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Motivation

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Descriptive And Prescriptive Belief In A Just World, Joel Armstrong Jul 2019

Descriptive And Prescriptive Belief In A Just World, Joel Armstrong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Justice Motive has traditionally been conceptualized as a homeostatic, prevention-focused motivation, but attempts to measure individual differences in the Justice Motive (i.e., the Belief in a Just World) have not treated it as one. The measurement of a motivation requires accounting for both the current state and the goal state, but traditional measurement techniques have relied solely on beliefs about how just the world currently is (i.e., the current state). This has resulted in two major issues in the literature. First is the assumption that everyone who reports believing in a just world has reached that belief ...


Conceptualization Of Faculty Work Motivation: Overcoming The Impasse, Julie Nikolaeva Thompson Jul 2019

Conceptualization Of Faculty Work Motivation: Overcoming The Impasse, Julie Nikolaeva Thompson

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The work motivation literature is at an impasse. At the same time, changing economic and social conditions necessitate an ongoing transformation for how organizations motivate their workforce. Although changes in the nature of work have captured the attention of researchers, calls for more research to further develop work motivation theory have largely gone unnoticed. The scarcity of new theoretical research contributes to a lack of contextual understanding in work motivation. As such, organizational leaders continue to develop interventions based on the findings of potentially outdated work motivation theories. This may lead to diminished work motivation, productivity, and commitment, particularly for ...


Motivations For Pursuing A Career In Law Enforcement: An Analysis Of A Local Law Enforcement Agency, Mark W. Thomas Mar 2019

Motivations For Pursuing A Career In Law Enforcement: An Analysis Of A Local Law Enforcement Agency, Mark W. Thomas

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Current law enforcement agencies are facing increasing pressure to hire more female and minority applicants. In addition to this, many agencies may be struggling to hire sufficient numbers of qualified candidates in general. This has created a need for understanding the individual factors that may motivate specific types of individuals towards a career in law enforcement. The current study assesses these motivations in a sample of currently employed law enforcement officers, current students enrolled in criminal justice programs, and undergraduate students unaffiliated with a law enforcement career. These motivations are then examined by demographic categories to explore the correlation between ...


Examining The Relationship Between Intrinsic Drivers Of Motivation And Functional Outcomes In A Cross-Section Of Individuals With Psychotic Disorders, Sahana Kukan Feb 2019

Examining The Relationship Between Intrinsic Drivers Of Motivation And Functional Outcomes In A Cross-Section Of Individuals With Psychotic Disorders, Sahana Kukan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impaired functioning is recognized as a major barrier to recovery among individuals with psychotic disorders. Research on the role of negative symptomatology on functioning has identified avolition (i.e. lack of motivation) as being highly correlated with functional outcomes. However, current measures of avolition fail to consider more intrinsic factors that influence motivation. There is a need for more nuanced research on the drivers of motivation and their relationship with functioning to inform the observed relationship between avolition and impaired functioning. This cross-sectional study uses data obtained from the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses, in London, Ontario. 105 ...


Student Participation In School Sponsored Extra-Curricular Activities At The Elementary School Level And The Impact Of Student Engagement, Kirsten D. Myers Jan 2019

Student Participation In School Sponsored Extra-Curricular Activities At The Elementary School Level And The Impact Of Student Engagement, Kirsten D. Myers

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Getting students involved in their day to day educational processes is often challenging and, in some schools, systems appear almost unrealistic. Students in school do not often see the value of or make the connection with the importance of education. Students see movie stars such as Jennifer Lawrence drop out of school at fourteen, singers, rappers and others in the entertainment industry who are successful and make millions without an education. The potential of a YouTube posting, turning someone into a star looms in their imaginations and they think it could happen to them. Students today are even more enticed ...


