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Caffeine Withdrawal And Dependence: A Review, Alexander Roberts Dec 2017

Caffeine Withdrawal And Dependence: A Review, Alexander Roberts

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

With the prevalence of caffeine use increasing in modern lifestyles, it is important to look at the symptoms of caffeine use, including withdrawal and dependence, and whether these symptoms have implications for addiction. A limited number of assessments have been developed to assess caffeine withdrawal. In order to make a call for more assessments and programs to be developed to assist with healthy caffeine use, this literature review observed recent studies focusing on withdrawal and dependence. Ozsunger et al. (2009) classified caffeine withdrawal into three categories of symptoms. Three years later, Juliano et al. (2012) used an experimental approach to ...


Examining Attentional Control And Processing Speed Deficits As Underlying Mechanisms Of Neuropsychological Impairment In Schizophrenia, Mayte Forte Dec 2017

Examining Attentional Control And Processing Speed Deficits As Underlying Mechanisms Of Neuropsychological Impairment In Schizophrenia, Mayte Forte

Graduate Masters Theses

Neuropsychological impairment is a key characteristic of schizophrenia (SZ), but its cognitive profile and underlying information processing mechanisms are not yet well understood. We compare patterns of neuropsychological functioning in 85 persons with SZ and 76 healthy controls across measures of intelligence, memory, and executive function. We then test the hypothesis that neuropsychological impairment in SZ is related to dual deficits in two related but distinct information processes: processing speed and attentional control. All research participants completed Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale Third Edition (WMS-III), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), all of which provided measures ...


Whether Or Not 'It Gets Better'…Coping With Parental Heterosexist Rejection, Cara Herbitter Dec 2017

Whether Or Not 'It Gets Better'…Coping With Parental Heterosexist Rejection, Cara Herbitter

Graduate Masters Theses

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people face the burden of additional stressors as a result of their experiences of stigma and discrimination regarding their sexual minority status. Parental rejection of LGB people in the context of heterosexism serves as a powerful minority stressor associated with poorer mental health (e.g., Bouris et al., 2010; Ryan, Huebner, Diaz, & Sanchez, 2009). Few contemporary theories exist to describe the experience of parental rejection. In addition, the extant empirical research has focused primarily on youth experiences among White and urban LGB samples, signaling the need for research across the lifespan investigating more diverse samples. Moreover, prior published studies have not focused directly on how LGB people cope with parental rejection, but rather on the negative consequences associated with the rejection more generally. For the current study, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 LGB and queer (LGBQ) people about their experiences coping with parental rejection using retrospective recall questions. I sought to maximize diversity in the realms of experiences of parental rejection, race, ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, gender, age, and U.S. regions. I analyzed the data using an adaptation of grounded theory methodology based upon the work of psychologist David Rennie (e.g., Rennie, Phillips, & Quartaro, 1988). The core category that emerged was: Parental rejection was experienced as harmfully corrective and then internalized; reframing the rejection as heterosexism mitigated internalized heterosexism and enabled adaptive acceptance strategies. The findings documented the common experiences shared by participants, which led to an original stage model of coping with heterosexism parental rejection, a central contribution of this study. In addition ...


Stasi Brainwashing In The Gdr 1957 - 1990, Jacob H. Solbrig, Jacob Hagen Solbrig Dec 2017

Stasi Brainwashing In The Gdr 1957 - 1990, Jacob H. Solbrig, Jacob Hagen Solbrig

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the methods used by the Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS), more commonly known as the Stasi, or East German secret police, for extraction of information from citizens of the German Democratic Republic for the purpose of espionage and covert operations inside East Germany, as it pertains to the deliberate brainwashing of East German citizens. As one of the most efficient intelligence agencies to ever exist, the Stasi’s main purpose was to monitor the population, gather intelligence, and collect or turn informants. They used brainwashing techniques to control the people of the GDR, keeping the populace paralyzed with ...


The Horse's Ass: A Survey Of Comediology, William M. Fisk Dec 2017

The Horse's Ass: A Survey Of Comediology, William M. Fisk

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

What is comedy? Can someone learn to be funny? Are there rules or guidelines for the production of laughter, the universal language? This paper, which outlines an investigation of successful comedians and the production of a short film, determines to aggregate as many of the relevant prerequisites of inducing giggles as possible, especially as they relate to the audiovisual medium of cinema.


Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy Dec 2017

Possible Breakdown Of Dopamine Receptor Synergism In A Mouse Model Of Huntington's Disease, Samantha F. Kennedy

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The model of basal ganglia function proposed by Albin, Young and Penney (1989) describes two anatomically independent motor pathways, the direct and indirect. However, under normal conditions striatal dopamine (DA) is required for the expression of motor behavior, and DAergic control of the two pathways (via D1 and D2 receptors, respectively) is dependent on co-activation. We tested for a possible breakdown of D1/D2 synergism using transgenic R6/1 mice bearing the human huntingtin allele (Htt). Motor stereotypy, observed prior to the onset of HD-related symptoms, was rated on a 5-point scale following activation of: A) D1 receptors alone, B ...


Neurocorrelates Of The Mirror Neuron System In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, Ade Marais Dec 2017

Neurocorrelates Of The Mirror Neuron System In Children With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, Ade Marais

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Activation of brain regions that make up the mirror neuron system (MNS) is thought to reflect processing and perceiving behavior, action, and intentionality of other organisms. Sensing and perceiving motor behavior in others is an important component of understanding and participating in social interactions. Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are diagnosed with serious medical, cognitive, and socio-emotional symptoms. Atypical development and function of the MNS may underpin some aspects of socio-emotional impairment and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like symptomology reported. This study of the MNS investigates differences in activation in the operculum, sensorimotor areas, and basal ...


Validation Of The Multilayered Gender Identity Questionnaires, Philip Eiseman Dec 2017

Validation Of The Multilayered Gender Identity Questionnaires, Philip Eiseman

Dissertations

Gender identity shapes the ways transgender adults experience themselves and relate to the world around them. Although research and theory suggest that gender identity is a multidimensional construct, most measures of gender identity have viewed gender as primarily a unitary construct tied to the gender binary. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Multilayered Gender Identity Questionnaires (MGIQ), a set of measures of gender identity, in a sample of transgender adults. Qualitative data collected through focus groups with transgender adults (N = 7) helped refine and develop these measures. A series of analyses involving a larger sample ...


Objective Measures Of Electrophysiological Responses Of Children With Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder And Phelan-Mcdermid Syndrome To A Contrast-Reversing Checkerboard, Chloe Brittenham Dec 2017

Objective Measures Of Electrophysiological Responses Of Children With Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder And Phelan-Mcdermid Syndrome To A Contrast-Reversing Checkerboard, Chloe Brittenham

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The heterogeneity of autism presents many challenges in understanding the disorder. The current study employs objective measures to examine visual evoked potential (VEP) responses of children with idiopathic autism (iASD) and Phelan-Mcdermid syndrome (PMS) to a contrast-reversing checkerboard in both long (60-second) and short (2-second) duration conditions.


Exploring The Underlying Mechanisms Of Structure Building, Reshma Gouravajhala Dec 2017

Exploring The Underlying Mechanisms Of Structure Building, Reshma Gouravajhala

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Structure building, the ability to build a coherent mental model of any narrative, requires the identification and integration of important parts of that narrative, as well as the suppression of irrelevant details. Critically, while individual differences in structure building have been shown to have important consequences in the classroom, little has been concluded about underlying deficits and causal mechanisms of low structure building ability. In the present study, we tested the theory that an impaired ability to suppress unimportant details is low structure builders’ sole deficit (Gernsbacher, 1990). We presented participants with educationally authentic text materials that offered varying degrees ...


Measuring Responses To Negative Peer Pressure Using Virtual Reality, Kelli Sargent Dec 2017

Measuring Responses To Negative Peer Pressure Using Virtual Reality, Kelli Sargent

Psychology Theses and Dissertations

Adolescent susceptibility to negative peer pressure consistently relates to maladaptive adolescent adjustment. However, measurement of this construct typically involves a mono- method, self-report approach. The current study uses virtual reality to create an observational assessment procedure for measuring adolescent responses to negative peer pressure. Participants (n = 264) completed a lab assessment, including self-reports of susceptibility to peer pressure, antisocial behavior, dating violence perpetration, and depressive symptoms. Participants also engaged in 9 virtual reality simulations (4 involving peer pressure), which were coded for resistance to peer pressure. Control participants repeated the virtual reality simulations at a 2- month follow-up. Resistance scores ...


Aspects Of Resiliency Among The Lives Of Student Veterans, Sydney Nolan Dec 2017

Aspects Of Resiliency Among The Lives Of Student Veterans, Sydney Nolan

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This study focuses on aspects of resiliency among the narratives of student veterans; specifically psychosocial difficulties, being in a relationship, social support, and sense of purpose and control. Seven student veterans attending James Madison University participated in the study. Using qualitative interviews, the researcher was able to gather information about the transitional experience of each veteran from active duty soldier, to civilian, to student. The purpose of this study is to identify the key aspects of resiliency that helped these men transition, in hopes that programs can use this information in the future to better assist veterans in their transition ...


