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The Double-Edged Sword Of Diagnosis: Medical Neoliberalism In Rape Crisis Center Counseling, Shannon M. Peters Aug 2019

The Double-Edged Sword Of Diagnosis: Medical Neoliberalism In Rape Crisis Center Counseling, Shannon M. Peters

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The prevalence of sexual violence in the United States is a critical issue and the aftermath of sexual assault can have profound effects on psychological well-being. Rape Crisis Centers play a vital role in supporting sexual violence survivors. The framework through which Rape Crisis Center clinicians understand the experiences of survivors has a substantial impact on the course of counseling, how survivors interpret their own experiences, and survivors’ psychological health. A neoliberal medicalized framework conceptualizes distress post-sexual assault as a disease or disorder and places the responsibility on an individual to ‘fix’ themselves, situating the problem within the person, rather ...


The Relationship Between Frequency Of Yoga And Meditation On Ptsd Symptoms In Individuals Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence, Kimberly Polignani Aug 2019

The Relationship Between Frequency Of Yoga And Meditation On Ptsd Symptoms In Individuals Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence, Kimberly Polignani

Dissertations

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has become a growing phenomenon in the United States,

affecting nearly 13% of the population. The adverse mental health outcomes from people who experience IPV are prevalent and more than half have a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, therapeutic techniques for PTSD appear to be feasible for IPV survivors and their mental health issues. Complementary and alternative medicine has become a widely accepted approach for PTSD. Being two complementary and alternative medicine techniques, yoga and meditation are effective forms of therapy in many diagnoses, including PTSD. This study utilized a not-for-profit organization called the ...


Examining The Gender- And Sexuality-Related Cognitive “Stuck Points” Of Men And Women With Experiences Of Adult Sexual Assault: Implications For Cognitive Processing Therapy, Marin Beagley Jul 2019

Examining The Gender- And Sexuality-Related Cognitive “Stuck Points” Of Men And Women With Experiences Of Adult Sexual Assault: Implications For Cognitive Processing Therapy, Marin Beagley

Dissertations

Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) is considered a gold-standard psychotherapy protocol for the treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms secondary to a variety of traumatic events. Despite its demonstrated efficacy, there is research to suggest CPT may not be as effective in reducing PTSD symptoms for men with an adult sexual assault trauma as it is for their female counterparts. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CPT treatment outcome discrepancies may be attributable to gender differences in posttraumatic cognitions, or “stuck points.” As the act of sexual victimization is incongruent with socially prescribed masculine gender norms, it was ...


Teacher And Child Interaction: The Effects Of Familial Distress, Child Behavior, And Teacher Perceptions, Jessekah R. Ennis Jul 2019

Teacher And Child Interaction: The Effects Of Familial Distress, Child Behavior, And Teacher Perceptions, Jessekah R. Ennis

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

There has been a significant amount of research that has studied the ecological conditions that create behavioral problems for children from families that are female headed, in poverty, and live in areas where there is violent crime. There has also been evidence that revealed statistically significant associations between the way teachers perceive students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and their beliefs of the capacity of the children to learn. Studies have also examined how teachers interact with children that are exhibiting behavioral problems that are from low socio-economic status. However, to date there has been no study that has combined these ...


Key Expressions Of Posttraumatic Distress In Cambodian Children: A Step Toward Culturally-Sensitive Trauma Assessment And Intervention, Caleb J. Figge Jun 2019

Key Expressions Of Posttraumatic Distress In Cambodian Children: A Step Toward Culturally-Sensitive Trauma Assessment And Intervention, Caleb J. Figge

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

More than half of all children in Cambodia experience direct abuse and over 70% other traumatic events, which significantly increase risk for a range of physical and mental health problems. Additionally, Cambodian children face longstanding sociopolitical, intergenerational, and cultural factors that compound the impact of direct victimization. As a result, rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms among Cambodian youth are high. However, care providers often rely on Western-based nosology that does not account for culturally specific expressions of trauma. Lack of knowledge surrounding the expressions of distress that best represent the experience of traumatized Cambodian children hinders diagnostic accuracy and treatment ...


How Music Therapy Effects The Traumatized Brain: Neurorehabilitation For Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Through Music Therapy, Jordan Winter Payne Jun 2019

How Music Therapy Effects The Traumatized Brain: Neurorehabilitation For Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Through Music Therapy, Jordan Winter Payne

Honors Projects

This review discusses the neurological components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and how both structures and processes in the brain are altered in individuals with the disorder, specifically the neural network that includes the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala. This impacts awareness and responsiveness to stimuli. After examining these aspects, invasive and non-invasive treatment approaches are examined, with a specific emphasis on the treatment approach of music therapy. Musical stimuli are processed in many areas of the brain, so it has therapeutic potential for modulating neurological changes. Music therapy applies music clinically to address a variety of goals ...