Do Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms Improve With School-Based Adhd Interventions? Outcomes And Predictors Of Change., Zoe Smith Jan 2019

Do Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms Improve With School-Based Adhd Interventions? Outcomes And Predictors Of Change., Zoe Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a construct that includes symptoms of slowness, mental confusion, excessive daydreaming, low motivation, and drowsiness/sleepiness. SCT is often co-morbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and SCT symptoms are associated with significant academic and interpersonal impairment above and beyond the influence of ADHD symptoms. Despite the overlap between ADHD and SCT and associated impairments, no studies have evaluated how evidence-based psychosocial interventions for adolescents with ADHD impact symptoms of SCT. This study examined whether SCT symptoms improved in a sample of 274 young adolescents with ADHD who received either an organizational skills or a homework ...


The Effect Of ‘Teach An La’ On Self-Reported Measures Of Student Self-Efficacy, Rafe M. Kossak Jan 2019

The Effect Of ‘Teach An La’ On Self-Reported Measures Of Student Self-Efficacy, Rafe M. Kossak

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A growing body of research shows that an individual’s perceived self-efficacy plays a large role in performance concerning a number of areas, including future thinking, stress reduction, problem solving, and academic success. These links continue to be thoroughly studied, but research on how to influence perceptions of self-efficacy remains limited and lacks generalizability. This study examines the effects of a peer instruction program named, “Teach a learning assistant”, hereafter, “Teach an LA”, on University of Colorado Boulder cognitive psychology students’ reports of perceived self-efficacy. Statistical analysis shows significant differences between classes with “Teach an LA” programs and controls’ changes ...


Gaming, Workplace, Self-Esteem, Counterproductive Work Behaviors, Sarah Marie Dyson Jan 2019

Gaming, Workplace, Self-Esteem, Counterproductive Work Behaviors, Sarah Marie Dyson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although there is ample information on the negative aspects of video game playing, we know less about the benefits and how the benefits transfer to the gamers’ workplace. Further understanding of these relationships may offer employees and employers more insight on how they can reduce counterproductive workplace behaviors (CWB) while also improving workplace morale and productivity. The purpose of this quantitative nonexperimental study is to examine the relationships between time spent engaging in gameplay, workplace self-esteem, and positive and negative workplace behaviors among gamers. Participants anonymously completed an online questionnaire utilizing the Behind the Screen Measure, Counterproductive Workplace Behavior Checklist ...


Increasing Daily Exercise Adherence In Women By Examining Motivational Factors, Victoria Wozniak Jan 2019

Increasing Daily Exercise Adherence In Women By Examining Motivational Factors, Victoria Wozniak

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Women ages 20–39 years old have seen the most dramatic increase in obesity levels in the United States over the last 2 decades. Researchers have indicated the need for studies to increase motivation in women to promote daily exercise. There is a gap in the literature about what motivational factors are most effective with increasing exercise in daily life. Using the transtheoretical model of change (TM) as the grounding theory, this study measured daily exercise adherence. A selective sampling of women ages 20–39 years old in the United States were recruited to complete an online survey. The online ...


Leadership And Culture Effects On Corporate Retention Of Black Millennials, Ashley Rhae Grishby Jan 2019

Leadership And Culture Effects On Corporate Retention Of Black Millennials, Ashley Rhae Grishby

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this study was to determine if transformational leadership, motivation, organizational culture, and person-€organization (P-€O) fit predict retention of Black millennials compared to White millennials. This study also determined if transformational leadership mediated the relationship between motivation and retention, if motivation mediated the relationship between P-€O fit and retention, and if P-€O fit mediated the relationship between culture and retention. With the millennial population making up approximately 50% of the workforce by 2020, it is important for organizations to determine which factors are affecting their retention. To predict employee retention, each variable was measured ...


The Effect Of Early Childhood Abuse On Educational Attainment, Onzie Luke Jan 2019

The Effect Of Early Childhood Abuse On Educational Attainment, Onzie Luke

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this study was to fill a gap in the literature regarding survivors of child abuse and their capacity to continue their educational pursuits beyond high school. Thus, this study explored the lived experience of self-identified abuse survivors who were enrolled in higher education. The theoretical bases for this study included Bandura'€™s social cognitive theory, Rotter'€™s theory of locus of control and Heider'€™s and Weiner'€™s theory of attribution. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 15 survivors of child abuse enrolled in an undergraduate or graduate degree program at an online or brick and mortar university ...


