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Memory

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Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber Oct 2019

Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber

Master's Theses

Previous research suggests that the processing of affordances may require more perceptually relevant information than words can provide (Surber et al., 2018; Chainay & Humphreys, 2002). The present study investigates this hypothesis with the shoebox task used in Bowers and Turner (2003). A list of 81 object nouns (targets) and associated features (primes: affordance, semantic, and non-associates) was compiled from the McRae, Cree, Seidenberg, and McNorgan (2005) norms. Affordances denote possibilities for action in relation to the object (e.g. chair – sit), whereas semantic features indicate definitional characteristics (e.g. chair – has legs). Affordances and semantic features served as primes in ...


Understanding The Effect Of Font Type On Reading Comprehension/Memory Under Time-Constraints, Elizabeth Dressler Aug 2019

Understanding The Effect Of Font Type On Reading Comprehension/Memory Under Time-Constraints, Elizabeth Dressler

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

This research study investigated the effects that font type and amount of time had on the reading comprehension. It was predicted that students restricted with time and given difficult-to-read font (Haettenschweiler) would perform more poorly because more cognitive resources are being utilized to decode the typography compared to an easy-to-read font (Times New Roman). Consequently, there would be fewer cognitive resources available to comprehend and remember the material. Previous research has consistently shown that subjects perform better from reading or memorizing words in difficult-to-read font. However, almost all previous research has consisted of short passages, thereby limiting ecological validity. Results ...


Multiple Species Of Distinctiveness In Memory: Separating Task Distinctiveness From Statistical Distinctiveness, Matthew Robert Gretz Jul 2019

Multiple Species Of Distinctiveness In Memory: Separating Task Distinctiveness From Statistical Distinctiveness, Matthew Robert Gretz

Master's Theses

Distinctiveness refers to the memorial benefit of processing unique or item-specific features of a memory set relative to a non-distinctive control. Traditional distinctiveness effects are accounted for based on qualitative differences in how distinctive items are encoded at the time of study. This thesis project aims to evaluate whether a different species of distinctiveness—statistical distinctiveness—may provide a separate contribution to memory beyond traditional encoding-based processes. Statistical distinctiveness refers to the relative frequency with which a specific memory item or set is processed. The current study evaluated statistical distinctiveness through a series of mixed groups in which DRM lists ...


Clustering, Switching & Verbal Fluency Assessment: A Critical Evaluation Of Introspection And Interview-Based Scoring Procedures, Antonio M. Bottos Jun 2019

Clustering, Switching & Verbal Fluency Assessment: A Critical Evaluation Of Introspection And Interview-Based Scoring Procedures, Antonio M. Bottos

Senior Honors Theses

Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) is a neuropsychological assessment that requires respondents to rapidly generate words in specified semantic categories (e.g., different kinds of animals). It provides information on the integrity of examinees’ executive function and semantic memory by looking at clustering of words generated and switching between clusters. According to recent literature, extant methods for scoring clustering and switching based on examiner-identified semantic associations among words should be abandoned in favor of scores derived from asking participants post hoc how they think they generated their words the way they did (Body & Muskett, 2013). Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that leading questions, a demand characteristic inherent in interviewing a participant after administering SVF, lead to more clusters, clustered words, cluster switches (CS) and decreased hard switches (HS) on interview-based scoring procedures across low demand and high demand queries – evidence supporting a threat to internal validity inherent in Body & Muskett’s (2013) claim and methodology. Cueing three semantic categories (e.g., pets, sea creatures, farm animals) before administering SVF was also found to increase mean number of clusters, clustered words, CS and decrease HS compared to un-cued groups – evidence consistent with literature (Abwender, Preston, & Steffenella, 2003; Hurks, 2012) Additionally, HS on SVF traditional scoring ...


Modeling Melodic Dictation, David John Baker Jun 2019

Modeling Melodic Dictation, David John Baker

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Melodic dictation is a cognitively demanding process that requires students to hear a melody, then without any access to an external reference, transcribe the melody within a limited time frame. Despite its ubiquity in curricula within School of Music settings, exactly how an individual learns a melody is not well understood. This dissertation aims to fill the gap in the literature between aural skills practitioners and music psychologists in order to reach conclusions that can be applied systematically in pedagogical contexts. In order to do this, I synthesize literature from music theory, music psychology, and music education in order to ...


