorts utilizing a sustained attention measure. Young adults (n = 61; age range: 18-28, M = 20.57, SD = 2.33 ...


Preliminary Psychometrics For The Executive Function Challenge Task: A Novel, “Hot” Flexibility, And Planning Task For Youth, Lauren Kenworthy, Andrew Freeman, Allison Ratto, Katerina Dudley, Kelly K. Powell, Cara E. Pugliese, John F. Strang, Alyssa Verbalis, Laura G. Anthony Mar 2020

Preliminary Psychometrics For The Executive Function Challenge Task: A Novel, “Hot” Flexibility, And Planning Task For Youth, Lauren Kenworthy, Andrew Freeman, Allison Ratto, Katerina Dudley, Kelly K. Powell, Cara E. Pugliese, John F. Strang, Alyssa Verbalis, Laura G. Anthony

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: Executive functions (EF) drive health and educational outcomes and therefore are increasingly common treatment targets. Most treatment trials rely on questionnaires to capture meaningful change because ecologically valid, pediatric performance-based EF tasks are lacking. The Executive Function Challenge Task (EFCT) is a standardized, treatment-sensitive, objective measure which assesses flexibility and planning in the context of provocative social interactions, making it a “hot” EF task. Method: We investigate the structure, reliability, and validity of the EFCT in youth with autism (Autism Spectrum Disorder; n = 129), or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with flexibility problems (n = 93), and typically developing (TD; n ...


Toward A Neurological Understanding Of Metacognition, Philip Hulbig Jan 2020

Toward A Neurological Understanding Of Metacognition, Philip Hulbig

Educational Studies Dissertations

Metacognitive interventions have been shown to be tremendously important to general education and supporting individuals with neurological disabilities (Brown, 1978; Webb, 1989; Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009; Dweck, 2017). This paper details the many facets and relationships between neurology and metacognition. The investigation draws from a wide diversity of neuro-investigational techniques and findings related to metacognition, executive function, self-reflection, self-evaluation, self-development and self-directed learning. It ends with a discussion of common threads and themes drawn from the research, and how methodological definitions for metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulation can be combined with physiologically-focused neurobiological approaches and consciousness-focused psychological approaches to broaden understanding and further ...


Evaluating The Construct Validity Of The Peak Comprehensive Assessment: Measuring Language And Cognition, Nicole Rae Mcdonald Jan 2020

Evaluating The Construct Validity Of The Peak Comprehensive Assessment: Measuring Language And Cognition, Nicole Rae Mcdonald

MSU Graduate Theses

The purpose of the current study was to conduct a pilot investigation of the internal construct validity of the four modules of the PEAK Comprehensive Assessment (PCA). The PCA has been developed through robust research over the past five years (Dixon et al. 2017) and is designed to evaluate language and cognitive skills of individuals with developmental disabilities, including neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder. Although the PCA contains four modules exemplifying four distinct learning processes (Direct Training, Generalization, Equivalence, and Relational Learning), these four processes may represent one singular learning construct, described loosely as “executive functioning” or “cognitive ...


Depression In Adolescence: Risk Factors, Prevention, And Intervention - An Argument For Trauma-Informed Care In The Community, Beauty Davis Jan 2020

Depression In Adolescence: Risk Factors, Prevention, And Intervention - An Argument For Trauma-Informed Care In The Community, Beauty Davis

Capstone Showcase

BEAUTY DAVIS

Depression in Adolescence: Risk Factors, Prevention, and Intervention - An argument for trauma-informed care in the community

Depression is an unfortunately common mental illness that can lead to negative life outcomes such as substance abuse, suicide, lower quality of life, and anxiety. The stage of adolescence is known as a pivotal, transitional time of life as there are many changes in an individual’s physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development. The research reviewed throughout this paper discusses risk factors that contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Observing how genetic, physiological, environmental, and social components contribute to ...


No Room For Speciesism In Welfare Considerations, Jennifer Vonk Jan 2020

No Room For Speciesism In Welfare Considerations, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience

Speciesism should play no role in determining welfare outcomes. Cognition may vary within species as well as between species, but broad classifications such as invertebrates are functionally meaningless in this context. Cognition should relate to welfare only to the extent that it relates to the capacity to suffer or to experience pleasure.


