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Increasing Self-Testing Behavior In Students Using An Online Educational Intervention, Adam Patrick Young Jan 2018

Increasing Self-Testing Behavior In Students Using An Online Educational Intervention, Adam Patrick Young

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Self-testing is one of the most reliable and powerful memory benefits known to cognitive science. Unfortunately, many students omit this strategy in favor of less effective study techniques such as restudying. The superiority of self-testing to restudying is known as the testing effect (e.g., Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a). Applied interventions have been used to attempt to increase self-testing behaviors in student populations, but have so far been unable to draw strong conclusions due to the indirectness of their measurements and incompleteness of their experimental design. Furthermore, these past interventions have been conducted entirely in person, limiting their practical utility relative ...


Metaphor To Memory: Effects Of Spatiotemporal Metaphors On The Emotional Valence Of Autobiographical Memories, Jayne B. Williamson-Lee Jan 2018

Metaphor To Memory: Effects Of Spatiotemporal Metaphors On The Emotional Valence Of Autobiographical Memories, Jayne B. Williamson-Lee

Undergraduate Honors Theses

English speakers conceptualize the passing of time in one of two ways: as events in time moving toward them (the time-moving perspective) or as themselves moving through time (the ego-moving perspective). Previous studies suggest that these construals of time have corresponding emotional valences (positive and negative, respectively), which influence perceptions of emotional experiences. This study investigates whether spatiotemporal metaphors evoke valence-specific memories – specifically whether the ego-moving perspective evokes positive memories and the time-moving perspective negative memories. Participants read statements depicting events in motion and wrote about autobiographical memories. Memories recalled were evaluated as positive or negative by the researcher. Results ...


Automaticity Of Digital Accessibility In Memorization, Kyler Miller Jan 2018

Automaticity Of Digital Accessibility In Memorization, Kyler Miller

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As computers and smartphones see more widespread use in society today, multiple studies have arisen to explore their effects on learning and memory, and if they are truly as beneficial a tool as they are understood to be. Prior research suggests that digital accessibility results in poorer encoding of information due to individuals automatically perceiving an increased availability because of computers’ more mainstream use. This study attempts to explore this effect through two experiments modeled after an experiment by Schwikert (2017) that presents stimuli to participants, telling them through pre-cues “Saved” and “Erased” that half of the stimuli will be ...


Decomposing The Effect Of Color On Memory: How Red And Blue Affect Memory Differently, Erin Krahn Jan 2018

Decomposing The Effect Of Color On Memory: How Red And Blue Affect Memory Differently, Erin Krahn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Color has been shown to have a beneficial effect on memory in the general population and in some clinical populations, such as those with dementia and autism. Many factors within the effect of color on memory have been tested, however the differences among colors has been largely ignored. This study aimed to close this gap by comparing the effects of red, blue, and black on recognition memory. In addition, this study was designed in a way that could help test one of the main theories on how color enhances memory, the attention and arousal theory. This theory posits that the ...


Human Memory In A Modern World: Identifying The Cognitive Mechanism Behind Poor Memory For Digitally Available Information, Shane Ross Schwikert Jan 2017

Human Memory In A Modern World: Identifying The Cognitive Mechanism Behind Poor Memory For Digitally Available Information, Shane Ross Schwikert

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The emergence of the Internet, and its connected devices, are fundamentally changing the way we interact with information. New technology has created affordances that both lessen the burden on human memory and facilitate access to a nearly infinite amount of knowledge. In six experiments, the current research sought to determine how increasing interactions with technology are affecting memory, and to identify the cognitive mechanisms that are driving those changes. Experiments 1a, 1b, and 2 implemented modified item-method directed forgetting paradigms to examine how future access to information affects subsequent memory. Results indicated that explicit information about future availability delivered as ...


Human Memory In A Modern World: Identifying The Cognitive Mechanism Behind Poor Memory For Digitally Available Information, Shane Ross Schwikert Jan 2017

Human Memory In A Modern World: Identifying The Cognitive Mechanism Behind Poor Memory For Digitally Available Information, Shane Ross Schwikert

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The emergence of the Internet, and its connected devices, are fundamentally changing the way we interact with information. New technology has created affordances that both lessen the burden on human memory and facilitate access to a nearly infinite amount of knowledge. In six experiments, the current research sought to determine how increasing interactions with technology are affecting memory, and to identify the cognitive mechanisms that are driving those changes. Experiments 1a, 1b, and 2 implemented modified item-method directed forgetting paradigms to examine how future access to information affects subsequent memory. Results indicated that explicit information about future availability delivered as ...


Is Note-Taking More Effective With A Keyboard Or A Pen?, Stacee M. Horwitz Jan 2017

Is Note-Taking More Effective With A Keyboard Or A Pen?, Stacee M. Horwitz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the educational system attempts to incorporate technology into the daily regimen, controversy over technology’s impact has escalated amongst students and teachers. This study researched the impact of longhand versus typed note-taking medium on test performance. Past research has discovered that longhand note taking of a video lecture outperforms typing notes for conceptual test questions (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). In Experiment 1, the purpose was to examine how longhand note taking compares to typing notes from a textbook passage, and also the effects of taking notes versus only receiving notes to review. The participants read a textbook passage and either ...


