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Emotional And Autonomic Responding To Auditory Stimuli, Jeremy C. Peres Dec 2015

Emotional And Autonomic Responding To Auditory Stimuli, Jeremy C. Peres

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Much of the research examining emotion induction, regulation, and suppression considers solely the visual modality (e.g., pictures of faces) for emotion elicitation. In reality, emotions are cued, expressed, and interpreted through multiple modalities by employing the extensive use of auditory stimuli in addition to visual stimuli. There have been some recent efforts to offset this imbalance in modality preference by using emotional auditory stimuli alone or in addition to visual stimuli. This project aims to further investigate emotional and autonomic responding to auditory stimuli with the added component of examining differential responding across social (nonlinguistic vocal expression) and non-social ...


Integration Of Audio-~Visual Emotional Information In Schizophrneia, Bern Lee Dec 2015

Integration Of Audio-~Visual Emotional Information In Schizophrneia, Bern Lee

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating illness characterized by a number of perceptual and

cognitive deficits. Deficits in emotional judgment and perception are consistently identified, although less is known about the integration of emotional information from separate sensory modalities. This study investigates the integration of auditory and visual emotional information in schizophrenia and healthy controls through application of an emotion judgment task modeled after the McGurk effect. The emotional judgments of 54 participants (40 SZ and 14 control participants from the community) for auditory, visual, and bimodal phonemic stimuli conveying no lexical information were analyzed. Visual and auditory stimuli conveying joy ...


The Abcs Of Stress Responding: Examining The Time Course Of Affective, Biological, And Cognitive Responses To Induced Stress As Prospective Predictors Of Depressive Symptoms, Marissa Erin Rudolph Oct 2015

The Abcs Of Stress Responding: Examining The Time Course Of Affective, Biological, And Cognitive Responses To Induced Stress As Prospective Predictors Of Depressive Symptoms, Marissa Erin Rudolph

Clinical Psychology Dissertations

Vulnerability-stress models of depression posit risk for depression is characterized by the presence of underlying affective, biological, and cognitive vulnerabilities that become activated during life stress exposure. Extant research has shown heightened reactivity to stress across these vulnerability domains predicts depression; however, little is known whether the persistence of and failure to down-regulate these maladaptive stress responses conveys greater risk of depression than initial reactivity alone. The current study examined associations between the time course of responses to a laboratory stress induction and depressive symptoms. I hypothesized that prolonged maladaptive responses to the stressor across affective (state negative affect; NA ...


Can Non-Haptic Manipulation Of Temperature Influence The Same Emotions As Ostracism?, Rebecca Ann Oglesby Oct 2015

Can Non-Haptic Manipulation Of Temperature Influence The Same Emotions As Ostracism?, Rebecca Ann Oglesby

Theses and Dissertations

I explored the possibility that temperature can alter the same variables affected by ostracism (i.e., being ignored and excluded): belonging, control, meaningful existence, and self-esteem need satisfaction, feelings of ostracism, mood, and loneliness. According to the theory of embodied cognition, individuals can associate physical warmth with social intimacy, as well as cold temperatures with social isolation (Zhong & Leonardelli, 2008; IJzerman et al., 2012). Bargh and Shalev (2012) found that participants holding a cold pack reported higher loneliness than participants holding a neutral or warm pack. My study expands upon Bargh and Shalevâ??s (2012) findings by examining more emotions frequently associated ...


I Judge, Therefore I React: An Experimental Investigation Of Acceptance, Jennifer Ann Shaver Jul 2015

I Judge, Therefore I React: An Experimental Investigation Of Acceptance, Jennifer Ann Shaver

Theses and Dissertations

The present study was designed to provide empirical tests of some of the mechanisms thought to operate in mindfulness-based treatments. Specifically, I tested the hypothesis that appraising distress judgmentally (as a needless and useless indication of personal weakness) would be associated with experiencing meta-distress (e.g., feeling ashamed about being distressed), which would, in turn, be associated with increased experiential avoidance (i.e., suppression or distraction from the distress) and shorter distress tolerance. In addition, I examined the hypothesis that compassionately appraising distress (as normal, understandable, and potentially a source of growth) would be associated with spending more time curiously ...