Treatment Considerations For Adoption-Related Complex Trauma, Jessica Reyka Jun 2019

Treatment Considerations For Adoption-Related Complex Trauma, Jessica Reyka

Dissertations

The western culture holds many assumptions related to adoption; however, it is clear based on the research provided that adoption and the circumstances leading up to being adopted often leave the child traumatized. Many adopted individuals and adoptive families seek mental health services in order to help address some of the symptoms that have manifested through traumatic events. However, the services they are receiving are reportedly lacking in basic knowledge related to adoption and have, at times, done more harm than good. As clinicians, it is important to acknowledge one's scope of clinical competence and to only treat individuals ...


Puppet Creation: A Lost Art In Treating Child Trauma, Keely Anderson May 2019

Puppet Creation: A Lost Art In Treating Child Trauma, Keely Anderson

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Trauma does not discriminate between age, culture, or socioeconomic class; trauma can happen to anyone. Although we would like to think that children are exempt from these difficult experiences, unfortunately, that is not the case. The current extensive research about the effects that trauma has on children both emotionally and psychologically and how these effects can have long term consequences will be examined in this capstone thesis. The arts-based qualitative research within this thesis will explore the benefits of puppet creation as a way for children to externalize their traumatic stories and as a means to provide children with the ...


Examining The Acculturation Experiences Of Syrian Refugee Emerging Adults In The United States Of America, Fatemah Alghamdi May 2019

Examining The Acculturation Experiences Of Syrian Refugee Emerging Adults In The United States Of America, Fatemah Alghamdi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Refugees are vulnerable populations who experience premigration traumatic events and postmigration acculturation stress. While research on immigrant mental health issues has been plentiful, there has been a clear lacuna of scholarly investigation into the acculturation experiences of Syrian emerging adults, particularly as it relates to the types and dynamics of acculturation behaviors. Acculturation is a factor that predicts emerging adults’ academic and occupational success and their interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships.

This qualitative investigation was conducted within the framework of interpretative phenomenology, which allows for meaningful, organic exploration and description of participants’ stories. Data were collected from 12 emerging adult Syrian ...


Back To Belonging: Nature Connection And Expressive Arts Therapy In The Treatment Of Trauma And Marginalization, Jesse Newcomb May 2019

Back To Belonging: Nature Connection And Expressive Arts Therapy In The Treatment Of Trauma And Marginalization, Jesse Newcomb

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

There is increasing research on the benefits of incorporating nature-based approaches into mental health. This can be done in myriad ways both in and out of the counseling office. This literature review focuses on the benefits of incorporating nature as co-therapist and kin rather than only material or metaphor, particularly in the treatment of people who have experienced trauma and or marginalization. According to Herman (1997), wounds made relationally must be healed relationally, and the literature reviewed in this paper suggests that connection with the “more-than-human” world (Abram, 1996), and coming back into a sense belonging in the larger web ...


The Effects Of Dance And Movement Therapy With Adolescents Who Have Experienced Trauma, A Literature Review, Katherine Anderson May 2019

The Effects Of Dance And Movement Therapy With Adolescents Who Have Experienced Trauma, A Literature Review, Katherine Anderson

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

With the growing number of trauma-informed practices in the mental health field, it is necessary to look at what best practices should be implemented in treating adolescents who have experienced trauma, specifically from a body-based intervention, such as dance and movement therapy. In this literature review, articles are discussed that encompass the following topics: dance and movement therapy and trauma, general dance interventions for the adolescent population, empowerment models as a way to cope with trauma symptoms, and cultural considerations of treating adolescent females of color. The gaps in current research must be acknowledged, specifically dance and movement therapy interventions ...


Enmesh: The Art Of Trauma And Recovery, Joanna Pottle May 2019

Enmesh: The Art Of Trauma And Recovery, Joanna Pottle

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Liminal Space is an artistic installation within the ongoing, interdisciplinary creative/research project "Enmesh: The Art of Trauma and Recovery.” Utilizing a combination of research methods, creative processes, and cultural inspirations, this project asks the following questions: how can the artistic process (this project serving as a preliminary case study) parallel various modes of recovery and healing? How can this objective be visually communicated through a mixed media approach of drawing, painting, and printmaking and how can this approach be an effective tool of communication? What can we conclude from both modes of work (solitarily or collectively)? How do they ...


