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Examining The Gender- And Sexuality-Related Cognitive “Stuck Points” Of Men And Women With Experiences Of Adult Sexual Assault: Implications For Cognitive Processing Therapy, Marin Beagley Jul 2019

Examining The Gender- And Sexuality-Related Cognitive “Stuck Points” Of Men And Women With Experiences Of Adult Sexual Assault: Implications For Cognitive Processing Therapy, Marin Beagley

Dissertations

Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) is considered a gold-standard psychotherapy protocol for the treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms secondary to a variety of traumatic events. Despite its demonstrated efficacy, there is research to suggest CPT may not be as effective in reducing PTSD symptoms for men with an adult sexual assault trauma as it is for their female counterparts. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether CPT treatment outcome discrepancies may be attributable to gender differences in posttraumatic cognitions, or “stuck points.” As the act of sexual victimization is incongruent with socially prescribed masculine gender norms, it was ...


What Boundaries? Work-Family Boundary Management Style And The Impact On Black Entrepreneurs’ Satisfaction And Well-Being, Amber S.C. Rouse Jun 2019

What Boundaries? Work-Family Boundary Management Style And The Impact On Black Entrepreneurs’ Satisfaction And Well-Being, Amber S.C. Rouse

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The appeal and interest in entrepreneurship as a viable career alternative has grown significantly in recent years. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the total number of U.S. firms has increased by 2%, from 27.1 million in 2007 to 27.6 million in 2012 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2016). Further, the number of minority-owned firms in the U.S. has risen from 5.8 million in 2007 to 8.0 million in 2012. One perspective for the recent rise in entrepreneurship is that individuals may turn to self-employment to gain greater autonomy in how they manage the ...


Rudeness Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: How Gender Impacts Reactions To Incivility At Work, Sarah Carver May 2019

Rudeness Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: How Gender Impacts Reactions To Incivility At Work, Sarah Carver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although incivility is a widely studied topic in IO Psychology, little is known about how gender influences observer reactions to incivility. Using experimental vignettes, we examined how gender of the observer, instigator, and target influenced observer reactions to identical uncivil behaviours. Women observers reported stronger negative reactions to incivility than men. Additionally, results revealed that uncivil behaviour between a man instigator and man target provoked fewer negative reactions compared to women engaging in the same behaviour. Thus, men engaging in incivility against other men may be disregarded as just ‘boys being boys’, whereas women engaging in the same behaviour may ...


Social Connectedness And Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Nicole Nunez May 2019

Social Connectedness And Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Nicole Nunez

Psychology

Eating disorders are a well-known and well-documented issue with known deleterious effects on one’s health. Because of this fact, it is important to identify protective factors against the development and/or maintenance of eating disorders. Social support has been identified as a factor that can play a role in recovery from eating disorders. While the importance of social support has been broadly examined in research, social connectedness specifically has been explored less explicitly. Social connectedness involves feelings of belonging, identification with others, and healthy social interaction. This study sought to assess the role of social connectedness in eating disorder ...


The Impact Of Exposure To The Thin Ideal On Chocolate Cravings In U.S. -Born Women, Kathryn M. Helm May 2019

The Impact Of Exposure To The Thin Ideal On Chocolate Cravings In U.S. -Born Women, Kathryn M. Helm

Psychology

Food cravings are experienced by a large proportion of the population and have a variety of negative implications- including overweight/ obesity, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. Prior research has shown a lack of support for biological causes of craving. As such, we look to other factors such as culture, cognition, and sex, to explore why such factors have an influence on craving. The purpose of this study is to look at the impact of viewing thin ideal images on chocolate cravings in United States born women-including (but not restricted to) their reports of ambivalence towards chocolate. Participants were randomized ...


Female And Male Perpetrators Of Domestic Homicide: A Gendered Phenomenon?, Jackie Salas Apr 2019

Female And Male Perpetrators Of Domestic Homicide: A Gendered Phenomenon?, Jackie Salas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Domestic violence is a global issue extending across regional, cultural, and social boundaries. In 2017, 137 women across the world were killed everyday by intimate partners or relatives. By far, women over-represent victims of domestic violence and domestic homicide across time. Although disproportionate, equally concerning is the issue of violence against men. Researchers have started to question whether the risk factors related to male and female’s use of violence is gendered, however no clear consensus has been reached. A retrospective case analysis was completed using domestic homicide cases reviewed by the Domestic Violence Death Review Committee based in Ontario ...