The Effects Of Alcohol On The Interpretation Of Social And Emotional Cues: A Field Study Of College Student Drinking, Emotion Recognition, And Perceptions Of A Hypothetical Sexual Assault, Alexander James Melkonian Jul 2015

The Effects Of Alcohol On The Interpretation Of Social And Emotional Cues: A Field Study Of College Student Drinking, Emotion Recognition, And Perceptions Of A Hypothetical Sexual Assault, Alexander James Melkonian

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol use and abuse among emerging adults is highly correlated with increased risk for sexual victimization. Alcohol myopia theory has been used to explain impairments in Social information processing resulting in decreased attention to environmental Social cues including risk factors for sexual assault as well as facial emotional recognition. Those with deficits in Social information processing may be at particular risk for the misperception of salient risk factors for sexual assault by victims, perpetrators, and bystanders when intoxicated. In this naturalistic field study, participants who had been consuming alcohol were recruited to engage in tasks of facial emotion recognition and ...


Does Our Fear Of Death Stem From Threatened Belongingness?, Stan Treger Jun 2015

Does Our Fear Of Death Stem From Threatened Belongingness?, Stan Treger

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I examine the relative contribution to worldview defense (i.e., upholding one’s cultural worldviews) provided by the thoughts of one’s death and perceptions of curbed close relationships.

The need to belong, to form meaningful and strong ties with others, is what many social psychologists believe to be one of the most fundamental and strongest motivations that humans possess (Baumeister, 2012; Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Kenrick, Griskevicius, Neuberg, & Schaller, 2010; Tomasello, 2014). The human brain is “hard-wired” to be around others (Beckes & Coan, 2011). In fact, large social group sizes of humans’ evolutionary past may have contributed to the large brain that modern humans possess today—a large brain with high cognitive ability is required to solve complex social problems such as attributing others’ mental states (Dunbar, 1998, 2003, 2009). Terror Management Theory (Greenberg & Arndt, 2012; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986), however, suggests that humans’ high cognitive ability also allows for knowledge that death will inevitably arrive one day. This knowledge creates a state of “paralyzing” anxiety and drives what Terror Management Theorists believe to be the most fundamental of human motives: avoiding death. To overcome this anxiety, persons turn to their cultural worldviews to boost their self-esteem and assuage the existential crisis evoked by the thought of death.

Although Terror Management Theory has received an impressive array of empirical support since its introduction, it has left one particular and important question unaddressed: why is it that humans fear death? Rather, Terror Management Theory simply assumes that humans do so. One possible reason behind this fear reflects the human need to belong. Being ostracized or excluded by others may be one of the most painful experiences humans may face, physically and cognitively. For example, being ostracized can decrease one’s of meaning (Stillman, Baumeister, Lambert, Crescioni, DeWall, & Fincham, 2009). Distress following social exclusion may even equate to experiencing physical pain (e.g., DeWall & Baumeister, 2006; MacDonald & Leary, 2005). The negative effects of ostracism may extend to simply observing others being excluded (Wesselman, Bagg, & Williams, 2009). Collectively, the physical, emotional, and cognitive distress following ostracism is strong enough for some to call ostracism “social death” (Case & Williams, 2004; Williams, 2007a).

In this dissertation, I propose that “social” and “actual” death may not be too ...


The Effects Of Interpersonal And Noninterpersonal Loss On Music Preference, Alberte Bjornsson May 2015

The Effects Of Interpersonal And Noninterpersonal Loss On Music Preference, Alberte Bjornsson

Psychology

Through a series of studies, Lee, Andrade, and Palmer (2013) predicted and found that sadness caused by an interpersonal loss creates greater preference for listening to mood-congruent music than sadness caused by a noninterpersonal loss. However, in their experimental procedures, they inadvertently confounded the intensity of the sadness induced in the noninterpersonal and interpersonal sadness conditions, such that the interpersonal sadness condition created stronger feelings of sadness. The current study sought to replicate Lee et al.’s (2013) findings with the modification of unconfounding the intensity of sadness in the interpersonal and noninterpersonal conditions. After controlling for intensity, this study ...


Does Emotional Processing Mediate The Link Between Disordered Sleep And Depression?, Kimberly O'Leary Mar 2015

Does Emotional Processing Mediate The Link Between Disordered Sleep And Depression?, Kimberly O'Leary

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Disordered sleep is strongly linked to depression, but reasons for this are not well understood. One possibility is that this link is partially explained by deficits in the emotional processing system. This model is substantiated based on the strong link between sleep and emotions, as well as ties between affect and depression. Therefore, this study tested whether various emotional and non-emotional deficits mediated the link between poor sleep quality and depression. Two hundred undergraduate students were recruited via an online university system. Participants completed self-report scales of depression, sleep quality, emotion recognition, and affective response to pre-tested pleasant or unpleasant ...


