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Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill Dec 2018

Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill

Theses and Dissertations

People struggle with temptation in their everyday lives. Research often attributes failures in self-regulation to overwhelming and uncontrollable impulses. However, research also supports the idea that cognitive factors (e.g., justification) can license tempting behavior and allow individuals to behave in ways that run counter to their long-term goals. In addition, it is likely that affect plays a role in justification-based self-control failure. The current set of three studies investigated the role of affect in justification-based self-control failure. Study 1 tested the prediction that recall of past successes would result in increased positive affect. Study 2 assessed whether justification results ...


The Effects Of Perceptual Fluency On Emotional Word Recognition, Joseph M. Nidel Aug 2018

The Effects Of Perceptual Fluency On Emotional Word Recognition, Joseph M. Nidel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To investigate if making a word harder to read attenuates emotional influences like valence and arousal, we used a sample of Warriner and colleagues’ (2013) corpus with valence and arousal norms, a font manipulation from the perceptual fluency paradigm, and a word naming task. We found that, contrary to our hypotheses, emotional influences of words on RT were not attenuated in the disfluent condition; in fact, disfluency seemed to amplify the facilitative effects of high arousal. These results suggest that models of word recognition should consider the role that emotions play in recognition. They also provide limited support to models ...


A Dual-Process Team Mood Framework Of Team Creativity, Sean Teck Hao Lee Aug 2018

A Dual-Process Team Mood Framework Of Team Creativity, Sean Teck Hao Lee

Dissertations and Theses Collection (Open Access)

While it has been recognized that mood can exert a substantive influence on an individual’s level of creativity, much of the creative needs of organizations today are being fulfilled by brainstorming teams rather than individual employees. As such, researchers have begun to examine the effects of mood on creativity in the context of teams. Existing findings, unfortunately, have not been consistent, such that positive mood has been shown to be beneficial towards team creativity at times (e.g., Grawitch, Munz, Elliott, & Mathis, 2003), while at other times being harmful towards team creativity (e.g., Tsai, Chi, Grandey, & Fung, 2012 ...


Autism, Alexithymia, And Anxious Apprehension: A Multimethod Investigation Of Eye Fixation, Kevin G. Stephenson Jul 2018

Autism, Alexithymia, And Anxious Apprehension: A Multimethod Investigation Of Eye Fixation, Kevin G. Stephenson

Theses and Dissertations

Reduced eye fixation and deficits in emotion identification accuracy have been commonly reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (AS), but are not ubiquitous. There is growing evidence that emotion processing deficits may be better accounted for by comorbid alexithymia (i.e., difficulty understanding and describing one's emotional state), rather than AS symptoms per se. Another possible explanation is anxiety, which is often comorbid with AS; emotion processing difficulties, including attentional biases, have also been observed in anxiety disorders, suggesting that anxiety symptoms may also influence emotion processing within AS. The purpose of the current study was to test ...


Investigating The Interaction Of Emotion And Cognition: Conflict Adaptation And The Impact Of Emotionally-Salient Distraction, Samantha Goldsmith Jun 2018

Investigating The Interaction Of Emotion And Cognition: Conflict Adaptation And The Impact Of Emotionally-Salient Distraction, Samantha Goldsmith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Individual differences in cognitive control have significant implications for a broad range of everyday functions, from driving a car to maintaining healthy relationships. In a world filled with salient, task-irrelevant information, it is imperative to investigate cognitive control in the context of distraction. The current study investigated the interference effect of emotional versus non-emotional distraction in a conflict adaptation paradigm. Forty-seven young adults completed several individual difference measures and an emotional flanker task. Results failed to support the hypothesis that distractor valence would interact with prior and current flanker congruency, but showed a trend toward an effect of distractor valence ...