Forget Me Not: Are Stronger Memories More Susceptible To Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?, Laura Lee Heisick Jun 2019

Forget Me Not: Are Stronger Memories More Susceptible To Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?, Laura Lee Heisick

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Successfully retrieving information sometimes causes forgetting of related, but unpracticed, information, termed retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). One explanatory mechanism of RIF suggests related, but currently irrelevant, information is inhibited during retrieval, resulting in poorer memory for competing representations. Critically, this perspective suggests stronger memories are more susceptible to RIF because stronger representations produce additional competition when unpracticed. To resolve this competition, strong competing items are inhibited, resulting in the counterintuitive prediction that stronger memories are more likely to be forgotten. The aim of the current experiments was to replicate and extend recent work suggesting non-typical objects and own-race faces, both of ...


Neurological Correlates Of The Dunning-Kruger Effect, Alana Lauren Muller Jun 2019

Neurological Correlates Of The Dunning-Kruger Effect, Alana Lauren Muller

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The Dunning-Kruger Effect is a metacognitive phenomenon in which individuals who perform poorly on a task believe they performed well, whereas individuals who performed very well believe their performance was only average. To date, this effect has only been investigated in the context of performance on mathematical, logical, or lexical tasks, but has yet to be explored for its generalizability in episodic memory task performance. We used a novel method to elicit the Dunning-Kruger Effect via a memory test of item and source recognition confidence. Participants studied 4 lists of words and were asked to make a simple decision about ...


Behavioral And Neural Correlates Of Misses During Cued Recall, Lindsey Sirianni Jun 2019

Behavioral And Neural Correlates Of Misses During Cued Recall, Lindsey Sirianni

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Recognition memory is thought to rely upon both recollection and familiarity. When people recall an episode from the past it is generally considered to reflect the memory process of recollection. Therefore, if people can successfully recall an item, they should be able to recognize it. However, in cued recall paradigms of memory research, participants sometimes correctly recall a studied target word in the presence of a strong semantic cue but then fail to recognize that word as actually having been studied. This paradox and underlying cognitive processes have been minimally studied by scientists, leaving this phenomenon poorly understood. Extant research ...


Fluency & Over The Counter Drug Warning Labels, Jonathan M. Cecire May 2019

Fluency & Over The Counter Drug Warning Labels, Jonathan M. Cecire

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Fluency is defined as the ease with which something is processed (Jacoby & Dallas, 1981; Okuhara, 2017). Recent research has shown that the fluency of a drug’s name can have an effect on people’s perceptions and evaluation judgments (Dohle & Siegrist, 2013, Dohle & Montoya, 2017). Research has also shown that the fluency of information can have an effect on people’s memory and performance (Diemand-Yauman, Oppenheimer, & Vaughan, 2011). The purpose of this study was to see how manipulating the fluency of warning labels could affect people’s perceptions, adherence, memory, and behaviors. Results showed that labels with fluent formats improved purchasing preferences and memory; labels with fluent colors were also shown to improve purchasing preferences. However, neither the fluency of the format nor color affected participant’s judgments of adherence or perceived hazardousness. The results are of particular importance because a product’s label is the key source of safety information for the consumer (Goyal et al., 2012).


The Revelation Effect In Autobiographical Memory, Vincent A. Medina May 2019

The Revelation Effect In Autobiographical Memory, Vincent A. Medina

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The revelation effect is a memory illusion in recognition memory where items are more likely to be considered old if they are immediately preceded by a cognitive task (for a review, see Abfalg, Bernstein, & Hockley, 2017). Recent research has shown that the revelation effect appears in past and future episodic judgments so long as the tasks are autobiographical in nature (Westerman, Miller, & Lloyd, 2017). Aging is a factor that has not yet been studied in the revelation effect literature in terms of autobiographical memory. It has implications because of aging’s significant impact on mental time travel. During this experiment ...


Over Certain Undecidedness These Heartstring Intimations, Martha Hemingway May 2019

Over Certain Undecidedness These Heartstring Intimations, Martha Hemingway

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

over certain undecidedness these heartstring intimations is the culmination of a two-year-long abstracted cycle of textured conversation, internal eye contact, and endless playlist-making. Hemingway’s work is based in process-oriented reflections on habitual behavior, manifestation of sentiment, and sense of self. Her paintings draw inspiration from the ways in which we approach and avoid our internal and external routines – how degrees of our subconscious considerations affect how we extend ourselves to others. Individual auditory preferences of different colliding souls have carved a space for her in a language of empathetic abstraction – attempting to elaborate the curious beauty and pain of ...


Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine May 2019

Emotion Processing In The Survival Paradigm, Destiny Valentine

Psychology

The literature shows that words processed according to their survival relevance typically produce a memory advantage. Similarly, words containing an emotional connotation tend to lead to better memory. The current study examined whether combining both the survival processing effect and the emotion processing advantage would cause an interaction that amplified the effects on memory. Using a modified version of the traditional survival processing paradigm, participants rated emotion words (positive, negative, or neutral) on their relevance to a survival context or home-moving control context. They were later given a surprise recall task for the rated words. The results did not show ...


Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson May 2019

Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson

Theses and Dissertations

The term “ambient images” has begun to show up in much of the current literature on facial recognition. Ambient images refer to naturally occurring views of a face that captures the idiosyncratic ways in which a target face may vary (Ritchie & Burton, 2017). Much of the literature on ambient images have concluded that exposing people to ambient images of a target face can lead to improved facial recognition for that target face. Some studies have even suggested that familiarity is the result of increased exposure to ambient images of a target face (Burton, Kramer, Ritchie, & Jenkins, 2016). The current study ...


The Effects Of Language In Music On Memory, Cat Terrell Apr 2019

The Effects Of Language In Music On Memory, Cat Terrell

Undergraduate Theses

This thesis focused on the effect of both instrumental and vocal music on performance on cognitive tests designed to test memory in order to gain more insight into whether the presence of language in music affects memory. Four hypotheses were tested concerning the effect of music type, question type, the interaction of the two, and personal experience with music/music training on memory assessment performance. The study found no significant effect of background condition on memory assessment performance, a significant effect of question type on memory assessment performance, no significant effect of the interaction between background condition and question type ...


The Effects Of Cognitive Stimulation Of Instagram On Anxiety, Fear Of Missing Out, Memory, And Self-Esteem, Anna Destino Apr 2019

The Effects Of Cognitive Stimulation Of Instagram On Anxiety, Fear Of Missing Out, Memory, And Self-Esteem, Anna Destino

Undergraduate Theses and Capstone Projects

With the increasing use of social media in the daily lives of undergraduate college students, it is important to investigate the effects of social media on psychological well-being and cognitive function. Lillard and Peterson (2011) found that overstimulating children’s televisions shows, such as SpongeBob, negatively impacted children’s impulsive behaviors and attention. The current research focused on emerging adults and considered the effect of overstimulation of social media, specifically Instagram, on anxiety level, self-esteem, fear of missing out (FoMo), and memory. Participants were randomly assigned into either the control (coloring on an Ipad) or experimental (Instagram stimulation) group and ...


A Wizard Hat For The Brain: Predicting Long-Term Memory Retention Using Electroencephalography, Noah Libby Jan 2019

A Wizard Hat For The Brain: Predicting Long-Term Memory Retention Using Electroencephalography, Noah Libby

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Learning is a ubiquitous process that transforms novel information and events into stored memory representations that can later be accessed. As a learner acquires new information, any feature of a memory that is shared with other memories may produce some level of retrieval- competition, making accurate recall more difficult. One of the most effective ways to reduce this competition and create distinct representations for potentially confusable memories is to practice retrieving all of the information through self-testing with feedback. As a person tests themself, competition between easily-confusable memories (e.g. memories that share similar visual or semantic features) decreases and ...


Stress Of College Students And Memory With The Implementation Of Brief Mindfulness, Rebecca Lopez Jan 2019

Stress Of College Students And Memory With The Implementation Of Brief Mindfulness, Rebecca Lopez

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

College students are faced with stressors which can negatively impact memory function, thereby, negatively affecting academic performance. This study used a field experiment design to investigate the effects of brief mindfulness on levels of distress and memory functioning between first-year community college students engaging in a brief mindfulness intervention (n = 29) and a control group (n = 28) by using ANCOVA, MANOVA, correlations, and descriptive statistics. Research questions examined whether a brief mindfulness intervention lowered levels of distress in a treatment group. Second, the study examined whether the intervention of brief mindfulness in a treatment group improved memory function. Finally, the ...


The Role Of Encoding Specificity In Incidental Learning: Implications For Explicit And Implicit False Memories, Cassady Mclaughlin Jan 2019

The Role Of Encoding Specificity In Incidental Learning: Implications For Explicit And Implicit False Memories, Cassady Mclaughlin

Theses and projects

This research investigated false memories via spreading activation and the influence of encoding specificity on explicit and implicit memory tests in incidental learning situations. It was hypothesized that congruent conditions would have higher rates of both false memories for associated items as well as more accurate memories for presented items. It was also expected that this effect would be larger among those in implicit memory conditions compared to explicit conditions. The participants (n=175) were presented with Deese-Roediger-McDermott semantically associated word lists via a Stroop task, in which they were not told to remember the words presented, but to instead ...