Social Learning In Solitary Juvenile Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum Brown Jan 2020

Social Learning In Solitary Juvenile Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum Brown

Social Behavior Collection

Social learning can be a shortcut for acquiring locally adaptive information. Animals that live in social groups have better access to social information, but gregarious and nonsocial species are also frequently exposed to social cues. Thus, social learning might simply reflect an animal's general ability to learn rather than an adaptation to social living. Here, we investigated social learning and the effect of frequency of social exposure in nonsocial, juvenile Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. We compared (1) Individual Learners, (2) Sham-Observers, paired with a naïve shark, and (3) Observers, paired with a trained demonstrator, in a novel foraging ...


A Novel Approach To Measure Executive Functions In Students: An Evaluation Of Two Child-Friendly Apps, Valeska Berg, Shane Rogers, Mark Mcmahon, Michael Garrett, Dominic Manley Jan 2020

A Novel Approach To Measure Executive Functions In Students: An Evaluation Of Two Child-Friendly Apps, Valeska Berg, Shane Rogers, Mark Mcmahon, Michael Garrett, Dominic Manley

ECU Publications Post 2013

Interest in measurement of children’s executive functions has shown a major increase over the past two decades. The present study evaluates two new apps (EYT and eFun) for measuring executive functions in children. The results of this study show that children (aged 5–8) enjoy executive function assessment in the form of games on an iPad. However, only one executive function, EYT working memory, showed significant positive correlations with several types of grades (e.g., English and maths) in primary school students. New, self-assessed, child-friendly executive function measurement tools have the potential to provide future possibilities for teachers to ...


Integrated Care For Older Adults And Memory: A Quality Improvement Approach, Haley E. Curt Jan 2020

Integrated Care For Older Adults And Memory: A Quality Improvement Approach, Haley E. Curt

Dissertations & Theses

Integrated care, a combination of medical and behavioral health, is necessary to address the complex needs of the rapidly growing population of adults over the age of 65 (Karel, Gratz, & Smyer, 2012). Cognitive impairment, a common issue associated with aging, is a major concern for aging adults, their caregivers and family members. Comprehensively addressing cognition, whether there is an identified impairment or not, in a primary care setting allows the individual to take advantage of their independence, be an active member of planning care and making decisions, and begin treating their disease earlier when it is more manageable (Callahan et ...


Visual Attention And Emotion Regulation In Schizophrenia, Bern Lee Dec 2019

Visual Attention And Emotion Regulation In Schizophrenia, Bern Lee

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Emotion regulation and emotion processing deficits cut across the varying symptom presentations of schizophrenia. Emotion processing deficits are inadequately treated by pharmacologic interventions and are related to real-world functional impact and disability. This study investigated behavioral and psychophysiological responses to a series of emotion regulation tasks while concurrently collecting eye tracking data as an index of visual attention. A brief neurocognitive assessment was also completed in order to examine potential cognitive determinants of emotion. Participants completed tasks designed to assess cognitive change and directed attention strategies for down-regulation of unpleasant and pleasant emotion. For each of our two unpleasant emotion ...


The Role Of Gamma Oscillations And Cortical Inhibition In The Development Of Working Memory In Adolescence, Christopher P. Walker Dec 2019

The Role Of Gamma Oscillations And Cortical Inhibition In The Development Of Working Memory In Adolescence, Christopher P. Walker

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adolescence is a dynamic period of social, cognitive, and biological changes. In particular, working memory, the ability to actively encode and maintain information over a short period of time, develops early in childhood and gradually increases in capacity and stability during adolescence. The precise neurophysiological mechanism by which working memory capacity increases during adolescence is unclear. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of cortical gamma-band (> 30 Hz) oscillations—which are associated with working memory in adults—for the development of working memory capacity in adolescents, and to identify the extent to which the temporal profile of ...


Relationships Between Personality Type And Cognitive Ability In Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix Jacchus), Zachary Marciano Oct 2019

Relationships Between Personality Type And Cognitive Ability In Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix Jacchus), Zachary Marciano

Masters Theses

Personality refers to multiple traits that are thought to be stable over time and across situations. It is recognized that personality has a neural basis and is associated with health outcomes. Whether personality is also associated with cognitive ability, however, is still a matter of intense debate. One way to examine these potential relationships is to use a nonhuman primate model for which complexities present in humans can be minimized. Recent research into the varying personality types of marmoset monkeys suggests that there are predominantly three to five core primary domains that most marmosets and other primates can be categorized ...


