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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

Gender

Western University

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Rudeness Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: How Gender Impacts Reactions To Incivility At Work, Sarah Carver May 2019

Rudeness Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: How Gender Impacts Reactions To Incivility At Work, Sarah Carver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although incivility is a widely studied topic in IO Psychology, little is known about how gender influences observer reactions to incivility. Using experimental vignettes, we examined how gender of the observer, instigator, and target influenced observer reactions to identical uncivil behaviours. Women observers reported stronger negative reactions to incivility than men. Additionally, results revealed that uncivil behaviour between a man instigator and man target provoked fewer negative reactions compared to women engaging in the same behaviour. Thus, men engaging in incivility against other men may be disregarded as just ‘boys being boys’, whereas women engaging in the same behaviour may ...


Female And Male Perpetrators Of Domestic Homicide: A Gendered Phenomenon?, Jackie Salas Apr 2019

Female And Male Perpetrators Of Domestic Homicide: A Gendered Phenomenon?, Jackie Salas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Domestic violence is a global issue extending across regional, cultural, and social boundaries. In 2017, 137 women across the world were killed everyday by intimate partners or relatives. By far, women over-represent victims of domestic violence and domestic homicide across time. Although disproportionate, equally concerning is the issue of violence against men. Researchers have started to question whether the risk factors related to male and female’s use of violence is gendered, however no clear consensus has been reached. A retrospective case analysis was completed using domestic homicide cases reviewed by the Domestic Violence Death Review Committee based in Ontario ...


The Impact Of Beauty, Body Image, And Health Discourses On Eating Disorder Risk In South Asian-Canadian Women, Nazia Bhatti Feb 2018

The Impact Of Beauty, Body Image, And Health Discourses On Eating Disorder Risk In South Asian-Canadian Women, Nazia Bhatti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study explores socio-cultural influences that impact South Asian women’s self-perceptions and eating behaviours. The findings revealed that cultural gender ideologies played a substantial role in shaping the way women view themselves and their bodies. The analysis of interviews conducted with seven South Asian-Canadian women between the ages of 19-29 years, demonstrate that women’s perceptions of their own physical appearance is framed within the context of their South Asian cultural identity and cultural norms. This study was approached through the lens of post-colonial feminism by examining cultural factors that contribute to South Asian women’s increased risk for ...


Women’S Experience Of Incivility In Professional Occupations: The Roles Of Gender Representation And Occupational Commitment, Christina Politis Sep 2017

Women’S Experience Of Incivility In Professional Occupations: The Roles Of Gender Representation And Occupational Commitment, Christina Politis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of the current study was to examine the role of gender representation and occupational commitment in shaping women’s experiences of workplace incivility, which was compared to men. Participants included 550 professional employees (45% female) who provided demographic information about their work units and completed a series of questionnaires including ones measuring workplace incivility, affective occupational commitment (AOC) and burnout. The analyses revealed that gender representation in the work unit predicted perceived overt incivility but not covert incivility or overall incivility for the females in the sample, but not for males. The predicted indirect effect of gender representation ...


Gender And Age Considerations In The Relationship Of Frequency Of Nssi And Emotion Regulation In Comparison To Ssi, Kathryn Harrison Apr 2015

Gender And Age Considerations In The Relationship Of Frequency Of Nssi And Emotion Regulation In Comparison To Ssi, Kathryn Harrison

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a pervasive problem within our society and has been increasing since the late 1980s. NSSI is the deliberate destruction of body tissue without the intention of suicide. In comparison, suicidal self-injury involves the intention of suicide. A sample of 8-18 year olds (N=519) were studied to explore how differences in age, gender and emotion regulation impacted their engagement in NSSI and SSI. Participants were grouped into NSSI, SSI and control groups. Findings indicated that emotion regulation abilities did not significantly differ between groups, the SSI group were significantly older than both NSSI and control groups ...


Protective Factors And The Role Of Gender In Childhood Mental Health: Application Of The Interrai Assessment Protocol, Alexandria Lynch Apr 2015

Protective Factors And The Role Of Gender In Childhood Mental Health: Application Of The Interrai Assessment Protocol, Alexandria Lynch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present study examined how a child’s mental health is impacted by protective factors and his/her gender. Resiliency research has been growing in recent years as researchers recognize the value of focusing on strengths in individuals. Previous research has shown that certain protective factors help buffer against the negative effects of mental health disorders differently for males and females. The present study sought to explore this further. The participants were children and youth with severe mental health and behavioural challenges and were drawn from a tertiary care facility and other mental health organizations. The results revealed that the ...


The Relationship Between Violent Media, Pornography, And Cyber Dating Abuse Among Adolescents, Jessica Sciaraffa Apr 2015

The Relationship Between Violent Media, Pornography, And Cyber Dating Abuse Among Adolescents, Jessica Sciaraffa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current study examined the relationship between exposure to violent media and pornography, and the perpetration and experience of sexual cyber dating abuse among adolescents. The study also assessed the relationship between violence-tolerant attitudes with dating abuse outcomes, and examined the mediating role of attitudes in the relationship between violent media and pornography consumption and dating abuse perpetration and victimization. Participants were 113 adolescent boys and girls who reported currently being in a romantic relationship or having been in one during the past year. Participants completed an anonymous paper-pencil survey. Results highlighted pornography and gender as risk factors for the ...