The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor Sep 2018

The Relationship Between Cognitive And Neural Bases Of Metamemory Judgments, Alexandra M. Gaynor

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Metamemory monitoring, the process of making subjective assessments of the status of one’s own memory, is crucial to guiding behavior and effective learning. Past cognitive research has shown that subjective confidence judgments are inferential in nature, and based on cues available at the time of the judgment. When confidence is based on cues that are related to objective memory performance, metamemory accuracy is high. However, past studies have shown that metamemory monitoring tends to be inaccurate because individuals base their confidence on information that is not predictive of memory success, such as the fluency with which items were encoded ...


Rumination And Rebound From Failure: Investigating How Trait And State Forms Of Ruminative Thought Influence Attention To Errors And The Ability To Correct Them In A Challenging Academic Environment, Ronald C. Whiteman Sep 2018

Rumination And Rebound From Failure: Investigating How Trait And State Forms Of Ruminative Thought Influence Attention To Errors And The Ability To Correct Them In A Challenging Academic Environment, Ronald C. Whiteman

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Rumination is a recurrent and repetitive manner of thinking that can be triggered by blockage of personally-relevant goals, creating a temporary state of abstract and evaluative self-focus that can also become a chronic trait-like style of responding to personal challenges. Despite claims that rumination helps down-regulate unwanted emotion, cope with problems, and lead to goal attainment, it often increases negative affect, interferes with problem solving, and exacerbates goal-state discrepancies, particularly for women. Given the pervasiveness of rumination and its potential impact on cognitive processes and emotional states, one important yet untested question is how it might impact individuals’ ability to ...


Effects Of Context And Individual Differences On Memory For Prior Remembering., Marcus L. Leppanen Aug 2018

Effects Of Context And Individual Differences On Memory For Prior Remembering., Marcus L. Leppanen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Though people often remember experiences from their lives, they are also able to remember whether a memory has previously been retrieved, which is known as memory for prior remembering. Frequent failures of memory for prior remembering can have negative consequences on how people perceive their own cognitive health. The recurrence of traumatic memory retrieval can be interpreted as a consequence of intrusive memory for prior remembering. This dissertation was conducted to improve our understanding of the factors that influence the efficacy of memory for prior remembering. The two factors that were investigated were context change and individual differences. Participants (N ...


An Analysis Of Innovate Training With Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Raymond John Van Steyn Jul 2018

An Analysis Of Innovate Training With Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Raymond John Van Steyn

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland conducted a training program in 2014 to develop a gestural command for their dolphins called “innovate”. This training paradigm was developed to resemble the seminal research by Pryor, Haag and O’Reilly (1969), as well as more recent efforts of Braslau-Schneck (1993) and Kuczaj and Eskelinen (2014) of training dolphins to offer “creative” behaviors not developed through conventional methods of behavioral modification, such as shaping. The goal of the present study was to observe records taken during the National Aquarium’s training procedure as well as data collected ~3 years after said training in ...


The Effects Of Conceptually Driven Versus Data-Driven Encoding On Traumatic Memory Amplification, Kelsey N. Barnett Jun 2018

The Effects Of Conceptually Driven Versus Data-Driven Encoding On Traumatic Memory Amplification, Kelsey N. Barnett

Student Theses

Our research examines whether the way in which a person encodes a traumatic experience affects their post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and ability to remember the trauma over time. In our first study, we were interested in establishing whether people have any existing beliefs about how encoding processes influence the development of PTSD. In line with Ehlers and Clark’s (2000) theory, we hypothesized that people would be more likely to indicate that exclusively paying attention to sensory details during a traumatic event contributes to the formation of traumatic memories and PTSD. To test this hypothesis, we designed a ...


Mind In Hand, Anna Olson May 2018

Mind In Hand, Anna Olson

Bachelor of Fine Arts Senior Papers

This thesis explores the intersection of art and psychology as it manifests in my art practice, particularly in the medium of weaving. The contemporary frameworks of memory and archive provide the basis of this discussion, as well as findings from the field of Art Therapy. Difficult emotions like loss and grief often show up in my work, and I will discuss how artists like Felix Gonzalez-Torres and Sophie Calle also utilize these concepts. In weaving, I capture my internal mental states, memories, and perceptions of the future in a variety of found and gifted objects. Guided by the precedents set ...