Do Flashbulb Memories Transmit Across Generations? 9/11 As A Case Study, Shanique Meyler Dec 2017

Do Flashbulb Memories Transmit Across Generations? 9/11 As A Case Study, Shanique Meyler

Student Theses

Psychologists have only recently begun to examine the extent to which personal memories transmit across generations. When they have, they typically focus on family stories (see Merrill & Fivush, 2016) or memories of historical events (Svob & Brown, 2012). The present study extends this line of research to flashbulb memories, or memories of an individual’s circumstances when first learning about a consequential, historical event (Brown & Kulik, 1977). To this end, the present study examines the extent to which flashbulb memories surrounding the events of the terrorist attacks on 9/11 transmit to the next generation. The results suggest that flashbulb memories ...


Life Being An International Student In The United States: Acculturation, Culture Shock, And Identity Transformation, Lai Yan Vivyan Lam Dec 2017

Life Being An International Student In The United States: Acculturation, Culture Shock, And Identity Transformation, Lai Yan Vivyan Lam

Master's Theses

The population of international students at community colleges in the United States has increased significantly over the past decade. International students play a big role in building the cultural diversity on campus by bringing over different cultures and sharing their global perspective to the local community. However, they often face challenges adapting into American culture due to cultural differences in education system, language, lifestyle, etc. By looking into the acculturation process of international students to analyze the culture shock and cultural identity changes they experienced, this paper intends to seek ways to help this group of students to ease their ...


The Role Of The Prefrontal Cortex In Cocaine And Heroin Seeking Following Extinction Training, Caitlin Victoria Cosme Dec 2017

The Role Of The Prefrontal Cortex In Cocaine And Heroin Seeking Following Extinction Training, Caitlin Victoria Cosme

Theses and Dissertations

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is considered a critical node in the neural circuitry underlying drug-seeking behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which this region influences drug seeking and whether or not the lateral PFC mediates cocaine or heroin seeking are questions that have yet to be answered. To expand on the role of the PFC in drug seeking, rats were trained on either heroin or cocaine self-administration for a minimum of 12 days before undergoing extinction training and subsequent reinstatement tests (cued and drug-prime). All pharmacological manipulations were delivered immediately prior to reinstatement testing and were targeted at either the ventral ...


Factor Structure And Risk Of Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Rebecca Grekin Dec 2017

Factor Structure And Risk Of Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Rebecca Grekin

Theses and Dissertations

Existing research suggests that childbirth may be a significant trigger of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the postpartum period. While literature presents important results regarding the prevalence and risk factors of postpartum PTSD, several gaps remain. The current study examined the factor structure of perinatal PTSD by comparing two supported structures of PTSD. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether subjective birthing experiences and objective childbirth characteristics mediated the relationship between psychosocial variables (history of trauma, fear of childbirth, and social support) and postpartum PTSD.

Women were recruited during pregnancy from the University of Iowa Hospitals and ...


Mentalization In Counseling Processes, Matthew J. Swartzentruber Dec 2017

Mentalization In Counseling Processes, Matthew J. Swartzentruber

Educational Specialist

The purpose of this literature review is to demonstrate the profound influences and numerous applications the concept of mentalization has within counseling processes. The skill of mentalizing extends across theoretical orientations within existing counseling frameworks and has been suggested to be a core factor within the counseling process (Allen, Fonagy, & Bateman, 2008). Mentalizing capacities have been linked to positive therapeutic alliances (Markowitz & Milrod, 2011), positive client outcomes (Bernbach, 2002; Bouchard et al., 2008; Fonagy & Target, 1996; Karlsson & Kermott, 2006; Levy et. al., 2006; Meehan, Levy, Reynoso, Hill, & Clarkin, 2009), and counselor effectiveness (Cologon, 2013); and as such is an essential skill for counselors and clients to develop.


Color-Grapheme Synesthesia: A Study Of Population Prevalence, Christopher Hill Dec 2017

Color-Grapheme Synesthesia: A Study Of Population Prevalence, Christopher Hill

Dissertations

Given the current state of the literature and weaknesses of many previous prevalence studies, the primary purpose of this research study was to gather base-rate data of color-grapheme synesthesia in a general population sample. Over a period of seven months, 502 participants enrolled in the study on Mechanical Turk and completed the online Synesthesia Battery. The primary data collected was the participant’s score on the synesthesia test, whereby a score of a one or below is deemed by the battery to be indicative of someone with a color-grapheme synesthetic ability. Of the 502 participants, eight percent (0.082) of ...