Anticipated Vs Experienced Work-Family Conflict: Newcomer Expectations And Early Socialization Outcomes, Seterra D. Burleson Apr 2019

Anticipated Vs Experienced Work-Family Conflict: Newcomer Expectations And Early Socialization Outcomes, Seterra D. Burleson

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Applying met expectations and newcomer socialization theory, congruence and discrepancy between anticipated work-family conflict (AWFC) and experienced WFC were examined in relation to job satisfaction, affective commitment, and turnover intent. It was hypothesized that when AWFC and WFC are in agreement outcomes are more favorable. Further, it was hypothesized that when the discrepancy is such that WFC is higher than AWFC outcomes are more favorable than vice versa. Data were collected from 205 adults, first as graduating seniors in college and again three months after starting their post-graduation jobs. Polynomial regression revealed that congruence between work interference with family (WIF ...


Motivations For Pursuing A Career In Law Enforcement: An Analysis Of A Local Law Enforcement Agency, Mark W. Thomas Mar 2019

Motivations For Pursuing A Career In Law Enforcement: An Analysis Of A Local Law Enforcement Agency, Mark W. Thomas

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

Current law enforcement agencies are facing increasing pressure to hire more female and minority applicants. In addition to this, many agencies may be struggling to hire sufficient numbers of qualified candidates in general. This has created a need for understanding the individual factors that may motivate specific types of individuals towards a career in law enforcement. The current study assesses these motivations in a sample of currently employed law enforcement officers, current students enrolled in criminal justice programs, and undergraduate students unaffiliated with a law enforcement career. These motivations are then examined by demographic categories to explore the correlation between ...


The Impact Of Sexual Assault Training And Gender On Rape Attitudes, Monica Krolnik Campos Mar 2019

The Impact Of Sexual Assault Training And Gender On Rape Attitudes, Monica Krolnik Campos

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Sexual assault is a growing concern across college campuses in the United States. According to the Sexual Victimization of College Women study, the victimization rate is 27.7 rapes per 1,000 ­­­­women students (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000). In response to the high prevalence of sexual assault, college campuses are now mandated to implement various forms of sexual assault prevention programming. Sexual assault prevention programming is intended to promote awareness of sexual assault and reduce the prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses. Numerous studies have examined the short term effectiveness of sexual assault prevention programs (e.g., Anderson & Whiston ...


Are Women Bad At Math Or Is It Just An Illusion? How False Memories And Gender Stereotypes Can Influence Women’S Perception Of Stem, Alexa Nicole Jayne Jan 2019

Are Women Bad At Math Or Is It Just An Illusion? How False Memories And Gender Stereotypes Can Influence Women’S Perception Of Stem, Alexa Nicole Jayne

All Regis University Theses

False memories and gender stereotypes were used to investigate if inducing a false memory of having a negative experience in a STEM field would influence participant’s preferences pertaining to the field. Women were recruited or volunteered to participate in the study. In the first session, participants completed a series of questionnaires to gauge their pre-existing experiences and attitudes towards STEM and non-STEM related subjects (n = 268). In the second session, participants whose responses from the first survey qualified, were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 74) or experimental condition (n = 71). Participants received a history profile that they ...


An Analysis Of Teachers’ Judgements Of Executive Capacities Between Male And Female Students, Carly Stranges Jan 2019

An Analysis Of Teachers’ Judgements Of Executive Capacities Between Male And Female Students, Carly Stranges

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

School systems function in a way determining that all students are expected to perform at a certain level based on the grade that they are in. Academic tasks involve many executive skills to be used at any given time, making it sometimes difficult to differentiate between specific executive strengths and weaknesses. Understanding a student’s challenges with executive control can lead to an understanding of places where additional help and support could be beneficial. The purpose of the present study is to examine gender differences in children’s and adolescents’ executive capacities, based on teachers’ ratings collected during the standardization ...


The Relationship Between Personal Values And Personality Traits In Inpatient Behavioral Patients, Chelsea M. Frank Jan 2019

The Relationship Between Personal Values And Personality Traits In Inpatient Behavioral Patients, Chelsea M. Frank

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Inpatient behavioral-health hospital admission has become an important therapeutic option for severely ill psychiatric patients and accounts for one third of the national mental-healthcare costs. After discharge, approximately 40% of patients with psychiatric problems are rehospitalized within 1 year of release from an inpatient behavioral-health hospital. Currently, no clear agreement exists within the psychology field as to which variables predict readmission. Identifying personal values and personality traits in assessment may be beneficial to help understand individual’s better, thereby informing treatment planning to help reduce the rate of readmission. The present study examined the relationship between personal values and personality ...


