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Further Development Of A Supervision System For Behavior Analysts To Support Evidence-Based Supervision Practices, Katie Lynn Garza Apr 2018

Further Development Of A Supervision System For Behavior Analysts To Support Evidence-Based Supervision Practices, Katie Lynn Garza

Dissertations

Effective supervision for individuals seeking certification from the Behavior Analyst Certification Board® (BACB) has been a recent focus in the field of behavior analysis (BACB, 2012). While the organizational behavior management (OBM) literature is rich with evidence for specific performance-improvement techniques, there is a lack of research on supervision systems specifically for supervising individuals seeking to obtain the Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) credential. Furthermore, studies to date have not examined what it takes for systems to meet their missional objectives while simultaneously providing training and supervision to trainees. This descriptive, process-oriented study sought to analyze the disconnects within a ...


The Role Of Personality Traits On Goal Commitment: A Moderation Analysis, Matthew Hendrick Mellegers Mar 2018

The Role Of Personality Traits On Goal Commitment: A Moderation Analysis, Matthew Hendrick Mellegers

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Managers and researchers alike have long yearned for a solution to garner peak performance from employees. With the use Locke and Latham’s goal setting theory as a motivational foundational principle, goal commitment was predicted from four primary personality traits commonly found in scientific literature: general self-efficacy, conscientiousness, honesty/humility, and learning goal orientation. The possible moderation effect of goal difficulty on these relationships was also explored. 248 undergraduate students at California State University, San Bernardino were presented personality inventories, followed by an anagram word task, and were assigned to either an easy or hard goal condition. Goal commitment was ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Various Feedback Presentations On Typing Accuracy And Speed, Julieanne Guadalupe Feb 2018

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Various Feedback Presentations On Typing Accuracy And Speed, Julieanne Guadalupe

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In organizational behavior management, performance feedback is often described as information that is presented to a performer that enables a change in his or her future performance. Performance feedback is frequently used in combination with other procedures in applied settings. Despite its popularity, it is unclear whether performance feedback is more effective alone or in combination with procedures identified as behavioral consequences or antecedents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine which combination of performance feedback was most effective to improve typing accuracy and speed. Participants were assigned to one of four groups: (1) no feedback group, (2 ...


Cognitive Origin Of Reported Goals, Nikolas M. Pate Aug 2017

Cognitive Origin Of Reported Goals, Nikolas M. Pate

MSU Graduate Theses

Goal setting theory assumes that goals that drive self-regulation exist in ‘goal structures’ and that asking participants to report their goals draws from these pre-existing structures. This study tested this assumption of pre-existing goals against the notion that goals are generated by goal-setters at the time they are requested to report their goals. A model of working memory was used to differentiate between goals existing in memory or goals generated on the spot. Participants were 211 students from a large Midwestern public university, randomly assigned to one of two groups. The experimental group participants reported their career goals while also ...


The Effects Of Motivation And Goal Setting On Response Latency And Mental Effort, Jessica K. Willis Aug 2017

The Effects Of Motivation And Goal Setting On Response Latency And Mental Effort, Jessica K. Willis

MSU Graduate Theses

Researchers have found that performance is enhanced when participants set goals that are specific, difficult, and perceived as attainable. Also, motivation contributes to performance; specifically, intrinsic motivation, approach motivation, and avoidance motivation. Ninety participants were assigned randomly to one of two motivation groups; a goal setting or a control and assessed over a series of memory problems; solvable and unsolvable. Participant’s response latencies (RL) following an unsolvable problem was examined as a function of motivation type. Based upon the results from a 2 (Group; goal setting vs control) X 2 (test order) X 2 (memory problem difference scores) mixed ...


Fostering Hope In Alternative Education Students Through Goal Setting, Ginger Wayland May 2017

Fostering Hope In Alternative Education Students Through Goal Setting, Ginger Wayland

Educational Specialist

Many students in alternative education programs have significant academic and behavioral difficulties that cannot be reasonably accommodated in the general education setting. These students have typically experienced a considerable amount of failure throughout their lives. The impact of experiencing failure can make it difficult for students to feel positive about their potential future success and lead them on a trajectory for failure. On the contrary, research supports that people with high levels of hope are more likely to experience multiple positive life outcomes. The following study evaluates the effectiveness of a hope intervention on increasing positive outcomes in alternative education ...


Evaluation Of The Effect Of A Behavioural Coaching Intervention On Faculty Adoption Of Technology-Enhanced Teaching Practices, Nicole M. Domonchuk May 2016

Evaluation Of The Effect Of A Behavioural Coaching Intervention On Faculty Adoption Of Technology-Enhanced Teaching Practices, Nicole M. Domonchuk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

College faculty members face increased pressure to incorporate technology into their teaching approach. However, without the support of comprehensive professional development, it is unlikely that they will adopt effective practices that enhance student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a behavioural coaching intervention comprised of goal setting, performance feedback, modeling, instructions, and rehearsal on faculty adoption of technology-enhanced teaching practices. A small group of college faculty members (n= 6) participated in weekly coaching sessions for the duration of one academic semester. A changing criterion design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention ...