Functional Role Of Neural Oscillations In Attentional Inhibition And Long Term Memory Retrieval, Nicholas Ketz Jan 2016

Functional Role Of Neural Oscillations In Attentional Inhibition And Long Term Memory Retrieval, Nicholas Ketz

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

How does the brain selectively retrieve information from long term memory? What neural mechanisms are critical for this process, and how are these mechanisms brought into service in a task dependent way? What are the implications for the representations that are processed through these mechanisms, and can we use our understanding of them to better utilize encoding and retrieval of information in long term memory? These are some of the fundamental questions being addressed in this dissertation. Through the use of neural network models of the hippocampus and surrounding cortex this dissertation proposes a framework for understanding how time frequency ...


Distributed Practice And Distributed Representations: Investigating The Spacing Effect Using Eeg, Matthew Via Mollison Jan 2015

Distributed Practice And Distributed Representations: Investigating The Spacing Effect Using Eeg, Matthew Via Mollison

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The spacing effect shows that studying information at distributed intervals leads to better long-term memory than massing study episodes together over the same cumulative amount of time. Prior research has not made explicit predictions about neural activity in the EEG domain that should occur at different study repetition lags under different spacing effect theories. One main purpose of this thesis is to make these predictions in terms of the neural activity expected under different spacing effect hypotheses, whereas another is to test these predictions. Knowledge about neural patterns underlying the spacing effect can shed light on why this effect occurs ...


Remembering That Neutral Feeling? Enhanced Memory For Neutral, But Not Positive Or Negative, Emotional Stimuli In Bipolar I Disorder, Gaia Cooper Jan 2015

Remembering That Neutral Feeling? Enhanced Memory For Neutral, But Not Positive Or Negative, Emotional Stimuli In Bipolar I Disorder, Gaia Cooper

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is associated with heightened and persistent positive emotion (Gruber, 2011; Johnson, 2005). Yet we know less about underlying cognitive processes that may influence these observed biases in emotionality. One promising approach is to examine cognitive processes, such as declarative memory, that may serve as an important window into understanding how individuals with BD remember emotion-laden stimuli. The current study presented standardized positive, negative and neutral emotion eliciting images to remitted BD I adults (n=26) and healthy controls (CTL; n=24) and measured accuracy in recall after a subsequent 60-minute delay ...


Social, Demographic, And Environmental Influences On Perceptions And Memories Of Weather, Climate, And Climate Change, Julie Suzanne Malmberg Jan 2014

Social, Demographic, And Environmental Influences On Perceptions And Memories Of Weather, Climate, And Climate Change, Julie Suzanne Malmberg

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This research seeks to understand how people in the Denver metropolitan area perceive and remember weather, climate, and climate change and how social, demographic, and environmental factors might influence these perceptions and memories. To do this, an online survey was completed in 2006 and in-person interviews were conducted in 2010 and 2011. The online survey and the in-person interviews both asked questions about recent weather, seasonal climate for specific years, beliefs about climate change and human impact on climate change, and social and demographic information. During the 2010-2011 in-person interviews, ambient meteorological conditions were recorded. For climate recollections, overall accuracy ...


Classifcation Aided Analysis Of Oscillatory Signatures In Controlled Retrieval, Nicholas Ketz Jan 2013

Classifcation Aided Analysis Of Oscillatory Signatures In Controlled Retrieval, Nicholas Ketz

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Control over memory retrieval is a ubiquitous process within humans, yet this process and its implications are not yet well understood. The current work, inspired by a similar fMRI design (Detre, Natarajan, Gershman, & Norman, in press), uses a modified Think/No-Think(TNT) paradigm to investigate the neural signatures of volition over enhancing and suppressing memory retrieval. Previous studies in this domain have shown a memory enhancement when well learned stimulus-pairs are restudied in cued recall (Think of studied pair item), and a degradation in memory performance when restudied with cued suppression (Dont think of studied pair item). As is the ...


The Clicker Technique: Promoting Learning And Generalization While Conserving Teaching Time, Lindsay Senior Anderson Jan 2010

The Clicker Technique: Promoting Learning And Generalization While Conserving Teaching Time, Lindsay Senior Anderson

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The clicker technique is a newly developed system that uses frequent testing in the classroom to enhance students’ understanding and provide feedback to them. Under the clicker technique, instructors can use the performance of a class on clicker questions to determine whether or not information covered by the clicker questions needs further teaching, thus presenting itself as a potential method of conserving teaching time by dropping information known by a large portion of a group from future teaching time. Three experiments compared fact learning under the clicker technique, via its tendency to compress teaching time and its partially individualized instruction ...