Leadership, Empowerment, And Motivation: An Analysis Of Modern Management, Patrick J. Myers Jan 2019

Leadership, Empowerment, And Motivation: An Analysis Of Modern Management, Patrick J. Myers

CMC Senior Theses

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of management in organizations and, specifically, look at the overlap between management and leadership with a particular focus on empowerment. With considerations of previous literature, current examples, and a case study interview, this literature seeks to solidify the importance of leadership by managers in the workplace. Furthermore, it seeks to highlight the role of empowerment, presented by the leader and experienced by followers, in creating a thriving workplace built on culture and trust. Lastly, the literature aims to better understand the motivations of the modern employee to provide potential areas ...


Where There's A Will, There's A Way: Implementing Motivational Strategies To Combat Decision Fatigue, David Huang Jan 2019

Where There's A Will, There's A Way: Implementing Motivational Strategies To Combat Decision Fatigue, David Huang

CMC Senior Theses

Recent research suggests we have a limited supply of willpower, termed the “ego”, which becomes depleted by undergoing cognitively demanding tasks. Any acts of volition, including decision-making, self-control, and taking responsibility, reduce this supply of “ego” (Baumeister, 1998), which impedes our ability to further perform these tasks. Decision fatigue, a specific form of ego depletion, is prevalent everywhere from judicial court cases (Danzinger, Levav, & Avnaim-Pesso, 2010) to our daily lives. There is now significant mainstream media exposure and literature on decision fatigue and the activities to which it applies. However, it remains contested how to best handle its negative consequences ...


Patient Motivational Language As A Predictor Of Symptom Change, Hazard Of Clinically Significant Response, And Time To Response In Psychotherapy For Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Brien J. Goodwin Jan 2019

Patient Motivational Language As A Predictor Of Symptom Change, Hazard Of Clinically Significant Response, And Time To Response In Psychotherapy For Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Brien J. Goodwin

Masters Theses

Change-talk (CT), or self-arguments for change, has been associated with favorable patient outcomes, while counter change-talk (CCT), or self-arguments against change, has been associated with poorer outcomes. Most studies on change language have focused on the prediction of distal posttreatment outcomes, while the prediction of more proximal outcomes has remained largely untested. Addressing this gap, we examined early treatment CT and CCT as predictors of worry change trajectories, “hazard” of clinically significant response, and time to response (i.e., outcome efficiency) in CBT and CBT integrated with MI (MI-CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We also explored whether treatment type ...


Motivation In Minority Populations: Perceived Locus Of Control And The Effect Of Ethnic Matching, Matthew R. Agosto Jan 2019

Motivation In Minority Populations: Perceived Locus Of Control And The Effect Of Ethnic Matching, Matthew R. Agosto

Senior Projects Spring 2019

The aim of this study is to measure the differences in perception of the locus of control of a target individual in two motivational scenarios and discover the effect of ethnic/non-ethnic matching conditions. Two different motivational strategies were used to assess the role of ethnic matching in perceiving other people as well as identifying with them. Rotter’s Internal External locus of control scale (I-E scale) is utilized in a novel way. Subjects were asked not to report their own control beliefs, but rather, the beliefs they perceive the target individual to hold true. The following study measures participants ...


Impact Of Self-Determined Motivation On Work Behavior And Response To Cognitive Remediation In Individuals With Schizophrenia, Desmond Spann Jan 2019

Impact Of Self-Determined Motivation On Work Behavior And Response To Cognitive Remediation In Individuals With Schizophrenia, Desmond Spann

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Research has implicated motivational deficits as having a severe impact on functional outcomes and quality of life for individuals with schizophrenia. There has been a call for investigation on how these motivational deficits impact different aspects of the therapeutic process for these individuals. A popular model of motivation used in recent investigation with schizophrenia has been Self-Determination Theory. This theory tries to describe why individuals undertake specific goals and behaviors, with the focus being the content of goal-directed outcomes and the regulatory processes with which outcomes are pursued. The goal of this investigation is to examine the impact of self-determined ...