The Effect Of Community Evaluators On The Selection Of Entry-Level Police Officers, Eric Hutchison Jan 2019

The Effect Of Community Evaluators On The Selection Of Entry-Level Police Officers, Eric Hutchison

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

As a method of building relationships with the public, some police forces have integrated community members into the candidate assessment and selection process. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to determine the effect of integrating community evaluators as a new method in the assessment and selection process for police officers in a city police force. Media richness theory and general mental ability were used as a framework, and archival data from a large Midwest department of public safety were collected by filing two public records requests. Data from 2,510 police candidates were included. Quantitative data analysis was ...


Transgender And Gender Nonconforming Persons' Experiences With Counseling Assessments, Macie Stead Jan 2019

Transgender And Gender Nonconforming Persons' Experiences With Counseling Assessments, Macie Stead

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Counselors sometimes use counseling assessments with transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) persons without understanding the experiences individuals have with those assessments. The American Counseling Association and the World Professional Association of Transgender Health identified that attention is needed with the practice of counseling assessments to ensure that helpful, ethical, and culturally sensitive services are available. The purpose of this study was to explore TGNC adults' experiences with counseling assessments. Gadamer's hermeneutics provided a framework to examine qualitative data as truth and validate the individuals' experiences with counseling assessments. Participants included 12 TGNC persons 18 years or older who had ...


The Effects Of Ambient Benevolent Sexism And Its Implications In The Workplace, Amanda E. Mosier Jan 2019

The Effects Of Ambient Benevolent Sexism And Its Implications In The Workplace, Amanda E. Mosier

Masters Theses

"The purpose of this study was to examine women's reactions to witnessing benevolent sexism (i.e., ambient benevolent sexism). Female participants (n = 59) witnessed another woman being treated with hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), or no sexism and their reactions were examined in respect to a) working memory capacity, b) task-specific self-efficacy, c) mental intrusions of incompetence, and d) negative affect. The study also examined how participants' personal endorsement of BS impacted the relationship between sexism condition and the outcome variables. Results indicate that there were no direct effects of sexism condition on the outcome variables, though there ...


The Effect Of Taking A Paternity Leave On Men’S Career Outcomes: The Role Of Communality Perceptions, Anja Krstic Jan 2019

The Effect Of Taking A Paternity Leave On Men’S Career Outcomes: The Role Of Communality Perceptions, Anja Krstic

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Paternity leave policies, important tools for promoting gender equality that give men an opportunity to care for their newborn children, are becoming increasingly popular and legislated worldwide. However, there has been little research on how paternity leaves impact men’s careers and the research that exists has been inconclusive. This is problematic because, while men are increasingly being encouraged to take paternity leaves, they fear that such leaves may undermine their careers. Counter to these fears, by integrating the literature on changing norms regarding effective leadership with expectancy violation theory, I suggest that taking a paternity leave can enhance others ...


Does Sharing Information With Friends And Family Cause Men To Adhere More Strongly To Masculine Norms?, Clint E. Johnson Jan 2019

Does Sharing Information With Friends And Family Cause Men To Adhere More Strongly To Masculine Norms?, Clint E. Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is clear that social influence can elicit conformity to norms (e.g., Asch, 1956). It remains unclear, however, how various relationships elicit differential conformity to masculine norms in particular. In this pre-registered experiment, I tested the hypothesis that when men are asked to reveal their responses on the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI; Mahalik et al., 2003), men conform more when sharing that identifiable information with others who know them (i.e., “public” conformity), namely friends and family, as compared to sharing that information anonymously with a random stranger (i.e., the anonymous “private” condition). My convenience sample ...


Bumbling In The Dark: The Effect Of The Dark Triad, Online Dating, And Gender On Risky Sexual Behaviors, Rebecca Boudreau Dec 2018

Bumbling In The Dark: The Effect Of The Dark Triad, Online Dating, And Gender On Risky Sexual Behaviors, Rebecca Boudreau

Student Theses

The Dark Triad is used to describe three distinct yet related personality traits: psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism, which share several characteristics such as manipulation, exploitation, emotional coldness, and lack of empathy. The Dark Triad has been associated with several negative behaviors including infidelity and risky sexual behavior, however most of the current research focuses only on males high on the Dark Triad traits. The present study seeks to expand the literature by studying how the Dark Triad traits and online dating usage relate to the composite score of risky sexual behaviors. Further, we seek to examine if gender moderates this ...