High School Teachers’ Roles And Needs In Addressing Students Experiencing Trauma, Katherine Flemister May 2019

High School Teachers’ Roles And Needs In Addressing Students Experiencing Trauma, Katherine Flemister

Educational Specialist

Childhood trauma is a hidden epidemic that can have profound impacts on children including significant educational impact. Teachers are responsible for the academic success of all of their students, so it is critical for teachers to be prepared to help a student who has been exposed to trauma to reintegrate back into the classroom. Almost all of the limited research available regarding a teacher’s role in helping students experiencing trauma has been conducted within the elementary schools, so the current study aimed to further the literature by exploring the role of high school teachers in helping students who have ...


Pocket Ace: Neglect Of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors In The Aces Study Questionnaire, Robyn Dolson May 2019

Pocket Ace: Neglect Of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors In The Aces Study Questionnaire, Robyn Dolson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 1998, a seminal study on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and subsequent health risks catapulted ACEs and the study questionnaire into the zeitgeist. However, its childhood sexual abuse (CSA) item is problematic as it requires the perpetrator have been 5-years or older than the victim. To assess whether some survivors’ CSA is not identified by the current item, whether their exclusion prevents access to services requiring a four-threshold ACE score, and how their health outcomes compared to other CSA groups and controls, an international sample of 974 women completed an online survey assessing their current health and CSA history using ...


Trauma-Informed Care: Implementation Efforts In Northeast Tennessee, Kaelyn E. Bishop, Andrea D. Clements, Valerie Hoots May 2019

Trauma-Informed Care: Implementation Efforts In Northeast Tennessee, Kaelyn E. Bishop, Andrea D. Clements, Valerie Hoots

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Trauma has been found to be highly prevalent and associated with many negative health and social outcomes (i.e., heart disease, higher suicide risk, high-risk behaviors) in the general population. Despite these associations, trauma detection is relatively rare in service-providing organizations. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a proposed solution that encourages trauma detection, understanding the symptoms associated with trauma, and treating trauma while actively avoiding re-traumatization to the service user. Although research about TIC efficacy has been fairly limited, there are some promising potential benefits of the practice to the client, provider, and the population as a whole. For this study ...


Understanding Comorbid Depression In The Context Of Ptsd Through Underlying Dimensions, Melissa Turkel Apr 2019

Understanding Comorbid Depression In The Context Of Ptsd Through Underlying Dimensions, Melissa Turkel

Dissertations

Depression co-occurs with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder at a high rate, resulting in numerous complications for pathology and treatment. More research is needed regarding variables that may explain this common comorbidity. One possible variable is that of underlying dimensions, latent factors that give rise to these manifestations of psychopathology. This study explored potential underlying mechanisms of comorbid PTSD and depression, including negative affect, rumination, emotion dysregulation, neuroticism, and behavioral inhibition. While previous studies have investigated these dimensions individually, there is a dearth of research that simultaneously investigates multiple dimensions or determines the relative contributions of underlying dimensions to psychopathology. Thus, the ...


Long-Term Outcomes In Juvenile Fibromyalgia (Jfm) Patients With Early Reports Of Potentially Traumatic Events (Ptes), Anjana Jagpal Mar 2019

Long-Term Outcomes In Juvenile Fibromyalgia (Jfm) Patients With Early Reports Of Potentially Traumatic Events (Ptes), Anjana Jagpal

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Juvenile Fibromyalgia (JFM) is a pediatric chronic pain condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and multiple tender points. JFM impacts individuals both physically and mentally with symptoms including frequent headaches, chronic fatigue, decreased physical activity, anxiety, and depression. The impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) on the JFM population is poorly understood in the literature. However, it is well understood that exposure to PTEs are commonly associated with increased psychopathology and somatic symptoms. It is important to understand whether individuals with a combination of PTEs and JFM are placed at greater risk for negative long-term outcomes. This study sets out ...


Estradiol And Daily Affective Experiences In Trauma-Exposed Women, Jenna Rieder Feb 2019

Estradiol And Daily Affective Experiences In Trauma-Exposed Women, Jenna Rieder

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

People who experience trauma can develop enduring trauma-related symptoms. In daily life, post-trauma symptoms (e.g., elevated physiological arousal) can be triggered by affectively salient cues in the environment, especially by cues that act as trauma reminders. Trauma exposure is associated with enduring changes in two biological stress systems: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In women, activity in both systems is additionally modulated by fluctuations in levels of sex hormones (e.g., estradiol), which could influence physiological responses to trauma reminders. Additionally, previous work has linked the sex hormone estradiol with affect, suggesting that menstrual ...