Started From The Future Now We're Here: The Effect Of Planning Direction On Motivation, Kaylee Boulton Jan 2019

Started From The Future Now We're Here: The Effect Of Planning Direction On Motivation, Kaylee Boulton

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Planning for a future goal in reverse chronological order (i.e., backward planning) can result in increased task motivation for relatively specific, short-term goals, such as academic assignments (Park et al., 2017). Although sometimes backward planning is advocated for shorter-term, concrete event planning (e.g., planning a project timeline), it is also promoted for longer-term, identity-based, “visioning” exercises in which people imagine a desired future-self more generally, then backward plan the path to attaining it. The purpose of the present research was to empirically test this type of applied goal-setting program that promotes the use of backward planning when thinking ...


The Psychology Of Performance In Elite Youth Soccer Players, Matthew Best Dec 2018

The Psychology Of Performance In Elite Youth Soccer Players, Matthew Best

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This study is a holistic assessment of psychological mindsets, which are one’s attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions, in elite youth male soccer players between the ages of 13 and 18 and the exploration of the relationships between these mindsets and performance outcomes. The mindsets that were assessed were expectancy, growth mindset, value, goals, belongingness, grit, and self-regulation, and the performance outcomes were minutes played, goals scored, and goals allowed. The mindsets were selected through a review of research in education and sport. I conducted Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient analyses to assess the validity and reliability ...


The (B)Link Between Amotivation And Dopamine In Psychosis: What Phasic Eye Blink Rate Reveals, Jessica Elaina Mcgovern Aug 2018

The (B)Link Between Amotivation And Dopamine In Psychosis: What Phasic Eye Blink Rate Reveals, Jessica Elaina Mcgovern

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Motivation deficits (i.e., avolition or amotivation) are a cardinal feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and are linked to worse functional outcomes. Accumulating evidence implicates underactive dopamine responses in reward areas of the brain (e.g., striatum) in the etiology of amotivation. Phasic dopamine firing in the striatum purportedly has a role in increasing the perceived value of a potential reward that, in effect, helps “push” the organism toward initiating and persisting in the action to pursue rewards. Previous research has suggested that eye blink rate (EBR) may be a reliable and valid index of striatal dopamine. Amotivation (clinician-rated ...


Malingering Undetected Successfully: Does Extrinsic Motivation And Coaching Have A Significant Impact?, Jennifer Golanics Aug 2018

Malingering Undetected Successfully: Does Extrinsic Motivation And Coaching Have A Significant Impact?, Jennifer Golanics

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The present study examined the effectiveness of a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) coaching (i.e., providing information about mTBI symptoms) and motivational incentive (i.e., a $50 gift card lottery) on the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) test performance. The sample included a total of 162 undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in an introductory educational psychology course. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions: coached plus warning instruction and motivation incentive, coached instruction and motivation incentive, uncoached instruction and motivation incentive, coached plus warning instruction and no motivation incentive, coached instruction and no motivation incentive, and uncoached ...


Psychopathic Traits, Substance Use, And Motivation To Change: The Effectiveness Of Motivational Interviewing With At-Risk Adolescents, Christopher Thomas Alan Gillen Aug 2018

Psychopathic Traits, Substance Use, And Motivation To Change: The Effectiveness Of Motivational Interviewing With At-Risk Adolescents, Christopher Thomas Alan Gillen

Dissertations

The current study is the first known study to investigate the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) as a motivational enhancement intervention in at-risk adolescents with psychopathic traits and substance use (SU) problems. Further, it examined whether such an intervention can improve problematic behavior (i.e., aggression, delinquency) and treatment responsivity deficits (i.e., motivation to change) associated with psychopathy and SU. The effectiveness of MI was examined using a randomized treatment-control design in which adolescents were assigned to either a three-session group-based MI intervention and a residential treatment or a group receiving only the residential treatment without the MI component ...