‘Affluent’ Justice: The Role Of Ses In Sentencing Severity, Sonia Pappachan Oct 2018

‘Affluent’ Justice: The Role Of Ses In Sentencing Severity, Sonia Pappachan

Student Theses

Imprisonment is the harshest punishment the law can give a defendant; it has considerable consequences on the incarcerated, during and after. Therefore, the sentencing phase of the criminal proceedings should be fair and balanced. However, the literature and researches that have explored the biases in sentencing found that there is a disparity in sentencing due to the characteristics of both the victim and the defendant. The current study used a sample of 209 online survey participants to explore the effect of the socioeconomic status of the victim and defendant on sentencing length. Participants reviewed a vignette of a criminal offense ...


Coping With Stereotype Threat: Multiple Identities And The Role Of Gender-Professional Identity Integration (G-Pii), Amy Jia Ying Lim Jul 2018

Coping With Stereotype Threat: Multiple Identities And The Role Of Gender-Professional Identity Integration (G-Pii), Amy Jia Ying Lim

Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access)

Negative stereotypes concerning females’ inferior quantitative abilities continue to hinder females’ preference and success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Studies on multiple identities show that priming females with a favorable identity, a social identity they possess that is associated with superior quantitative abilities, can reduce the aversive effects of stereotype threat. However, this line of research overlooked the fact that females manage their multiple identities in different ways and therefore respond to identity cues differently. This paper examined the role of gender-professional identity integration (G-PII), an individual difference on perceived compatibility of gender and professional identities, in ...


Gender Role Congruity In Negotiation: The Impact Of Task Framing And Communication Mode, Kaitlyn R. Gallagher Jun 2018

Gender Role Congruity In Negotiation: The Impact Of Task Framing And Communication Mode, Kaitlyn R. Gallagher

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated that gender influences negotiation behavior and outcomes. Using role congruity theory, this study examined if the context of the negotiation, specifically the type of negotiation (integrative vs. distributive), minimized gender effects in choice of negotiation medium. The relationship between fear of backlash, anxiety, and self-efficacy on preference for negotiation medium (virtual vs. face-to-face) was also examined. This study used a 2 Gender: (Male, Female) x 2 Negotiation Type: (Distributive, Integrative) between-participants design with 206 undergraduate students from a voluntary research pool. Multiple logistic regression revealed a main effect of gender on negotiation medium, but no significant ...


Toward Pay Equity: A Motivational Intervention To Reduce Gender Differences In Salary Negotiations, Mary Margaret Keegin Jun 2018

Toward Pay Equity: A Motivational Intervention To Reduce Gender Differences In Salary Negotiations, Mary Margaret Keegin

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

A persistent wage gap exists between women and men in the United States (Catalyst, 2015; Hegewisch, Ellis, & Hartmann, 2015). Although the reasons behind the wage gap are extremely complex, one of the methods through which pay equity may be reached could involve altering the way people approach their goals at the bargaining table, especially since women tend to underperform relative to men in salary negotiations (Mazei, Hüffmeier, Freund, Stuhlmacher, Bilke, & Hertel, 2015). Salary negotiations represent a critical piece of the pay equity puzzle, particularly when individuals are starting their careers. If equally qualified men and women begin their careers negotiating ...


Generalizing Across Gender During Early Word Learning: Evidence From A Statistical Learning Paradigm, Madison Newsom May 2018

Generalizing Across Gender During Early Word Learning: Evidence From A Statistical Learning Paradigm, Madison Newsom

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Gender And Subject Area Differences In Academic Metacognition And Motivation, Adelaide Jenkins Apr 2018

Gender And Subject Area Differences In Academic Metacognition And Motivation, Adelaide Jenkins

Senior Theses and Projects

This study was a continuation of the ongoing Trinity metacognition project investigating the metacognitive awareness and skills of middle school students. The present study examined whether there were gender differences in the ways metacognition is used in two different subject areas: social studies and math. It also investigated whether gender has an effect on how students use metacognition in these two school subjects. Students in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grade were surveyed about their metacognitive and motivational awareness in math and social studies. Results showed that female students used metacognition more than male students in both math and social ...


