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Psychology

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2009

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Specific, Common, And Unintended Factors In Psychotherapy: Descriptive And Correlational Approaches To What Creates Change, Kevin S. Mccarthy Dec 2009

Specific, Common, And Unintended Factors In Psychotherapy: Descriptive And Correlational Approaches To What Creates Change, Kevin S. Mccarthy

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

From the psychotherapy outcome literature, many have inferred that either theory-specific techniques or interventions common to all therapies are what produce symptom change. However, such conclusions are premature because (a) too few direct tests have been conducted of how variation in the levels of either specific or common factor interventions relate to outcome, (b) those prior investigations of specific and common factors and outcome have often been limited to examining linear relations between intervention use and outcome when curvilinear functions might better model their association, and (c) most studies of psychotherapy and outcome have failed to consider how interventions specific ...


Evaluating The School Performance Of Elementary And Middle School Children Of Incarcerated Parents., Melissa F. Neal Dec 2009

Evaluating The School Performance Of Elementary And Middle School Children Of Incarcerated Parents., Melissa F. Neal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children of incarcerated parents are at significantly increased risk of negative long-term outcomes. With about 1% of the adult population incarcerated, the United States has millions of children at risk for these negative outcomes. Research on this population is increasing; however, it is still unclear whether children of incarcerated parents are at an increased risk for poor school performance as a specific result of parental incarceration above that associated with their social and economic status. Because parental incarceration may result in a variety of outcomes that can negatively impact school performance including school mobility, prolonged exposure to stress, and insufficient ...


Effects Of Anxiety Reducing Interventions On Performance Anxiety In Graduate Nurses., Georgita Tolbert Washington Dec 2009

Effects Of Anxiety Reducing Interventions On Performance Anxiety In Graduate Nurses., Georgita Tolbert Washington

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Every new nursing graduate is challenged to successfully transition from student to professional nurse. The stress involved in that transition can manifest itself as performance anxiety, a type of anxiety occurring when someone is the focus of attention and is fearful of interactions or of being humiliated or embarrassed. It occurs only in specific situations. The new graduate's performance is the focus of attention and evaluation. Further, the need to interact with other professionals, patients, and families can create anxiety about performance. No studies have examined performance anxiety in graduate nurses.

Use of cognitive behavioral therapy, progressive muscle relaxation ...


Psychosocial Concerns And Childhood Overweight In Pediatric Primary Care Clinics Serving Rural Appalachia., Suzanne Allen Dec 2009

Psychosocial Concerns And Childhood Overweight In Pediatric Primary Care Clinics Serving Rural Appalachia., Suzanne Allen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To examine the prevalence of psychosocial concerns presenting in 3 pediatric primary care clinics serving rural Appalachia. The association between pediatric weight status and psychosocial concerns was examined. Methods: Caregivers of children presenting in one of 3 pediatric primary care facilities completed a demographic questionnaire and the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results: Approximately 21.4% of children were identified as having a clinically significant behavioral health concern. Among children with available weight status data, ~53% of the children were identified as overweight. Children identified having significant behavioral concerns were more likely to have a lower weight status than those with ...


Positive Psychological And Religious Characteristics As Moderators Of Negative Life Events And Depressive Symptoms: A Multiethnic Comparison., Preston Lee Visser Dec 2009

Positive Psychological And Religious Characteristics As Moderators Of Negative Life Events And Depressive Symptoms: A Multiethnic Comparison., Preston Lee Visser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hope, optimism, and several markers of religiosity and spirituality were examined as potential moderators of the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms in a secondary data analysis of an ethnically diverse sample. Participants (267 female, 119 male) were college students enrolled at an urban Northeastern university. It was hypothesized that negative life events would be associated with increased depressive symptoms and that higher levels of hope, optimism, and religious and spiritual variables would attenuate this relationship. Ethnically-stratified moderation analyses were conducted to assess for differences in moderation between Blacks, Hispanics, Whites, and Asians. Hypotheses were generally supported, with ...


Psychometrics Of The Missouri Student Survey: Examining Validity, Reliability And Consent, Susan Marie Depue Dec 2009

Psychometrics Of The Missouri Student Survey: Examining Validity, Reliability And Consent, Susan Marie Depue

Dissertations

Risk and protective factors for adolescent drug and alcohol abuse have gained prominence in the prevention field as a framework for prevention. Communities that Care® is the original survey that collected data on risk and protective factors in the adolescent community. The Missouri Student Survey is based upon the Communities that Care® survey and is administered to students across the state of Missouri every two years. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Missouri Student Survey in a sample of 126,923 students from across the state of Missouri. In addition, this study also considers the question of ...


Family Separation And Changes In Peer Relationships Among Early Adolescent Latino Youth: Examining The Mediating Role Of Family Relationships, Lawrence Duane House Dec 2009

Family Separation And Changes In Peer Relationships Among Early Adolescent Latino Youth: Examining The Mediating Role Of Family Relationships, Lawrence Duane House

Psychology Dissertations

This longitudinal study examines whether family processes (family cohesion and family conflict) mediate the relationship between family separation experiences and the development of peer relationships (quality and conflict). The study includes a sample of 199 early adolescent Latinos from immigrant families. Family conflict mediated the relationship between separation experiences from fathers and peer conflict at year 1 but not year 2 such that more separation from father was associated with higher family conflict and higher peer conflict at year 1. Family cohesion did not mediate associations between mother or father separation and peer relationship outcomes. Family cohesion predicted more positive ...