Dreams: A Unified Theory Approach, Chance Mcdermott Dec 2017

Dreams: A Unified Theory Approach, Chance Mcdermott

Dissertations

Henriques (2011) proposed a new unified theory of psychology (UT) which he argued could assimilate and integrate divergent lines of thought into a coherent whole. An implication of this claim is that the system can be applied to phenomena that was not addressed in the original work and the current work tests this proposition. Specifically, the current work utilized the UT and its components to examine the dream literature, especially psychodynamic, physiological and evolutionary approaches. Following a brief introduction, the project reviews the various lines of research and interpretations of why we dream and what they may mean for us ...


Prospective Associations Of Homocysteine, Executive Function, And Depressive Symptoms, Peter J. Dearborn Dec 2017

Prospective Associations Of Homocysteine, Executive Function, And Depressive Symptoms, Peter J. Dearborn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive performance, and depressive symptoms have been well established. However, the directionality of these associations as well as the specificity of these associations with respect to executive function are less clear. Additionally few studies have determined whether genetic risk factors, such as apolipoprotein-E4 (APOE-E4) genotype, and age moderate the associations of cardiovascular risk factors such as homocysteine with changes in depressive symptoms and how these associations may be mediated by cognitive performance. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the bidirectional associations of a full range of cognitive domains and symptoms of depression ...


Constitutional Reform: Decolonization In The Comoros Islads, Nicholas A. Daou Dec 2017

Constitutional Reform: Decolonization In The Comoros Islads, Nicholas A. Daou

Capstone Collection

Since its independence in 1975 the Union of Comoros has seen a great deal of political upheaval as a part of its decolonization process. This study examines the period between 1975 and 2001 with special emphasis on the 1997 Secession Crisis and the methods by which that crisis was resolved. The literature review is composed of predominantly native Comorian authors, supplemented by several French authors and information from international organizations. The events and literature are also examined through the lenses of the psychoanalytical group identity theory of Vamik Volkan and the Conflict Transformation work of Johan Galtung. Data regarding attitudes ...


Understanding Behavioral Health And Treatment Engagement With Former Users Of Prenatal Substances: A Strengths-Focused Mixed Methods Inquiry, Jennifer G. Benson, Peggy Maclean, Andrew Hsi, Sarah J. Erickson Dec 2017

Understanding Behavioral Health And Treatment Engagement With Former Users Of Prenatal Substances: A Strengths-Focused Mixed Methods Inquiry, Jennifer G. Benson, Peggy Maclean, Andrew Hsi, Sarah J. Erickson

Psychology ETDs

Accessible services for users of prenatal substances are lacking, and treatment engagement is poor with services that are available. Furthermore, legal consequences are often punitive, which ultimately damages the well-being of mother and child. Milagro and FOCUS are two New Mexico programs that provide comprehensive, coordinated care, including medication-assisted treatment, to former users of prenatal substances during pregnancy (in the Milagro Program) and for three years post-birth (in the FOCUS Program). This mixed methods study explored the lived experiences of women from this complex, high-risk population, using a high-engagement sample of women who utilized services at both Milagro and FOCUS ...


Privileging Autistics Of Color: A Human Rights Approach To Applied Behavior Analysis (Aba) Therapy, Rebecca Rubey Dec 2017

Privileging Autistics Of Color: A Human Rights Approach To Applied Behavior Analysis (Aba) Therapy, Rebecca Rubey

Master's Projects and Capstones

This field project examines the social construction of autistic people of color through the pathology paradigm and the associated human rights violations. The purpose of the project is to disrupt the pathology paradigm by privileging voices of autistic people of color in professional development workshops for ABA therapy providers. The workshops aim to help ABA therapy providers understand the historical context of ABA, how it fits into the wider systems of white supremacy and ableism, and how these dynamics are re-enacted in every day practice with autistic people of color.


The Influence Of Personal Threat, Personal Loss, Age, Practice Characteristics, And Death Education On Counselors' Death Anxiety And Death Acceptance, Michael Morad-Mccoy Dec 2017

The Influence Of Personal Threat, Personal Loss, Age, Practice Characteristics, And Death Education On Counselors' Death Anxiety And Death Acceptance, Michael Morad-Mccoy

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

A sample of 234 professional counselors were surveyed to investigate factors that affect professional counselors’ levels of death anxiety and death acceptance were investigated. Factors included personal experiences of mortality (personal threat), experiences of bereavement (grief), hours working with clients presenting death, dying, and bereavement (DDB) issues (client hours), numbers of clients who have died (client death), age, and hours of formal death education (death education). The measures of death anxiety and death acceptance were participants’ scores on the Death Attitudes Profile—Revised.