The Impact Of Beauty, Body Image, And Health Discourses On Eating Disorder Risk In South Asian-Canadian Women, Nazia Bhatti Feb 2018

The Impact Of Beauty, Body Image, And Health Discourses On Eating Disorder Risk In South Asian-Canadian Women, Nazia Bhatti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study explores socio-cultural influences that impact South Asian women’s self-perceptions and eating behaviours. The findings revealed that cultural gender ideologies played a substantial role in shaping the way women view themselves and their bodies. The analysis of interviews conducted with seven South Asian-Canadian women between the ages of 19-29 years, demonstrate that women’s perceptions of their own physical appearance is framed within the context of their South Asian cultural identity and cultural norms. This study was approached through the lens of post-colonial feminism by examining cultural factors that contribute to South Asian women’s increased risk for ...


Race, Sexuality, And Masculinity On The Down Low, Stephen Kochenash Feb 2018

Race, Sexuality, And Masculinity On The Down Low, Stephen Kochenash

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In a so-called post-racial America, a new gay identity has flourished and come into the limelight. However, in recent years, researchers have concluded that not all men who have sex with other men (MSM) self-identify as gay, most noticeably a large population of Black men. It is possible that a tainted history of Black enslavement in this country that is inextricably linked with ideas of space, surveillance, subversion, and survival inform a Black male’s self-identification as being “on the down low” (DL). This begs the question: What does mainstream society view as gay-ness and how is the DL ...


They Always Do What They Ought To Do: A Historical Analysis, And Exploratory Examination Of The “Woman Problem” And The Function Of Gender In American Psychology, Willa G. Baigelman Jan 2018

They Always Do What They Ought To Do: A Historical Analysis, And Exploratory Examination Of The “Woman Problem” And The Function Of Gender In American Psychology, Willa G. Baigelman

Senior Projects Fall 2018

The “woman problem” in America psychology refers to, “...the underrepresentation of women in the highest offices of psychology’s professional organizations and women’s general lack of eminence compared to men,” (Rutherford, 2015). It is a problem that seems to have existed from the beginnings of American psychology to the present day. This piece of writing seeks to better understand this problem, the function of it within American psychology, its origins and where it stands today. Through a historical analysis of Edwin Boring, Edward Titchener, Alice Bryan, Margaret Washburn, Eleanor Gibson, Mary Whiton Calkins and Mamie Phipps Clark, we can ...


Exploring The Social Construction Of Masculinity And Its Differential Expression In Culturally Different Populations Using A Mixed Method Approach, Bryan Davis Jan 2018

Exploring The Social Construction Of Masculinity And Its Differential Expression In Culturally Different Populations Using A Mixed Method Approach, Bryan Davis

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Previous research on gender conflict and strain quantitatively measured traditional masculinity ideology from western societal norms. The current study added to the previous research and qualitatively studied masculinity performance in men from different cultures: Black, Asian, Latino. Results from this study added to masculinity research due to the mixed method approach of both quantitative and qualitative research in males from diverse groups. Information gained from this study enabled masculinity to be operationally defined by different cultural focus groups and compared in order to explore distinct masculinity expression. Information was gained by measuring traditional masculinity ideology quantitatively on the Male Role ...


Gender Differences In Task Switching: An Event-Related Potential Study, Briana M. Bratcher Jan 2018

Gender Differences In Task Switching: An Event-Related Potential Study, Briana M. Bratcher

All Master's Theses

The current study examined the possible differences in several brainwaves and behavioral reaction times between males and females in relation to task switching. Previous research has shown gender differences in various aspects of cognition including task switching. Task switching refers to the ability to cognitively switch from processing one task to processing another, completely different task. The current study utilized a color-shape target switching paradigm and event-related potentials to analyze possible gender differences. The results of the study showed no gender differences in relation to reaction times, P2 and P3b brainwave latencies or amplitudes. However, the study found a difference ...


An Examination Of Optimism Between Gender, Race, And School Classification Of Millennial Students – An Exploratory Study, Abigail C. Johnson Jan 2018

An Examination Of Optimism Between Gender, Race, And School Classification Of Millennial Students – An Exploratory Study, Abigail C. Johnson

University Honors Program Theses

Optimism is defined as an individual’s approach to the expectation that good things will happen in the future and bad things are a rarity. Along with the general definition of what optimism is, many researchers have found that optimism depends on culturally embedded values and beliefs (Singh & Shukla, 2014; Lee & Mason, 2013). In addition, the relationship between optimism and positive health outcomes and well-being is well established (Coll, J.E. & Draves, P. R., 2008; Bastianello, M. R., Pacico, J. C., & Hutz, C. S., 2014). Although this is the case, little research has been found examining the differences between optimism levels in the millennial generation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences between optimism, race, gender, and school classification in the Millennial Generation ...