Deepening Our Understanding Of Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin Sep 2019

Deepening Our Understanding Of Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin

Lori Marino, PhD

Our Response is centered on five major themes: (1) our presentation of human mythologies about sheep; (2) the relevance of cognitive complexity (“intelligence”) as a dimension underlying the way people perceive and treat sheep; (3) whether our review is too anthropocentric or anthropomorphic; (4) animal welfare versus animal rights (abolitionism); and (5) whether knowledge and education are enough to change human attitudes and behavior.


Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin Sep 2019

Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin

Lori Marino, PhD

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are among the earliest animals domesticated for human use. They are consumed worldwide as mutton, hogget, and lamb, kept as wool and milk producers, and used extensively in scientific research. The popular stereotype is that sheep are docile, passive, unintelligent, and timid, but a review of the research on their behavior, affect, cognition, and personality reveals that they are complex, individualistic, and social.


Across Continents And Demographics, Unpredictable Maternal Signals Are Associated With Children's Cognitive Function, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Juho Pelto, Hasse Karlsson, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram Jul 2019

Across Continents And Demographics, Unpredictable Maternal Signals Are Associated With Children's Cognitive Function, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Riikka Korja, Linnea Karlsson, Laura Glynn, Curt A. Sandman, Brian Vegetabile, Eeva-Leena Kataja, Saara Nolvi, Eija Sinervä, Juho Pelto, Hasse Karlsson, Hal S. Stern, Tallie Z. Baram

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Early life experiences have persisting influence on brain function throughout life. Maternal signals constitute a primary source of early life experiences, and their quantity and quality during sensitive developmental periods exert enduring effects on cognitive function and emotional and social behaviors. Here we examined if, in addition to established qualitative dimensions of maternal behavior during her interactions with her infant and child, patterns of maternal signals may contribute to the maturation of children's executive functions. We focused primarily on effortful control, a potent predictor of mental health outcomes later in life.

Methods

In two independent prospective cohorts in ...


Orca Behavior And Subsequent Aggression Associated With Oceanarium Confinement, Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight Jul 2019

Orca Behavior And Subsequent Aggression Associated With Oceanarium Confinement, Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight

Andrew Knight, PhD

Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego’s SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional ...


Home-Based Cognitive Monitoring: The Role Of Personality And Predictors Of Adherence And Satisfaction, Nasreen A. Sadeq Jul 2019

Home-Based Cognitive Monitoring: The Role Of Personality And Predictors Of Adherence And Satisfaction, Nasreen A. Sadeq

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the last several decades, a growing awareness of the benefits of regular screening for common health conditions, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, has paved the way for preventative screenings to become routine in medical settings. Given that cognitive impairment is frequently reported as the number one worry of older adults, home-based cognitive monitoring may be an innovative solution that allows middle aged and older adults to take an active role in monitoring an important aspect of their health. Although several home-based cognitive monitoring programs have been validated for use in clinical and home-based settings, the Cogstate Brief Battery ...


Linking Sleep And Aggression: The Role Of Response Inhibition And Emotional Processing, Melanie L. Bozzay Jun 2019

Linking Sleep And Aggression: The Role Of Response Inhibition And Emotional Processing, Melanie L. Bozzay

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although shorter sleep duration is theorized to increase the risk of engaging in aggressive behavior, experimental studies examining this relationship yield conflicting findings. Since sleep serves in part to regulate the functioning of prefrontal brain regions, insufficient sleep may deleteriously impact the individual’s ability to inhibit rash action and alter emotional processing, which could in turn increase aggressive tendencies. However, no studies have examined the extent to which naturally occurring insufficient sleep is linked to aggression or potential mechanisms of this relationship, limiting understanding of and the generalizability of extant findings. Thus, the present study examined whether cognitive (deficits ...


Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods, Stroke Risk, And Cognition In Older Adults: A Focus On Violent Crime, Linda D. Ruiz Jun 2019

Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods, Stroke Risk, And Cognition In Older Adults: A Focus On Violent Crime, Linda D. Ruiz

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, i.e., neighborhoods with lower incomes, lower education/occupational levels, and/or higher crime, increases one’s risk of developing chronic health problems, including cardiovascular disease risk factors and stroke. These health problems are associated with reduced cognition and dementia and may help to explain disparities in brain aging. We investigated the association of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics on stroke risk and cognitive outcomes hypothesizing that stroke risk mediates the association between the socioeconomic environment and cognitive functioning. Participants were non-demented community-dwelling older adults (N=121), ~67 years of age (50% male, 44% non-Latino Black) who ...