Analysis of the results found a significant negative relationship between client hours and death anxiety measures and ...


The Effects Of Exercise On Mental Health: A Research Review, Kaylani Benson Dec 2017

The Effects Of Exercise On Mental Health: A Research Review, Kaylani Benson

Honors College Theses

This research review looks at the effects exercise and physical activity have on mental health. The results of this review are based upon the results of the formal studies that have been included. These studies are Benefits of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, Exercise Effects on Mental Health of Preschool Children, The Effect of Morning Exercise on Mental Health of Female Police Employees, Exercise and Mental Health of People Living with HIV: A Systemic Review, Exercise Improves Physical Function and Mental Health of Brain Cancer Survivors: Two Exploratory Case Studies, Effect of Yogic and Physical ...


Psychological Distress And Adjustment In College Students, Donovan A. Miles Dec 2017

Psychological Distress And Adjustment In College Students, Donovan A. Miles

Theses and Dissertations

The mental health needs of college students have risen dramatically. According to Kitzrow (2003), an estimated 84% of students who walked into a school counseling centers show significant causes for concern. These students were at high risks because of a variety of psychological distress. The current study sought to understand the multidimensional impact of mental health concerns on students' academic adjustment. Undergraduate students from a northeast public university completed an online survey that comprised of demographic information and two Likert type scales that measured psychological distress and academic adjustment. Results indicated that depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and eating concerns ...


The Power Of Discomfort In Learning Abroad, Alexis Barge Dec 2017

The Power Of Discomfort In Learning Abroad, Alexis Barge

Capstone Collection

Currently, the majority of students who study abroad do so through short-term programs. In fact, in 2015 over 60% of students who studied abroad chose short-term programs lasting eight weeks or less (IIE, 2016). It has long been the belief that study abroad has the potential to be a life-changing and transformative experience, not just academically but also for personal growth and development. Many professionals agree that the students who go abroad on short-term study abroad programs are significantly less likely to experience meaningful learning outside of the subject matter they are studying, and are less likely to experience personal ...


Personality Traits And Positive Reinforcement In Exercise, Amy Schaefer Dec 2017

Personality Traits And Positive Reinforcement In Exercise, Amy Schaefer

Psychology Master's Theses

Obesity rates across college campuses are rising. Health habits, such as exercise, acquired during the college years tend to carry on through the rest of an individual’s life. The purpose of the current study is to identify the effects of positive reinforcement on success in exercise adherence for individuals displaying extraverted and neurotic personality traits. 16 volunteer participants ranging in age from 18-25 years from the College at Brockport were recruited. They completed surveys measuring behavior stages of change, exercise barriers/benefits and personality type. Participants then recorded exercise habits over an eight week period. Four of these eight ...


Self-Esteem In Spanish-Speaking Latinos In Northwest Ohio, Mckenna Freeman Dec 2017

Self-Esteem In Spanish-Speaking Latinos In Northwest Ohio, Mckenna Freeman

Honors Projects

Self-esteem is a widely-studied construct across many disciplines of social science. However, previous research regarding self-esteem and language barriers has focused primarily on children and adolescent populations, while much less research has examined this relationship among adults. The current study measures linguistic acculturation and self-esteem in both Latino and control adult samples. Hypothesis 1 states that participants in the Latino sample would report significantly lower self-esteem than the control sample. Hypothesis 2 states that linguistic acculturation levels in Spanish speaking Latinos would be positively correlated with self-esteem. Finally, a research question was addressed measuring the differences in self-esteem between foreign ...


Beyond The End Line - Putting The Mental Health Of Female Athletes First, Katherine Scholten Dec 2017

Beyond The End Line - Putting The Mental Health Of Female Athletes First, Katherine Scholten

Honors Projects

Currently one in five adults are affected by mental illness. Student-athletes are a population that is under diagnosed for mental illness. In the world of college athletics, mental pain is as regular as physical pain. Coaches often push their athletes to suffer in silence for the betterment of the team. The NCAA has recognized the importance of mental health in college athletics, yet there is still much work to be done among universities across the country. This document is to serve as a resource and a guide on the effects of mental health among female student athletes and the best ...