Using Latent Semantic Analysis To Evaluate The Coherence Of Traumatic Event Narratives, Gabriella C. Scalzo Jan 2019

Using Latent Semantic Analysis To Evaluate The Coherence Of Traumatic Event Narratives, Gabriella C. Scalzo

Theses and Dissertations

While a growing evidence base suggests that expressive writing about a traumatic event may be an effective intervention which results in a variety of health benefits, there are still multiple competing theories that seek to explain expressive writing’s mechanism(s) of action. Two of the theories with stronger evidence bases are exposure theory and cognitive processing theory. The state of this field is complicated by methodological limitations; operationalizing and measuring the relative constructs of trauma narratives, such as coherence, traditionally requires time- and labor-intensive methods such as using a narrative coding scheme. This study used a computer-based methodology, latent ...


Competing Strength-Based Models Of Trauma And Suicidality In A High-Risk Primary Care Sample, Samantha Mladen Jan 2019

Competing Strength-Based Models Of Trauma And Suicidality In A High-Risk Primary Care Sample, Samantha Mladen

Theses and Dissertations

There is limited research on the relationship between trauma exposure, depression, and suicidality, particularly in high-risk primary care samples. The present study aims to: 1) characterize the prevalence of suicidality, depression, and trauma exposure in this sample; 2)develop and test models of the relationships between suicidality, depression, and trauma exposure in this sample; 3) augment the selected model with key protective factors, including social support and religiosity; and 4) further elaborate the nature of religiosity as a potential protective factor using the subscales of the Attitudes toward God scale, Anger toward God and Comfort with God.

Patients (n=207 ...


Victim Blaming And Natural Reactions To Trauma In Cases Of Sexual Assault And Natural Disaster, Ashley Nielsen Jan 2019

Victim Blaming And Natural Reactions To Trauma In Cases Of Sexual Assault And Natural Disaster, Ashley Nielsen

Master's Theses

Past research has indicated that victim blaming in cases of sexual assault is a problem in today’s society (Bieneck & Krahe, 2011). The present study examined how natural reactions to trauma influence how much blame is assigned to the victim in situations of sexual assault and natural disaster. This study included 293 college students that attended a western Kansas university, with an average age of 19.71. Participants read a short scenario depicting either a victim of sexual assault or a victim of natural disaster, with the victim responding to the traumatic event by either freezing or fainting. They were ...


Military Wife Participation In The Family Readiness Group During The Deployment Cycle, Donetta Doris Quinones Jan 2019

Military Wife Participation In The Family Readiness Group During The Deployment Cycle, Donetta Doris Quinones

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

A comparative review of statistical summary results of the Survey of Army Families demonstrated that there is a gap in the research on the emotional experiences of civilian military wives who do not participate in the Family Readiness Group (FRG). The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to supplement the limited amount of scholarly research on the emotional experiences of civilian military wives and their lack of participation in the FRG during the deployment cycle. The theoretical framework of this study explored the military family syndrome through application of the double ABCX model in examining this phenomenon. The foundational ...


The Lived Experiences Of Emotionally Forgiving Abusive Parents, Chelsea Bryant Jan 2019

The Lived Experiences Of Emotionally Forgiving Abusive Parents, Chelsea Bryant

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The subject of forgiveness has been heavily explored during the past few decades; however, limited research has been conducted on the phenomenology of emotional forgiveness, the internal process of replacing negative feelings with positive feelings. This study explored the emotional forgiveness experiences of 7 adult men who were previous victims of abuse by their parents. Using Moustakas's phenomenological research approach, the participants were interviewed about their experiences of emotional forgiving their abusive parents. The recall, empathize, altruism, commitment, and holding on, REACH forgiveness model and family systems theory were the conceptual frameworks to explore the central research question, which ...


Female Sexual Abuse Survivors And The Therapeutic Relationship, Tracy J. Hollingworth Jan 2019

Female Sexual Abuse Survivors And The Therapeutic Relationship, Tracy J. Hollingworth

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Childhood abuse can impact the survivors' life in many ways. Children learn various skills from their caregivers, such as the tools needed to develop and maintain healthy relationships. When a child is abused by their caregiver, there can be a drastic impact on how the child perceives the world, and the therapeutic relationship is important in the healing process. This interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) study explored the lived experiences of therapists who work with adult women who are survivors of childhood sexual abuse to better understand the effects that childhood sexual abuse has on the therapeutic relationship. The theoretical base ...