Evaluating Differences In Drink Refusal Training And Posttreatment Outcomes In Women In Individual Alcohol Treatment, Rosa Munoz Jun 2018

Evaluating Differences In Drink Refusal Training And Posttreatment Outcomes In Women In Individual Alcohol Treatment, Rosa Munoz

Psychology ETDs

This study sought to establish the topography of drink refusal behaviors clients engage in while undergoing manual-guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). Prior research has demonstrated that clients who receive specific skills training on how to assertively refuse drinks are less likely to relapse. Behavioral coding has been used previously to explore in-session behaviors by both client and therapist. Using this methodology, a coding manual (Drink Refusal and Motivation-Alcohol; DRAM-A) was developed for the present study. We sought to explore the relationship between differential types of drink refusal behaviors uttered by clients receiving treatment for AUD ...


Snapchat And Its Relationship To Alcohol Consumption And Associated Behaviours, Kellie S. Thomas May 2018

Snapchat And Its Relationship To Alcohol Consumption And Associated Behaviours, Kellie S. Thomas

Undergraduate Honours Theses

The current study examined the relationship between Snapchat use, alcohol consumption and associated behaviours and motivations. The participants in the study were 200 undergraduate students enrolled at Western University. Participants in the control condition watched a video made up of 11 Snapchats where subjects were consuming water, the experimental condition was identical except subjects were consuming alcoholic beverages. Regression analyses indicated that relationship management motivation (RMM) and self-enhancement motivation (SEM) were the most significant predictors across condition and gender. Implications are discussed.


The Effects Of Fantasy Role-Play On Bravery, Motivation, And Physiological Fear Responses While Playing Horror Video Games, Paul A. Giulietti May 2018

The Effects Of Fantasy Role-Play On Bravery, Motivation, And Physiological Fear Responses While Playing Horror Video Games, Paul A. Giulietti

Undergraduate Honours Theses

A prior study found that role-playing exercises might have the capacity to reduce people’s fear (Giulietti, 2017). The present experiment was designed to replicate, improve upon, and extend the results of the prior study. Participants were randomly assigned to role-play either as a brave and powerful wizard or an ordinary accountant before playing the computer horror game, Slender: The Eight Pages. While participants played, they imagined themselves as their respective role-play character, were observed for their bravery and motivation to complete the game’s objective, and had their skin conductance measured. No significant differences were found between conditions and ...


Gender And Subject Area Differences In Academic Metacognition And Motivation, Adelaide Jenkins Apr 2018

Gender And Subject Area Differences In Academic Metacognition And Motivation, Adelaide Jenkins

Senior Theses and Projects

This study was a continuation of the ongoing Trinity metacognition project investigating the metacognitive awareness and skills of middle school students. The present study examined whether there were gender differences in the ways metacognition is used in two different subject areas: social studies and math. It also investigated whether gender has an effect on how students use metacognition in these two school subjects. Students in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grade were surveyed about their metacognitive and motivational awareness in math and social studies. Results showed that female students used metacognition more than male students in both math and social ...


The Relationship Between Gender Role Conflict And Academic Progress Comparing Division Ii Male Student-Athletes To Male Non-Student-Athletes, Andrew Schroeder Mar 2018

The Relationship Between Gender Role Conflict And Academic Progress Comparing Division Ii Male Student-Athletes To Male Non-Student-Athletes, Andrew Schroeder

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Capstones

Data shows that there is a lack of progress in male graduation rates in recent decades in higher education (Diprete & Buchmann, 2013). This study examines the impact of gender role conflict and academic motivation on academic progress with first and second year Division II male student-athletes and male non-student-athletes at a Midwestern, Carnegie classified master’s college and university (larger program institution). Gender role conflict creates a narrow definition for masculinity in which males are expected to behave (O’Neil, 1981). Using general linear regression and binary logistic regression models, the researcher analyzed data of participants’ (N = 116; Nstudent-athletes = 58; Nnon-student-athletes = 58) scores on the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) factors and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) factors, alongside the participants’ athlete status (Yes or No), midterm GPA, and composite ACT (Vallerand, et al., 1992; O’Neil, et al., 1986). The study explained mixed findings about GRC and AMS predictors of midterm GPA. GRC factors of Restrictive Emotionality (RE) and Conflict Between Work Family – Leisure (CBWFR) were significant predictors of midterm GPA as a dependent variable, but ...