Experiential Similarity Of Depression And Interpersonal Empathy, Sarah E. Caputo Jun 2018

Experiential Similarity Of Depression And Interpersonal Empathy, Sarah E. Caputo

Theses and Dissertations

The ability to build and maintain supportive, social relationships has been linked to both physical and psychological well-being (e.g., Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Kawachi & Berkman, 2001). Yet, social struggles are a commonly observed symptom among individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), particularly with regards to interpersonal empathy. Perceptions of interpersonal similarity can influence empathic engagement with others (e.g., Batson et al., 1996; Hodges, Kiel, Kramer, Veach, & Villanueva, 2010); often, interpersonal similarity will lead to greater empathic engagement. The present study asked participants to listen to audio clips of a fictitious therapy client discussing either depression or non-depression-related financial distress and then to indicate the degree to which they felt and expressed empathy for this client via written response letters. I hypothesized that participants with depression would report greater feelings of empathy than non-depressed participants and that depressed participants who specifically listened to ...


Attentional Deployment, Cognitive Control, And Reappraisal In Schizophrenia, Kyle Robert Mitchell Jun 2018

Attentional Deployment, Cognitive Control, And Reappraisal In Schizophrenia, Kyle Robert Mitchell

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Recent studies posit that deficits in emotion regulation may lead to increased negative emotional experience in schizophrenia. While individuals with schizophrenia evidence a number of abnormalities in emotion regulation, it is unclear whether these deficits are discrete or related; furthermore, the mechanisms underlying these deficits are not clear. Cognitive control has been posited as an important mechanism supporting emotion regulation. The current study examined the relationship between attentional deployment and both lexical and self-reported indices of reappraisal, as well as the mediating role of cognitive control on this relationship in a sample of 22 individuals with psychotic disorders. A novel ...


Emotion And Metacognitive Monitoring: The Role Of Emotion In The Development Of Learning Beliefs, Robert Craig Hoy May 2018

Emotion And Metacognitive Monitoring: The Role Of Emotion In The Development Of Learning Beliefs, Robert Craig Hoy

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

Educators have daily experience with how students' emotional states influence their behaviors and levels of motivation. What is more poorly understood and even counterintuitive in effect is the subtler role of emotion in the role of metacognitive monitoring in the form of learning belief development. The research driving current understanding in this area is limited and fragmented across disciplines. The purpose of the current quantitative, cross-sectional study was to contribute to our understanding of the role that emotion plays in metacognitive monitoring. The study used self-report measures given before and after a video-based learning task. Metrics included measures of emotional ...


Childhood Development: How The Fine And Performing Arts Enhance Neurological, Social, And Academic Traits, Katherine Rowe May 2018

Childhood Development: How The Fine And Performing Arts Enhance Neurological, Social, And Academic Traits, Katherine Rowe

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Childhood development has always been a major topic when studying psychology and biology. This makes sense because the brain develops from the time a child is conceived to the time that child has reached around the age of twenty-seven. Doctors, psychologists, and sociologists look at numerous things when studying childhood development. However, how common is it for researchers to study how the fine and performing arts affect childhood development? Sociologists tend to be extremely open and mindful of all aspects of things such as culture, sexuality, religion, and even age. By taking a sociological standpoint when studying the arts ...


Designing Interactive Virtual Environments With Feedback In Health Applications., Yi Li May 2018

Designing Interactive Virtual Environments With Feedback In Health Applications., Yi Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the most important factors to influence user experience in human-computer interaction is the user emotional reaction. Interactive environments including serious games that are responsive to user emotions improve their effectiveness and user satisfactions. Testing and training for user emotional competence is meaningful in healthcare field, which has motivated us to analyze immersive affective games using emotional feedbacks. In this dissertation, a systematic model of designing interactive environment is presented, which consists of three essential modules: affect modeling, affect recognition, and affect control. In order to collect data for analysis and construct these modules, a series of experiments were ...