The Theoretical And Psychological Foundations Of Care In Environmental Ethics, Rachel Fedock Feb 2015

The Theoretical And Psychological Foundations Of Care In Environmental Ethics, Rachel Fedock

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

I investigate the phenomenon of care, provide some of the theoretical and psychological framework for the ethics of care, and apply this framework to environmental issues. The neglected dimensions of care I explore are: the emotions of care, care as a virtue, and the caring person, respectively, while constructing possible conceptions of in what each dimension consists. I argue for the necessity of sympathy and concern within the ethics of care, while arguing against the necessity of empathy. Next, I explore the virtue of care as an ideal, where emotions, desires, reasoning, motive, duty and action all play an important ...


Physiological And Subjective Aspects Of Positive Mood In Relation To Executive Functioning: The Potential Moderating Role Of Personality, Luz Helena Ospina Feb 2015

Physiological And Subjective Aspects Of Positive Mood In Relation To Executive Functioning: The Potential Moderating Role Of Personality, Luz Helena Ospina

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Positive affect has been demonstrated to improve aspects of cognition. However, recent studies reveal that positive affect may hinder the same cognitive processes, such as executive functioning, memory and creativity. These discrepant findings may be due to differing levels of physiological arousal, a component of the circumplex model of affect, which has been largely ignored in affective research. For example, one recent study suggests that positive valence coupled with varying levels of physiological arousal (i.e., low, moderate, and high) may differentially affect performance on tasks of verbal fluency and memory. Furthermore, one other explanation for these inconsistent findings may ...


Mutability Of The Green-Eyed Monster: A Functional Approach To Understanding The Distinction Between Benign And Hostile Envy, Rachael G. Falcon Jan 2015

Mutability Of The Green-Eyed Monster: A Functional Approach To Understanding The Distinction Between Benign And Hostile Envy, Rachael G. Falcon

Psychology ETDs

Envy functions in resource competition situations in which a competitor out-competes oneself in a fitness relevant domain (Hill & Buss, 2006, 2008). Research suggests that there are two types of envy, a hostile version, aimed at depriving the envied person of his or her advantage, and a benign version, aimed at gaining an advantage for oneself (Parrott, 1991; van de Ven, Zeelenberg, & Pieters, 2009). Three predictions were derived from the hypothesis that the selection of envy type is functional, taking into account the costs and benefits of a benign versus a hostile response: 1) Hostile envy was expected to be more likely when the advantage cant be acquired without taking it from the envied. 2) Benign envy was expected to be more likely when the relationship with the envied person is highly valuable to the envier. 3) Benign envy was expected to be more likely when the social environment favors the envied person. Additionally, the emotions experienced as part of envy were proposed to mediate the relationships between elements of the situation and responses to envy. Using a daily diary method, participants described their everyday experiences of envy, which were categorized as benign or hostile based on taxometric and latent class analyses. Prediction 1 was fully supported and prediction 2 was largely supported. Prediction 3 was not supported; instead participants' beliefs about the envied person's deservingness directly affected envy type. Mediation analyses supported the proposal that emotions mediate the relationships between situations and responses. The degree to which the envied person's possession of the advantage makes it harder for the envier to get emerged as an important factor in how one responds to hostile envy.


Impacts Of Distraction On Driving: An Analysis Of Physical, Cognitive, And Emotional Distraction, Jason Sterkenburg Jan 2015

Impacts Of Distraction On Driving: An Analysis Of Physical, Cognitive, And Emotional Distraction, Jason Sterkenburg

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Traditionally, driver distraction has been categorized into four types: visual, biomechanical, auditory, and cognitive. However, the place of emotion in distracted driving research is undefined. This research investigates the influence of emotional distraction on driving performance. In total, seventy-eight participants were recruited and placed into one of four conditions: physical (visual-biomechanical), cognitive (cognitive- auditory), emotional (anger), and control. The results demonstrated that emotional distraction degrades driving performance as much as or more than other distraction types. The causes for these results, underlying mechanisms, and other considerations are mentioned in the discussion section.