Psychological Effects Of Training In Martial Arts After Interpersonal Trauma, Alexandro Garcia Vargas Jan 2019

Psychological Effects Of Training In Martial Arts After Interpersonal Trauma, Alexandro Garcia Vargas

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Individuals who experience a traumatic event may have an adverse emotional reaction that negatively impacts their quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the influence of training in the martial arts as an intervention in the treatment of interpersonal trauma. The biopsychosocial model provided the framework for the study. The research questions addressed the effects of training in the martial arts and the biological, psychological, and social functioning of individuals who had sustained a form of interpersonal trauma. Data were collected from semistructured interviews with 9 participants. Data were analyzed using Moustakas's modified ...


Developing A Model Of Sexism-Based Traumatic Stress, Marcus Cherry Jan 2019

Developing A Model Of Sexism-Based Traumatic Stress, Marcus Cherry

Doctoral Dissertations

In contemporary society, women regularly endure sexist microaggressions—messages that convey aversive, demeaning sexist slights toward women. Sexist microaggressions have been associated with anger, depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, job stress, increased risky health behavior and trauma. Additionally, sexist microaggressions effects are cumulative and can result in the internalization of sexist beliefs and undermine selfcompassion. Research suggests that these distortions of self-views and self-regard can in part contribute to the development of trauma symptoms. Notably, research has found that prolonged exposure to sexism, in general, has been associated with trauma symptoms. However, the traumatic effects of sexist microaggressions have remained largely ...


Decreasing Stress Through An Emotion Regulation And Non-Judging Based Intervention With Trauma-Exposed College Students, Megan Cherry Jan 2019

Decreasing Stress Through An Emotion Regulation And Non-Judging Based Intervention With Trauma-Exposed College Students, Megan Cherry

Doctoral Dissertations

Among college students, trauma and PTSD symptomatology are associated with negative consequences (e.g., poor academic performance, stress sensitivity, and negative coping). College is often a stressful time, and those who have experienced trauma, particularly those experiencing PTSD symptoms, are vulnerable to heightened stress sensitivity and negative outcomes. It is imperative to identify interventions that decrease stress for trauma-exposed college students to reduce the deleterious effects of related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine whether emotion regulation and non-judgment could be enhanced in trauma-exposed college students through a short, mindfulnessbased intervention, and whether the intervention would lead ...


A Narrative Study Focusing On Survivors Of Forced Labor Trafficking, Taras Nk Raggio Jan 2019

A Narrative Study Focusing On Survivors Of Forced Labor Trafficking, Taras Nk Raggio

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Throughout history, the media's rendering of slavery depicts vulnerable groups caught in a network of trafficking looking for a better life. Scholars of trafficking cite challenges in understanding the health care needs of domestic forced labor trafficking survivors in the United States. Seminal trafficking findings have shown that variations of trafficking affect the survivors' health after surviving trafficking. Therefore, in this qualitative, narrative inquiry I sought to understand how 8 survivors of forced labor trafficking, ages 25 years and older, described their health following trafficking beyond 5 years. The theory of social constructionism constituted the theoretical foundation, and the ...


The Role Of Dissociation And Hyperarousal In Adult Sexual Revictimization, Madeline S. Herman Jan 2019

The Role Of Dissociation And Hyperarousal In Adult Sexual Revictimization, Madeline S. Herman

ETD Archive

The purpose of the present study was to examine how child sexual abuse (CSA), hyperarousal symptoms, and dissociation symptoms are associated with sexual revictimization in adulthood. The study hypothesized that (A) a history of CSA will be associated with greater instances of adult sexual victimization, (B) higher rates of hyperarousal will be associated with lower rates of adult sexual revictimization in survivors of CSA, (C) higher rates of dissociation will be associated with higher rates of adult sexual revictimization in survivors of CSA, and (D) in looking at both hyperarousal and dissociation, hyperarousal symptoms will buffer the relationship between CSA ...


Trauma Sensitive Schools And The Psychoeducational Evaluation, Barbara Jordan Jan 2019

Trauma Sensitive Schools And The Psychoeducational Evaluation, Barbara Jordan

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Exposure to adverse childhood experiences, commonly referred to as ACEs, negatively impacts various physical and psychological aspects of the body and can result in a number of detrimental life outcomes including disease, mental health disorders, and even early death. The negative effects of ACE exposure begin long before adulthood, often resulting in academic and behavioral difficulties for school-aged children. Since school psychologists strive to advocate for the needs of all students, ensure correct special education categorization, and promote trauma-sensitive practices in schools, it is beneficial for them to have knowledge of ACEs and trauma that impact the students they serve ...