Event-Related Potential Studies Of Error Monitoring To Affective And Non-Affective Stimuli In Adolescents And Emerging Adults, Rebecca K. Reed May 2018

Event-Related Potential Studies Of Error Monitoring To Affective And Non-Affective Stimuli In Adolescents And Emerging Adults, Rebecca K. Reed

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It is hypothesized that prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function may be still under development in adolescents. As the generator of the error-related negativity (ERN) and the N2, the ACC is expected to be sensitive to the degree of development with age. In adults, these top-down control areas ideally serve to direct attention to goal-relevant information, which can increase the likelihood of making a correct choice, even in fast-response laboratory based tasks. However, adolescents may show increased susceptibility in these top-down control areas when the stimulus is social and emotional. In the first study, event-related potentials were ...


Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere Feb 2018

Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere

Dissertations

Despite the wide acceptance of animal personality as a valid area of study, research on marine mammal personality remains remarkably scarce. What literature does exist predominantly focuses on bottlenose dolphins (Frick, 2016; Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012; Lilley, de Vere, Yeatre & Kuczaj, 2018; Moreno, Highfill & Kuczaj, 2017). There is also strong evidence for individual differences in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012), and preliminary research has provided evidence of broad personality factors in pinniped species using behavioral coding (de Vere, Lilley & Highfill, 2017) and trait rating methods (Ciardelli, Weiss, Powell & Reiss, 2017). Several aspects of personality are not well documented across many taxa, including age-related patterns, the species-relevance of emotional trait words, potential issues associated with the non-human Dominance factor, and the convergent validity of multiple methods. The current study therefore aimed to address these issues in two pinniped species, California sea lions and harbor seals, and provides the first cross-method validation of personality dimensions in these taxa. There was some evidence that pinniped trainers could reliably rate the emotional states experienced by these species. Trait rating assessments produced three personality factors for each species; these exhibited good cross-method convergence in California sea lions, but not harbor seals. Dominance rankings were correlated with one behavioral and one rating factor in each species, although this was somewhat confounded by the extremely close correspondence of dominance and age.


Disembodied Entities: Linguistic Factors Determining Semantic Role Assignment Of Target Domain Referents In Metaphoric Duals, Zachary Rosen Jan 2018

Disembodied Entities: Linguistic Factors Determining Semantic Role Assignment Of Target Domain Referents In Metaphoric Duals, Zachary Rosen

Linguistics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Though there exists a profound, and constantly evolving literature exploring the nature of English speakers’ alternations of temporal metaphors (Gentner, Imai, & Boroditsky 2002; McGlone & Harding 1998; Matlock, Ramscar, & Boroditsky 2005 as a selection), strikingly little work has been done on extending the research in temporal reasoning to other examples of metaphoric duals (as defined in Lakoff 1993)—alternations in which the target domain referent is either construed as moving object in space, such as in “His sadness is catching up to him”, or as a location to which other entities are oriented to, as in “He fell into a deep sadness”—in other domains ...


Affective And Neural Correlates Of Conflict Interactions Of Romantic Couples, Briana Lucia Robustelli Jan 2018

Affective And Neural Correlates Of Conflict Interactions Of Romantic Couples, Briana Lucia Robustelli

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Conflict interactions are almost universally experienced by romantic couples, are often emotionally rich, and are associated with many important mental and physical health outcomes. These factors make conflict interactions an excellent topic for investigation in studies of emotion and couples. The current study included 20 heterosexual romantic couples who had been in a relationship for at least 2 years. Each couple completed a video recorded conflict interaction task and both partners in each couple viewed their own interaction and the interaction of another couple in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Partners then completed an emotion rating task where ...


Salience In Mere Exposure: Salience Makes Evaluations More Extreme And Accounts For Exposure Effects, Kellen Mrkva Jan 2018

Salience In Mere Exposure: Salience Makes Evaluations More Extreme And Accounts For Exposure Effects, Kellen Mrkva

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

I propose and support a salience account of exposure effects suggesting that repeated exposure to stimuli influences evaluations and emotion by increasing salience, the relative quality of standing out in relation to other stimuli in the environment. From this idea that exposure increases salience, I derive the hypotheses that repeated exposure to stimuli will make evaluations more extreme and emotional reactions more intense (in addition to increasing liking as in previous mere exposure research; Montoya et al., 2017; Zajonc, 1968). In Experiments 1 and 2, I manipulate exposure, presenting some stimuli 9 times and other stimuli 3 times, 1 time ...