Can Small Details Bring Big Success? Construal Levels As Academic Goal Strategies, Christopher R. Deitrick May 2015

Can Small Details Bring Big Success? Construal Levels As Academic Goal Strategies, Christopher R. Deitrick

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

One avenue to help students reach educational goals is implementation intentions, a tool encouraging

planning the “when, where, and how” of goal-oriented actions (Gollwitzer, 1999). However,

implementation intentions need validating outside of the laboratory (Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006). To

help do so, they can be viewed through Construal-Level Theory (CLT), which explains why we may have

trouble setting intentions before we can fulfill them (Trope & Liberman 2010). A study was conducted

wherein 56 participants from a section of PSYC 330 either wrote about their college study habits or

completed implementation intentions preparing them to study for an upcoming exam. As they wrote,

participants also completed measures of construal-levels. It was hypothesized that implementation

intentions would immediately reduce construal levels and, over the following week, increase time

students studied for their exam and the score they received. None of these hypotheses were supported;

implementation intentions had no effect on study habits, exam scores, or construal levels. Results and

their implications are discussed.


The Effects Of Incentive Pay Systems With Tiered Goals On Performance, Daniel B. Sundberg May 2015

The Effects Of Incentive Pay Systems With Tiered Goals On Performance, Daniel B. Sundberg

Dissertations

This study examined the relative effects of three incentive pay systems, piece-rate pay, threshold piece-rate pay, and bonus pay, on performance when individuals were given the same five-tiered performance goals. A fourth system, wage pay, served as a control. The task was a computerized simulation of a medical data entry job and the primary dependent variable was the number of correctly completed patient records. Sixty-six college students were randomly assigned to one of the four pay conditions, and attended one 60-minute covariate session and five 60-minute experimental sessions. Participants in the wage pay condition earned $6.50 per session; those ...


The Effects Of Tiered Goals And Bonus Pay On Performance, Jessica L. Urschel May 2015

The Effects Of Tiered Goals And Bonus Pay On Performance, Jessica L. Urschel

Dissertations

This study examined the relative effects of tiered goals, difficult goals, and moderate goals on performance when individuals earned bonus pay for goal achievement. The experimental design was a 3 x 2 mixed factorial design. Participants were 44 undergraduate students performing a computerized data entry task that simulated the job of a medical data entry clerk. For each session, participants were paid a $4 base salary plus bonus pay contingent on goal achievement. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a) a multiple, tiered goal level condition, in which participants earned $1 in bonus pay for achieving an ...


The Effects Of Task Autonomy And Task Interest On Goal-Setting Behavior And Task Performance, Megan E. Crane Jan 2012

The Effects Of Task Autonomy And Task Interest On Goal-Setting Behavior And Task Performance, Megan E. Crane

ETD Archive

Task autonomy and task interest have been studied in the organizational literature as main effects, demonstrating positive effects on productive work behavior and goal-setting behavior. Providing high task autonomy or an interesting task may stimulate goal setting, but the interaction of these two variables may significantly increase goal level and consequently task performance. Yet, little research has examined this interaction on individuals' goal-setting behavior, when given the opportunity to self-set goals. The purpose of this research is to discover whether the effects of task autonomy on self-set goals are stronger for tasks that are more interesting. Furthermore, I assessed the ...


The Development Of An Online Interactive Resource For Enhancing Motivation In Swimmers, Richard Judson Clark Jun 2011

The Development Of An Online Interactive Resource For Enhancing Motivation In Swimmers, Richard Judson Clark

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

The Development of an Online Interactive Resource for Enhancing Motivation in Swimmers

Richard Judson Clark

Research pertaining to motivation in athletics and the link that it has to continued participation in sport is widespread. Despite the resources available, adolescents continue to drop out of sports at alarming rates. The purpose of this project was to create an online tool and resource center to enhance motivation in swimmers that participate in a year-round swim program in San Luis Obispo, California. The development of the site http://athletenet.net was created based on research linked to the Self-Determination, Cognitive Evaluation, Reversal ...


The Relationship Between Participation In Goal Setting, Company Size And Performance, Commitment, Acceptance And Job Satisfaction In The United States And Macedonia., Kristin Michelle King May 2003

The Relationship Between Participation In Goal Setting, Company Size And Performance, Commitment, Acceptance And Job Satisfaction In The United States And Macedonia., Kristin Michelle King

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While some researchers have suggested that participative goal setting increases performance, acceptance, commitment, and satisfaction, others have suggested that it does not. Additionally, much research on goal setting has been done in the US while none has been done in Macedonia.