If My Grandmother Had Wheels She'd Be A Trolley Car: The Accumulation Of Objects, Encounters And The Passage Of Time, Sara Weininger May 2018

If My Grandmother Had Wheels She'd Be A Trolley Car: The Accumulation Of Objects, Encounters And The Passage Of Time, Sara Weininger

Graduate School of Art Theses

The house is the structure. Within the house are rooms, spaces, hallways and corners. In those live the objects.The objects live on surfaces, surfaces that much like the previous layers, are made up of many things, most certainly not one thing. A static object may hold a series of other objects, spaces and events. A static object may also embody the passage of time.Though one may try to hold the object at a constant, that is to slow or even bring a halt to its motion, this task is near impossible.

Bird Box House, Bear Box Dresser, Lamp ...


Modeling Memory: Exploring The Relationship Between Word Overlap And Single Word Norms When Predicting Judgments And Recall, Nicholas Pruett Maxwell May 2018

Modeling Memory: Exploring The Relationship Between Word Overlap And Single Word Norms When Predicting Judgments And Recall, Nicholas Pruett Maxwell

MSU Graduate Theses

This study examined the interactive relationship between associative, semantic, and thematic word pair strength when predicating item relatedness judgments and cued-recall performance. In Experiment One, 112 participants were shown word pairs with varied levels of associative, semantic, and thematic overlap (measured with forward strength, cosine, and latent semantic analysis) and were asked to judge how related item pairs were before taking a cued-recall test. Experiment One had four goals. First, the judgment of associative memory task (JAM) was expanded to include three types of judgments. Next, the and interaction between database norms (FSG, COS, and LSA) was for when predicting ...


Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, Lilliana May Sanchez Apr 2018

Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Performance In An Object-Place-Paired-Associate Task, Lilliana May Sanchez

Psychology ETDs

Memory impairments, including spatial and object processing, are often observed in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Much attention has been directed towards the hippocampus, which displays significant alterations after moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In the present study, we tested a moderate PAE rat model in an object-place-paired-associate (OPPA) task, previously shown to require hippocampal processing. The OPPA task was composed of training rats to discriminate between an identical pair of objects presented in 180° opposite arms of a radial arm maze. Animals were given a total of 10 trials per day over 14 consecutive days of training and ...


A Study Of Flight Simulation Training Time, Aircraft Training Time, And Pilot Competence As Measured By The Naval Standard Score, Aaron D. Judy Apr 2018

A Study Of Flight Simulation Training Time, Aircraft Training Time, And Pilot Competence As Measured By The Naval Standard Score, Aaron D. Judy

Doctor of Education (Ed.D)

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between US Navy T-45C flight simulation training time, actual aircraft training time, and intermediate and advanced jet pilot competence as measured by the Naval Standard Score (NSS). Examining the relationships between US Navy T-45C flight simulation time and actual aircraft flight time may provide further information on flight simulation training versus actual aircraft training to aviation authorities, flight instructors, the military aviation community, the commercial aviation community, and academia. The study was non-experimental, correlational, causal-comparative with an emphasis upon the establishment of mathematic and predictive relationships using archival data from ...


Towards Improving Learning With Consumer-Grade, Closed-Loop, Electroencephalographic Neurofeedback, Zall Soren Hirschstein Jan 2018

Towards Improving Learning With Consumer-Grade, Closed-Loop, Electroencephalographic Neurofeedback, Zall Soren Hirschstein

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Learning is an enigmatic process composed of a multitude of cognitive systems that are functionally and neuroanatomically distinct. Nevertheless, two undeniable pillars which underpin learning are attention and memory; to learn, one must attend, and maintain a representation of, an event. Psychological and neuroscientific technologies that permit researchers to “mind-read” have revealed much about the dynamics of these distinct processes that contribute to learning. This investigation first outlines the cognitive pillars which support learning and the technologies that permit such an understanding. It then employs a novel task—the amSMART paradigm—with the goal of building a real-time, closed-loop, electroencephalographic ...


Recognition Memory Revisited: An Aging And Electrophysiological Investigation, Elliott C. Jardin Jan 2018

Recognition Memory Revisited: An Aging And Electrophysiological Investigation, Elliott C. Jardin

ETD Archive

This study provides a better understanding of contributing factors to age differences in human episodic memory. A recurrent finding in recognition memory is that older adults tend to have lower overall accuracy and tend to make fewer false-alarm errors in judging new items, relative miss errors (Coyne, Allen & Wickens, 1986; Danziger, 1980; Poon and Fozard 1980). Two possible causes for decline in these abilities include an age-related decrement in speed of processing (Salthouse 1991) and changes in information processing ability due to entropy (Allen, Kaufman, Smitch, & Propper 1998a; Mallik et al., in preparation). Additionally, age differences may be partially explained by a tendency for ...