Assessing The Long-Term Sequelae Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Janna Mantua Jan 2018

Assessing The Long-Term Sequelae Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Janna Mantua

Doctoral Dissertations

A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also known as a concussion, is defined as an injury that results in an alteration of consciousness or mental status. Previous studies have shown mTBI populations experience a number of chronic (> 1 year) symptoms, such as sleep disturbances (e.g., sleep stage alterations), mood alterations (e.g., depressive symptoms), and cognitive alterations (e.g., poor concentration). The three chapters of this dissertation sought to explore these long-term sequelae and the possible interrelations between them. In the first experiment, sleep-dependent memory consolidation of neutral stimuli was probed in a chronic mTBI sample and a control ...


A Sociofunctional Approach To Understanding Transphobia, Linas Mitchell Jan 2018

A Sociofunctional Approach To Understanding Transphobia, Linas Mitchell

Master's Theses

Despite widespread evidence of anti-transgender prejudice and discrimination, research has yet to determine the nature of prejudice against transgender people. This study used the sociofunctional threat approach (Cottrell & Neuberg, 2005) to examine threat perceptions (contamination threats, obstacle threats, physical safety threats, and threats to reciprocity relations) and emotional reactions (disgust, anger, fear, pity) to transgender (transgender women, transgender men, and nonbinary people) and cisgender (cisgender women, cisgender men, and bisexual people) targets. Results from an online survey suggest that transgender targets evoke higher threat perceptions and negative emotions than cisgender targets; additionally, this tended to be the case for male participants more often than female participants. These results provide more details on the negative associations that underlie transphobia, providing stepping stones for focusing future interventions.


Actually Embodied Emotions, Jordan Christopher Victor Taylor Jan 2018

Actually Embodied Emotions, Jordan Christopher Victor Taylor

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation offers a theory of emotion called the primitivist theory. Emotions are defined as bodily caused affective states. It derives key principles from William James’s feeling theory of emotion, which states that emotions are felt experiences of bodily changes triggered by sensory stimuli (James, 1884; James, 1890). However, James’s theory is commonly misinterpreted, leading to its dismissal by contemporary philosophers and psychologists. Chapter 1 therefore analyzes James’s theory and compares it against contemporary treatments. It demonstrates that a rehabilitated Jamesian theory promises to benefit contemporary emotion research. Chapter 2 investigates James’s legacy, as numerous alterations ...


Age Group Differences In Affect Responses To A Stressor, Molly Mather Jan 2018

Age Group Differences In Affect Responses To A Stressor, Molly Mather

Masters Theses

Older adults may be better able to modulate their emotional experiences than younger adults, and thus may recover more quickly from negative stressors. Additionally, older adults may be more likely to experience co-occurrence of negative and positive emotions in the setting of negative stressors, which may facilitate emotion recovery. To date, few studies have investigated the nature of age group differences in spontaneous emotional responses to a standardized stressor. The current study utilizes a laboratory mood manipulation to determine age group differences in emotion recovery in negative and positive affects, as well as age group differences in the co-occurrence of ...


Borderline Personality And Risk-Taking: Examining The Role Of Impulsivity Across Domains, Colten Karnedy Jan 2018

Borderline Personality And Risk-Taking: Examining The Role Of Impulsivity Across Domains, Colten Karnedy

Masters Theses

Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and high levels of BPD traits have demonstrated greater rates of engagement in risky, self-destructive behaviors compared to healthy controls. Specifically, impulsivity has been theorized to underlie many of these risky behaviors. Although existing self-report literature suggests that individuals with BPD are more impulsive than controls, evidence from behavioral measures remains inconclusive. Likewise, there is scant research examining specific domains of impulsivity associated with risky behaviors in BPD, which is problematic given that impulsivity is a diagnostic criterion for BPD. Thus, the proposed research aims to bridge this gap in the literature by examining ...