Assessing English Language Learners' Motivation To Participate In Classroom Discussion, Holly Griskell Jan 2018

Assessing English Language Learners' Motivation To Participate In Classroom Discussion, Holly Griskell

Master's Theses

This study assesses sixth-grade Spanish-speaking English Language Learners' (ELLs'; m age = 12.15 years old) participation and motivation to participate in classroom discussion through developing a 20-item measure, the Motivation for Classroom Discussion Questionnaire (MCD-Q) (Study 1 n = 258). We examined the relation between ELLs' bi-literacy and MCD-Q scores as well as amount of talk during discussion, measured by audio-recordings of their English Language Arts class (Study 2 n = 149). Study 1 findings indicated that the MCD-Q items cohered into five motivational constructs (value, language-efficacy, extrinsic motivation, social motivation, and interest). Study 2 findings showed the MCD-Q's predictive validity ...


Play Like You Mean It: Motivational Predictors Of Female Student Athletes' Practice And Game Performance, Zipporah Rebekah Foster Jan 2018

Play Like You Mean It: Motivational Predictors Of Female Student Athletes' Practice And Game Performance, Zipporah Rebekah Foster

Online Theses and Dissertations

The current study explores how motivational reasons for goals influence athletic performance on a women's basketball team. The purpose of the current study was to expand on past research associated with fluctuation of motivation in practice and game performance throughout a season. Participants (n = 15) in the current study were female student-athletes, who completed a motivational survey that measured Relationally-Autonomous Reasons (RARs), Personally-Autonomous Reasons (PARs), and Controlled Reasons (CRs). Athletic performance was measured by examining daily practice performance and game statistics for each athlete. The results of the current study showed that RARs were associated with game performance (p < .05), however PARs and CRs were not. RARs were positively associated with game performance whereas PARs were not. The association for RARs and game performance was stronger than RARs and practice performance. Overall, the findings confirm that RARs are associated with game performance in women's sports.


Professional School Counselors And Motivational Interviewing With Student Clients, Robert Pincus Jan 2018

Professional School Counselors And Motivational Interviewing With Student Clients, Robert Pincus

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Mental health counselors who counsel adolescents suffering from substance abuse and obesity issues have successfully used motivational interviewing with their clients; however there is little data that has explored motivational interviewing when it has been used to address academic concerns in schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors who have used motivational interviewing to improve student academic performance. This heuristic phenomenological qualitative study examined the perceptions and experiences of professional school counselors who had used motivational interviewing in their schools. Criterion sampling was used to recruit 9 middle and high schools counselors from ...


A Psychometric Evaluation Of The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (Tsrq) For Assessing Motivations For Responsible Drinking, Dylan Keith Richards Jan 2018

A Psychometric Evaluation Of The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (Tsrq) For Assessing Motivations For Responsible Drinking, Dylan Keith Richards

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Self-determination theory (SDT) may be useful for understanding alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences among college students. A version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ; Ryan & Connell, 1989) exists for assessing motivations proposed by SDT for responsible drinking, but no study has evaluated its psychometric properties. Thus, the purpose of the present studies was to provide a psychometric evaluation of this version of the TSRQ. In Study 1, among a convenience sample of college student drinkers (n = 308), a four-factor structure of the TSRQ that is theoretically consistent with SDT was supported; however, the amotivation subscale demonstrated unacceptable internal consistency. In Study 2, among a sample of college student drinkers (n = 192) who were recruited from a random sample of students, mixed evidence was found for the concurrent and incremental validity of the TSRQ. Generally, the findings of Study 2 support the proposals of SDT that motivations for responsible drinking exist on a continuum of self-determination and that motivation is increasingly related to positive alcohol-related outcomes as ...