A Computational Cognitive Architecture For Exploring Team Mental Models, Neil Benoit Outland Jun 2019

A Computational Cognitive Architecture For Exploring Team Mental Models, Neil Benoit Outland

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Team Mental Models (TMM) are one of the strongest predictors of team behavior and performance. TMM direct team behaviors through the series of tasks they perform over time. Research in the area, although crucial in demonstrating the effect of TMM, has been largely static, failing to articulate specifically how TMM emerge or function in teams over time. This dissertation develops a computational model to explicate the process of TMM emergence and demonstrate necessary factors. First, I explain the core concepts of TMM emergence, including team composition, dyadic interactions, and contextual variables. Second, I develop a process-oriented theory of TMM development ...


Cognitive Intra-Individual Variability: The Effects Of Affect In A Healthy Young Adult Sample, Tovah M.D. Cowan Jun 2019

Cognitive Intra-Individual Variability: The Effects Of Affect In A Healthy Young Adult Sample, Tovah M.D. Cowan

LSU Master's Theses

Cognition is foundational to our experience of the world, but also to how psychologists understand dysfunctions. Cognitive impairment is a feature of a variety of mental disorders, but traditional assessment measures have key limitations in prediction and classification. A proposed alternative is cognitive intraindividual variability (cIIV), which is suggested to measure cognitive control or neural inefficiencies, fluctuating within a task, or over short periods of time. cIIV has been shown to be more sensitive in classification for a variety of conditions than overall performance, including in affective disorders. Further, some research suggests that cIIV is related to self-report cognitive abilities ...


The Effects Of Working Memory Capacity And Trait Anxiety On Visual Short-Term Memory Performance, Celene Gonzalez Jun 2019

The Effects Of Working Memory Capacity And Trait Anxiety On Visual Short-Term Memory Performance, Celene Gonzalez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Anxiety is of importance within the field of cognition because it is often associated with adverse effects on attention, information processing, learning and memory (Eysenck, 1992, 2007). In existing literature, it has been reported that trait anxiety hinders cognitive performance (i.e., working memory capacity WMC). However, the relationship between trait anxiety and cognitive performance might be moderated by working memory capacity (WMC). For example, Owens (2014) reported that trait anxiety was negatively correlated with cognitive performance in the low WMC group and positively correlated to cognitive performance in the high WMC group. Although, past research on the working memory ...


Cognitive Functioning, Depression, And Strengths As Predictors Of Quality Of Life In Multiple Sclerosis, Tara Annthea Crouch Jun 2019

Cognitive Functioning, Depression, And Strengths As Predictors Of Quality Of Life In Multiple Sclerosis, Tara Annthea Crouch

Clinical Psychology Dissertations

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at significant risk for decreased quality of life, partly due to associated cognitive impairment (Højsgaard Chow et al., 2018). A discrepancy often exists between objective and perceived measures of cognitive impairment (Middleton et al., 2006); the paths through which they predict quality of life for MS patients remain unclear (Baumstarck-Barrau, et al., 2011). Objective cognitive functioning as well as one’s perceptions of it may differentially impact quality of life, and therefore may or may not act through the same mechanisms to impact quality of life. Depression is one possible mediator known to impact ...


Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine May 2019

Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine

Psychology

The literature shows that words processed according to their survival relevance typically produce a memory advantage. Similarly, words containing an emotional connotation tend to lead to better memory. The current study examined whether combining both the survival processing effect and the emotion processing advantage would cause an interaction that amplified the effects on memory. Using a modified version of the traditional survival processing paradigm, participants rated emotion words (positive, negative, or neutral) on their relevance to a survival context or home-moving control context. They were later given a surprise recall task for the rated words. The results did not show ...


The Epistemic And Psychological Mechanisms Perpetuating Racism Within The Criminal Justice System, Danielle Walker Apr 2019

The Epistemic And Psychological Mechanisms Perpetuating Racism Within The Criminal Justice System, Danielle Walker

Theses

Abstract

Many attempts have been made by philosophers, political activists, psychologists, historians, social advocates, and others to explain the mechanisms at play in the perpetuation and resulting manifestations of systemic and institutional racism. On one side of the debate there lies a theory that there is an epistemic failure at the root of racial bias towards Blacks, white ignorance, a collective amnesia regarding what has and does take place in society, as it pertains to their oppression and isolation, like the view of philosopher Charles W. Mills. According to Mills, this type of ignorance, or non-knowing, is a cognitive phenomenon ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott Apr 2019

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, PhD

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...