Does Posture Impact Affective Word Processing? Examining The Role Of Posture Across Adulthood In An Incidental Encoding Task, Lucas John Hamilton Jan 2018

Does Posture Impact Affective Word Processing? Examining The Role Of Posture Across Adulthood In An Incidental Encoding Task, Lucas John Hamilton

ETD Archive

Research in emotional aging has primarily investigated mechanisms that could explain the age-related increase in positive emotionality despite various age-related losses. Of particular note is the increasing importance of age-related positivity effects and underlying biological influences on affective processes. Despite evidence of weakened mind-body connectivity in older adulthood presented in the maturation dualism framework, research shows age-similarities in subjective and objective reactivity for certain negative emotional states across adulthood. Thus, robust physiological-experiential associations may still exist in later life. Investigations of integrated mind-body connectivity have lead researchers to examine the influence of posture on cognitive outcomes. Prior evidence has observed ...


An Analysis Of The Ego-Depletion Effects Of Emotion Versus Attention Draining Tasks: Even Emotionally Arousing Depletion Tasks Do Not Show An Ego-Depletion Effect, Savannah Binion Jan 2018

An Analysis Of The Ego-Depletion Effects Of Emotion Versus Attention Draining Tasks: Even Emotionally Arousing Depletion Tasks Do Not Show An Ego-Depletion Effect, Savannah Binion

Senior Independent Study Theses

The theory of ego-depletion has come under intense scrutiny within the past few years. Beginning around 2010, researchers conducted meta-analyses and large replication studies that have investigated this topic, and found a wide range of evidence for and against the existence of an ego-depletion effect. Although the goal has been to determine whether this effect exists or not, the research has proved that the answer may be more complicated than that. The purpose of the current research was to examine the different theories about self-control, and to test two specific depleting tasks against a control group. The depleting tasks were ...


Metaphor To Memory: Effects Of Spatiotemporal Metaphors On The Emotional Valence Of Autobiographical Memories, Jayne B. Williamson-Lee Jan 2018

Metaphor To Memory: Effects Of Spatiotemporal Metaphors On The Emotional Valence Of Autobiographical Memories, Jayne B. Williamson-Lee

Undergraduate Honors Theses

English speakers conceptualize the passing of time in one of two ways: as events in time moving toward them (the time-moving perspective) or as themselves moving through time (the ego-moving perspective). Previous studies suggest that these construals of time have corresponding emotional valences (positive and negative, respectively), which influence perceptions of emotional experiences. This study investigates whether spatiotemporal metaphors evoke valence-specific memories – specifically whether the ego-moving perspective evokes positive memories and the time-moving perspective negative memories. Participants read statements depicting events in motion and wrote about autobiographical memories. Memories recalled were evaluated as positive or negative by the researcher. Results ...


Preserved Consciousness In The Absence Of A Cerebral Cortex, The Legal And Ethical Implications Of Redefining Consciousness And Its Neural Correlates: A Case For A Subcortical System Generating Affective Consciousness, Shadia Kawkabani Jan 2018

Preserved Consciousness In The Absence Of A Cerebral Cortex, The Legal And Ethical Implications Of Redefining Consciousness And Its Neural Correlates: A Case For A Subcortical System Generating Affective Consciousness, Shadia Kawkabani

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Historically, the scientific and medical communities have taken a corticocentric view on consciousness, emphasizing the need for a cortex in producing the conscious experience. The preserved consciousness observed in hydranencephalic children and decorticated rats suggests that some form of consciousness may be produced by a subcortical network. The brainstem, a phylogenetically ancient and conserved brain structure, could serve as the major integrative machinery to produce this form of consciousness, which is called affective consciousness—the evolutionary antecedent to the reflective consciousness that allows humans to reflect on their experiences. The functional convergence of the brainstem with the amygdala, motor system ...