Resilience Factors In School Youth: Looking Through Gender And Cultural Lenses, Diana Chanthury Saverimuthu Apr 2015

Resilience Factors In School Youth: Looking Through Gender And Cultural Lenses, Diana Chanthury Saverimuthu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated resiliency in school youth undergoing the transition to high school. Using the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (Ungar & Liebenberg, 2011), gender and cultural differences in resiliency were examined in senior level elementary school students. Gender differences were not found in global and community resilience scores. Cultural differences could not be investigated in this study because of low statistical power. High school concerns revealed three themes: a) academic concerns; b) social concerns; c) violence concerns. Similarly, high school aspirations revealed three themes: a) academic aspirations; b) social aspirations; c) expansion of world experience. Implications for developing appropriate programs and counselling youth undergoing the transition process, will be discussed along with future directions of study.


Blame Recovery: Modeling The Effects Of Personality, Religious-Spiritual Belief, And Gender On Blame Attributions And Psychological Wellbeing After A Failed Romantic Relationship, Gillian C. Tohver Jun 2014

Blame Recovery: Modeling The Effects Of Personality, Religious-Spiritual Belief, And Gender On Blame Attributions And Psychological Wellbeing After A Failed Romantic Relationship, Gillian C. Tohver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Blame attribution (BA) is the complex cognitive-affective process through which individuals feel negative feelings of internalized self-blame/guilt or externalized other-blame by varying degrees. High BA is accompanied by distress, anxiety, depression and reduced health outcomes, while low BA indicates healthful release from negative affect and direction of attention toward past transgressions or negative events. Previous research has demonstrated a multitude of personality and individual difference associations with BA and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in cross-sectional samples, but little focus has been directed at determining if such traits affect changes in (i.e. recovery from) BA and PWB over time. The ...


Adolescents Experiences With Cyberbullying: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Nasim Shojayi Apr 2014

Adolescents Experiences With Cyberbullying: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Nasim Shojayi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated gender differences in cyberbullying and the relationship between perpetrators and victims and asked the following research questions: Are there differences in who engages in cyberbullying more often, based on one’s gender? Are there differences in perceptions of reporting, when a cyberbully is a friend or stranger? Why or why not, would adolescents report one source over the other? Data was collected from 70 students, ages 16 to 18-years-old (42 females, 28 males), in a public secondary school in Southwestern Ontario. A mixed methodology was utilized. Quantitative data from the Cyberbullying Student Survey was analyzed, and qualitative ...


Assessing And Responding To Parental Alienation Cases: Does Gender Matter In Canadian Court Decisions?, Bryanne M. Harris Mar 2014

Assessing And Responding To Parental Alienation Cases: Does Gender Matter In Canadian Court Decisions?, Bryanne M. Harris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present study examined gender bias within Canadian court cases citing parental alienation. This bias was investigated through close examination of the role of gender of parents (i.e., differences between mothers and fathers), children, legal professionals (i.e., judges) and mental health professionals (i.e., custody evaluators) in identifying the presence of parental alienation and using that information as a factor in the final court decision. A sample of 100 Canadian court cases citing parental alienation between 2010 and 2012 were extensively reviewed and coded for extensive predetermined criteria related to gender including, but not limited to: gender of ...


Early Adolescents' Experiences Of Mental Health: A Mixed-Methods Investigation, Lisa-Marie Coulter Mar 2014

Early Adolescents' Experiences Of Mental Health: A Mixed-Methods Investigation, Lisa-Marie Coulter

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A mixed-methods research design was employed to explore early adolescents’ experiences of mental health. First, quantitative data from a school board wide survey in southwestern Ontario was analyzed. Next, focus groups were conducted to explore early adolescents’ perceptions and language associated with mental health, causes of distress, and individual coping strategies. Results from the survey demonstrated that knowing where to get help, beliefs that students at school are concerned about each other, and feelings of belongingness account for more variance in feelings of distress in females than in males. Qualitative data revealed that early adolescents do not differentiate between the ...


The Prejudice Paradox (Or Discrimination Is Not Dead): Systematic Discrimination In Forced Choice Employment Decisions, Paula M. Brochu Aug 2011

The Prejudice Paradox (Or Discrimination Is Not Dead): Systematic Discrimination In Forced Choice Employment Decisions, Paula M. Brochu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research examined discriminatory responding in a forced choice employment decision paradigm, using a justification-suppression perspective to interpret the findings. In this paradigm, participants play the role of employers and make employment choices between two excellent and similarly qualified individuals that differ only on one dimension. In the first three studies, participants chose between two individuals who were described as differing only in ethnicity (European vs. Middle Eastern), gender (Male vs. Female), religion (Christian vs. Muslim), age (Young vs. Old), height (Tall vs. Short), weight (Average Weight vs. Overweight), nationality (Canadian vs. Immigrant), or sexual orientation (Heterosexual vs. Homosexual). Patterns ...