Consumer Evaluation: Describing Construal-Level Theory And A Role Of Emotion On Human’S Thinking Processing Style, Junga Lee Jan 2015

Consumer Evaluation: Describing Construal-Level Theory And A Role Of Emotion On Human’S Thinking Processing Style, Junga Lee

Master's Theses

Based on emotion and construal level theory, this study examined the influence of emotion on consumer decision-making. Participants were induced into happy or sad moods by describing a past happy or sad life event. Then they were asked to read one of two smartphone advertisements. One advertisement emphasized only central features of smartphone, and the other one emphasized only secondary features. The dependent variables were participants’ attitudes toward the advertisements, purchase intention of the smartphone in the advertisement, and willingness to pay for the smartphone. Based on the connection between emotion and construal level, I predicted that due to their ...


Angry Abolitionists & The Rhetoric Of Slavery: Minding The Moral Emotions In Social Movements, Benjamin Lamb-Books Jan 2015

Angry Abolitionists & The Rhetoric Of Slavery: Minding The Moral Emotions In Social Movements, Benjamin Lamb-Books

Sociology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Although emotion is increasingly central in theories of social change, the sociology of social movements and emotion continues to have a mix-and-stir quality. Through a microanalysis of abolitionist discourse, this dissertation observes how the two are systematically intertwined by status claimsmaking processes. To better explore the affective dynamics of protest rhetoric through which `social movements move,' I construct a new synthetic theory of status as a moral-emotional resource, dependent upon cultural imaginaries and negotiated through rhetorical implicatures. Status-oriented moral emotions--including the egocentric and altruistic types of anger examined in this case study--can be aroused, altered, and rechanneled toward reform causes ...


Parenting Behaviors Of Sleepy Parents: Associations With Emotion Regulation And Stress, Lauren R. Gilbert Jan 2015

Parenting Behaviors Of Sleepy Parents: Associations With Emotion Regulation And Stress, Lauren R. Gilbert

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Over the last decade, the topic of sleep has garnered a great deal of interest from psychologists, due to the physiological, emotional, and behavioral outcomes associated with its deprivation. However, questions remain to be answered regarding sleep's influence in the day-to-day life of families. The current study examines the importance of sleep deprivation for parents’ parenting behaviors during problem solving discussions with their children; emotion regulation and stress reactivity are examined as mediators of these associations. Participants were 196 families with a child between the ages of 6-11. Parents filled out diaries for 7 days prior to their in-lab ...


Remembering That Neutral Feeling? Enhanced Memory For Neutral, But Not Positive Or Negative, Emotional Stimuli In Bipolar I Disorder, Gaia Cooper Jan 2015

Remembering That Neutral Feeling? Enhanced Memory For Neutral, But Not Positive Or Negative, Emotional Stimuli In Bipolar I Disorder, Gaia Cooper

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is associated with heightened and persistent positive emotion (Gruber, 2011; Johnson, 2005). Yet we know less about underlying cognitive processes that may influence these observed biases in emotionality. One promising approach is to examine cognitive processes, such as declarative memory, that may serve as an important window into understanding how individuals with BD remember emotion-laden stimuli. The current study presented standardized positive, negative and neutral emotion eliciting images to remitted BD I adults (n=26) and healthy controls (CTL; n=24) and measured accuracy in recall after a subsequent 60-minute delay ...


Judging Dread: A Quantitative Investigation Of Affect, Psychometric Dread And Risk Consequence, Melvyn Griffiths Jan 2015

Judging Dread: A Quantitative Investigation Of Affect, Psychometric Dread And Risk Consequence, Melvyn Griffiths

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Risk is generally understood as a product of the likelihood and consequence of an event. However, the way in which estimations of consequences are formed is unclear due to the complexities of human perception. In particular, the influence of Affect, defined as positive or negative qualities subjectively assigned to stimuli, may skew risk consequence judgements. Thus a clearer understanding of the role of Affect in risk consequence estimations has significant implications for risk management, risk communication and policy formulation.

In the Psychometric tradition of risk perception, Affect has become almost synonymous with the concept of Dread, despite Dread being measured ...