The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between participation in goal setting and company size on these variables and to determine if there are differences in the effects of participation in goal setting in the US and Macedonia. The independent variables were country, company size, and type of participation and dependent variables were performance, commitment, acceptance ...


Task Experience, Assigned Goals, And Performance Norms As Determinants Of Goal Choice And Performance, Jon Shanahan Apr 1994

Task Experience, Assigned Goals, And Performance Norms As Determinants Of Goal Choice And Performance, Jon Shanahan

Student Work

A cognitive mediation model of goal setting (Garland, 1985; Meyer & Gellatly, 1988) is explored from a perspective that combines the social information processing, expectancy-valence, and control systems literatures. Assigned goals, performance norms, and task experience are viewed as information sources that influence goal choice, and therefore effort and performance, through performance expectancy (expectancy of success) and performance valence (anticipated satisfaction with any given performance level). Subjects were 100 introductory psychology and sociology students who participated in exchange for extra credit. Subjects performed a card sorting task and were assigned to one of five treatment conditions. Each experimental subject was assigned either a difficult or easy goal in conjunction with a high or low performance norm. Control subjects did not receive assigned goals, nor were they provided with normative information. Following a baseline period used to assess ability, all subjects participated in four trials which served as repeated measures of the task experience effect. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no goal or norm main effects on any of the five dependent variables contained in the cognitive mediation model (performance, effort, personal goal, performance expectancy, or performance valence). Goal x experience and norm x experience interactions were anticipated for each of the five dependent variables. However, there were no interactions of norms with experience, and only two of the goal x experience interactions emerged: Relative to easy goals, difficult goals initially were associated with higher personal goals and lower valences, but the differences rapidly diminished. A strong effect of experience on performance was found, with performance increasing in later trials. However, the term "practice effect" may not be applicable because there were strong experience effects on all four antecedent variables: As subjects gained experience, they reported higher performance expectancies, lower valences, higher personal goals, and greater effort. These findings are consistent with a past performance interpretation in which individuals ignore social cues such as assigned goals and performance norms, and set personal goals according to their own previous performance levels. The findings offer limited support for the proposed cognitive mediation model. A revised model in which past performance is substituted for goals and norms would better fit the data.

The notion that challenging goals enhance performance has become more of an axiom than a research question, and researchers have turned to the antecedents of goal acceptance and commitment. But few goal setting studies have addressed the role of experience. A possible explanation o f the present findings is that subjects with experience overlook assigned goals and other social cues in favor of their own previous performance levels. They then form expectancy-valence attitudes which, as in the original model, directly influence personal goals. In turn, personal goals influence effort, which determines performance. The regression results offer some support for this past performance argument and for portions of the proposed cognitive mediation model. However, an essential element of the model was not supported: There was no evidence for the path between personal goal and performance. Without this path, there is no mechanism by which expectancies and valences may influence performance.

Conclusions are at best speculative due to certain limitations of the study. For example, in real work settings there exist strong incentives for accepting challenging assigned goals; the study lacked these incentives. The experimental setting also lacked the social pressures that exist in actual work situations. Suggestions for future research are discussed.


The Effects Of Locus Of Control And Method Of Goal Setting On Task Motivation, Paula Coburn Apr 1990

The Effects Of Locus Of Control And Method Of Goal Setting On Task Motivation, Paula Coburn

Student Work

Motivation is a central issue in academics. Previous research has shown that goal setting is one method of increasing motivation, with specific goals being more motivating than nonspecific, do your best goals. Research has also shown that self-selected goals increase motivation more than externally imposed goals. The present study examined the effects of self-selected, externally imposed, and do your best goals on task motivation when the personality factor locus of control was controlled by blocking subject groups. It was shown that an interaction exists between method of goal setting and locus of control. It was also found that method of ...


An Application Of The Investment Model For Examining The Effects Of Commitment, Self-Efficacy, And Goal Difficulty On Performance, Brian J. Kaufman Apr 1990

An Application Of The Investment Model For Examining The Effects Of Commitment, Self-Efficacy, And Goal Difficulty On Performance, Brian J. Kaufman

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This research was designed to test the presumed effects of commitment, self-efficacy, and goal difficulty level on task performance. The investment model of commitment was used to experimentally manipulate commitment levels. Eighty subjects served as their own controls. For a computer typing task, performance baseline was established, then subjects performed additional trials under various commitment-to-study, commitment-to-job, and goal difficulty conditions. Seven hypotheses were tested. Analyses were conducted to determine main effects of commitment-to-study, commitment-to-job, commitment-to-goals and interaction effects among experimental conditions.