The Effect Of Emotion On Associative And Item Memory, Priyanga Jeyarathnarajah Jan 2015

The Effect Of Emotion On Associative And Item Memory, Priyanga Jeyarathnarajah

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Numerous studies to date have demonstrated superior memory for emotional compared to neutral stimuli (Kensinger & Corkin, 2004; Bennion et al., 2013). This finding, although relatively stable across the item memory literature, becomes less consistent when examined in tasks measuring memory for associative or source information (Chiu et al., 2013). For this reason, the present study set out to examine how emotional content (negative, positive and neutral word pairs) influences memory in two distinct associative and item recognition tasks: associative identification (AI), associative reinstatement (AR), paired-item recognition, and single-item recognition. In measuring the influence of emotion on associations using an explicit (AI) and ...


The Effects Of Emotion And Action On Binding In Memory, Kacie Mennie Jan 2015

The Effects Of Emotion And Action On Binding In Memory, Kacie Mennie

LSU Master's Theses

The ability to successfully bind features and objects at different levels of abstraction is important for everyday functioning of memory. The current study examined how actions and emotional arousal influence item recognition and between-item binding across two experiments. According to the Arousal-Biased Competition Theory (ABC; Mather and Sutherland, 2011), binding can be enhanced by emotional arousal, depending upon what is the focus of attention within a scene. In the current study, participants viewed a series of slides, each of which depicted a person performing an action with an object, as well as an object that is not interacted with. All ...


Understanding Emotion In Relation To Drinking Motivation, Melissa C. Hinely Jan 2015

Understanding Emotion In Relation To Drinking Motivation, Melissa C. Hinely

University Honors Program Theses

Recent research has uncovered the interactions between implicit alcohol motivations and drinking behaviors after emotion inductions (Ostafin & Brooks, 2011). However, little research has supplemented such findings. This longitudinal two-part study examined the impact of a personalized emotion induction on implicit alcohol-related associations in a college sample enrolled at southern university. 215 participants were randomly assigned to one of three emotion-induction conditions (negative, neutral, or positive). During phase I, participants completed a baseline Implicit Association Tests (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998) to assess implicit alcohol-related cognitions related to valence and motivation. Based on condition, participants were also asked to describe in detail a recent negative, neutral, or positive experience that would later be used to induce emotion in phase II. 88 participants returned for phase II. Participants listened to an individualized guided imagery recording intended to induce the emotion of their assigned condition. The same IATs from phase I were administered post-emotion induction. Due insufficient power, significant changes in alcohol-related ...


Color Me, Please: How Color-Emotion Pairs Affect Our Perceptions, Russell T. Rogers Jan 2015

Color Me, Please: How Color-Emotion Pairs Affect Our Perceptions, Russell T. Rogers

University Honors Program Theses

Color-emotion pairings are part of everyday experience, and they develop in early childhood. Emotional experiences are typically much stronger when emotional stimuli (e.g., pictures or videos) are paired with sensory stimuli (e.g., sights or sounds). Since the presence of these sensory stimuli seems to heighten the emotional experience of emotion-evoking visual stimuli, it should be the case that such pairings will allow the manipulation of color-emotion pairings through the presence of a color (a visual stimulus) during an emotional situation (such as watching a video). In this study (N = 44), we paired both a positive and negative video ...


The Effects Of The Emotional State On An Observer In The Face In The Crowd Paradigm, Kale A. Hubert Jan 2015

The Effects Of The Emotional State On An Observer In The Face In The Crowd Paradigm, Kale A. Hubert

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The face in the crowd paradigm refers to a particular visual search task in which participants are asked to identify target facial expressions in a crowd of distractors. Previous research in this vein has suggested performance is enhanced for angry faces, an anger-superiority effect. There is however disagreement in many of these findings, and this disagreement may partly be explained by a failure to recognize the role of observer mood, response bias, and discrimination ability in the paradigm. The present study used a face in the crowd visual search task and assessed participant mood state using the Positive and Negative ...


Too Close For Comfort? Social Distance And Positive Emotion Perception In Bipolar I Disorder, Joseph William Fischer Jan 2015

Too Close For Comfort? Social Distance And Positive Emotion Perception In Bipolar I Disorder, Joseph William Fischer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is associated with heightened and persistent positive emotion (Gruber, 2011; Johnson, 2005). Yet we know less about how troubled emotion responding may translate into dynamic face-to-face interactions involving others, especially in contexts where automatic social regulation of personal distance from others is key to maintaining social boundaries. Using a novel distance paradigm adapted from prior work (Adolphs et al., 2009) participants with a history of bipolar I disorder (BD; n = 30) and healthy controls (CTL; n = 31) provided online measurements of social distance preferences in response to positive, negative and neutral ...