Performance score differences were significant for speed, but not accuracy across high and low commitment levels, supporting the hypothesis ...


A Longitudinal Test Of A Proposed Vie Theoretic Control Systems Model Of Self-Regulated Human Performance, Vernon A. Peterson Jan 1990

A Longitudinal Test Of A Proposed Vie Theoretic Control Systems Model Of Self-Regulated Human Performance, Vernon A. Peterson

Student Work

Research by Campion and Lord (1982) suggested that the goal-setting process could be explicated by a control systems model of self-regulated behavior. However, as noted by Campion and Lord (1982), the model did not specify the process performers used to select their standards. To address this deficiency and to further specify the control process, I proposed an expanded model of human performance: an integration of VIE theory (Vroom, 1964) and control systems theory (Carver & Scheier, 1981). The model posited that performers select standards of performance based on their motivational force. It also specified when cognitive or behavioral control responses would ...


Levels And Conditions Of Goal Acceptance, Kim James Kohlhepp Mar 1985

Levels And Conditions Of Goal Acceptance, Kim James Kohlhepp

Student Work

The role of goal acceptance in goal setting theory was investigated through the application of Reiman's theory of social influence and multilevel models of goal acceptance. Subjects were 144 undergraduate students. A 2X2X2 factorial design was employed. The three factors were: (a) antecedents of compliance (reward versus no reward), (b) antecedents of internalization (high value relevance versus low value relevance), and (c) goal specificity (specified goals versus non-specified goals). Three measures of goal acceptance were differentially affected by the manipulations: (a) A measure of intention to complete was uniformly high and not affected by the manipulations. (b) Perceived effort ...


The Impact Of Assigned, Conflicting Goals On Task Performance, Daniel P. Whitenak Dec 1984

The Impact Of Assigned, Conflicting Goals On Task Performance, Daniel P. Whitenak

Student Work

Previous research has strongly supported Locke's theory of goal-setting: given specific, difficult, accepted goals with proper feedback, individual performance w ill improve relative to others not given a goal. A possible exception to this theory might be the setting of goals that conflict or require widely different strategies for task completion. The present study employed a 2 x 2 factorial design (presence/absence of a quantity and a quality goal) to investigate the impact of conflicting goals on task performance. Results showed that assigned, conflicting goals do not provide an exception to the goal-setting/performance relationship since significan t ...


The Relationship Of Goal Setting, Extrinsic Motivation And Performance Outcome To Expectancies, Causal Attributions, And Goal Acceptance And Commitment, Nelson Adrian Jul 1981

The Relationship Of Goal Setting, Extrinsic Motivation And Performance Outcome To Expectancies, Causal Attributions, And Goal Acceptance And Commitment, Nelson Adrian

Student Work

Locke’s (1968) theory of goal setting stipulates that specific, hard goals, if accepted, lead to better performance than do less difficult goals. Locke suggests that conscious intentions are the underlying determinants of performance. However, Locke was more concerned with testing the results of these conscious intentions (goals) than with understanding the cognitions and motivation behind them. While some research has begun to consider the motivational components of goal setting (e.g., Terborg, 1976) very little attention has been given to the factors which determine goal acceptance.

Recently, Mento, Cartledge, and Locke (1980) have suggested that Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) theory may ...


Effects Of Participation In Goal Setting When Task Ability And Goal Difficulty Are Held Constant, Melvin G. Cash Jul 1980

Effects Of Participation In Goal Setting When Task Ability And Goal Difficulty Are Held Constant, Melvin G. Cash

Student Work

Undergraduate psychology students (N = 60) were randomly assigned to do-your-best, assigned, or participative goal-setting conditions. The sample was split at the mean on the basis of scores received on a clerical test, resulting in low- and high-ability groups. Specific Goals led to higher performance than did the do-your-best goals. With task ability and goal difficulty held, constant, there was no significant difference between the assigned and participative conditions on goal attainment, goal acceptance, or performance.

When the groups were split on ability, only the low ability group performed significantly better than the do-your-best group. Two reasons are suggested to explain ...


The Effects Of Participation In Goal Setting And Methods Selection, James G. Jones Aug 1973

The Effects Of Participation In Goal Setting And Methods Selection, James G. Jones

Student Work

Eighty undergraduate students who were enrolled in introductory psychology classes were used to determine the effects which participation in decision-making on a goal directed task has on performance and attitudes. The Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, defined by type of participation in decision-making. The Ss were either permitted to select or were assigned performance goals and were either permitted to select or were assigned a sequence in which to perform an arithmetic task.

The results of the study suggest that type of participation in decision-making can under certain circumstances have significant effects on performance attitudes ...