The Reduction Of Anti-Gay Bias Through Interpersonal Contact: The Moderating Roles Of Hiv Stigma And Motivation To Respond Without Prejudice., Lisa Ann Elliott Dec 2009

The Reduction Of Anti-Gay Bias Through Interpersonal Contact: The Moderating Roles Of Hiv Stigma And Motivation To Respond Without Prejudice., Lisa Ann Elliott

Psychology Theses

The intergroup contact effect is well-documented in the research literature (for a meta-analysis see Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Although researchers have identified a few moderators of the contact effect, the constraints under which the contact effect is optimally effective are not well understood. The current research explored two individual difference measures related to anti-gay attitudes, AIDS stigma and motivation to respond without prejudice (internal and external motivation), as potential moderators of the contact effect on heterosexual men’s attitudes towards gay men. Results indicated that increased external motivation and AIDS stigma hinder the benefits of contact for anti-gay attitudes. Implications of ...


Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen Dec 2009

Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen

Theses and Dissertations

Most research investigating vocal expressions of emotion has focused on one or more of three questions: whether there exist unique acoustic profiles of individual encoded emotions, whether the nature of emotion expression is universal across cultures, and how accurately decoders can identify expressed emotions. This dissertation begins to answer a fourth question, whether there exist unique patterns in the types of acoustic properties persons focus on to identify vocalized emotions. Three hypotheses were tested: first, whether acoustic patterns are interpreted idiographically or nomothetically as reflected in a comparison of individual vs. group lens model identification ratios; second, whether there exists ...


Evaluation Of The Psychometric Properties Of The Emotion Regulation Scale, Bebhinn Martha Timmins Dec 2009

Evaluation Of The Psychometric Properties Of The Emotion Regulation Scale, Bebhinn Martha Timmins

Masters Theses

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood disorder effecting 3-7% of school aged children and accounting for 30-50% of mental health referrals. Recent research in the area of emotional regulation has found that youth with ADHD have more difficulty regulating emotion than youth without ADHD. This is unfortunate, as emotional dysregulation has been linked to psychopathology, poor social functioning, substance abuse and suicide. Given this information, it is extremely important that measurement of emotion regulation is adequate because without good measurement it is impossible to improve our understanding of how emotional regulation is developed, maintained and how ...


Creating A Community Of Support For National Guard And Reserve Military Families, Kelly Christine Atwood Dec 2009

Creating A Community Of Support For National Guard And Reserve Military Families, Kelly Christine Atwood

Educational Specialist

This project provides community mental health professionals with information regarding the current supports and difficulties National Guard and Reserve military families face and the resources available to them. Literature on the stresses confronted by National Guard families, social support, the deployment cycle, and needs of National Guard families is reviewed. The current study investigated social support using the Social Support Questionnaire (Short Form) (Sarason, Levine, Basham, & Sarason, 1983). Participants reported the number of people they could really count on when they needed help and how satisfied they were with the help. In addition, qualitative written responses and interviews provided information ...


Unexpected: Identity Transformation Of Postpartum Women, Laura J. Cammaroto Dec 2009

Unexpected: Identity Transformation Of Postpartum Women, Laura J. Cammaroto

Educational Specialist

This purpose of this paper is to explore the physical, emotional and societal issues women face as they transition to motherhood and the accompanying redefinition of self. Themes of acceptance of new roles and responsibilities, resolution of losses, adjusting marriage/partnership, renegotiation of relationships and professional standing are discussed. Women experiencing postpartum depression and anxiety appear to have difficulty navigating or adapting to the new maternal identity. Therefore, this paper summarizes some of the physical responses of the postpartum period as well as possible puerperal mental disorders such as: postpartum dysphoria (Baby Blues), postpartum depression disorder (PPD), post traumatic stress ...


Evaluating Systemic Change In The Virginia Department Of Corrections: Creating Agents Of Change, Philip Andrew Mayles Dec 2009

Evaluating Systemic Change In The Virginia Department Of Corrections: Creating Agents Of Change, Philip Andrew Mayles

Educational Specialist

The Virginia Department of Corrections (VADOC) is attempting to change the practice of working with offenders placed on probation and parole to effect a reduction in the rate of recidivism. The VADOC’s proposal is to get the probation and parole officers to become “change agents” in motivating the offender toward pro-social behavior using evidence-based practices and Motivational Interviewing (MI). The purpose of this paper is to describe the ways in which organizations attempt change and explores the reasons for the resistance displayed by the probation and parole officers. The author argues that the VADOC should employ a second-order change ...


Reimagining Ourselves At Madison (Roam): An Innovative Adventure-Based Peer Counseling Program For University Students Demonstrating High Risk Alcohol-Related Behaviors, Amy Tice Dec 2009

Reimagining Ourselves At Madison (Roam): An Innovative Adventure-Based Peer Counseling Program For University Students Demonstrating High Risk Alcohol-Related Behaviors, Amy Tice

Educational Specialist

In the United States, heavy drinking appears to be normative behavior for college students, and high-risk drinking is a growing problem on college campuses. This paper introduces Re-imagining Ourselves at Madison (ROAM), an adventure-based peer counseling program for James Madison University students who demonstrate high risk-alcohol-related behaviors. The primary objective of this pilot program is to increase participants’ awareness and acknowledgement of their high risk behavior surrounding alcohol through an experience that is different than traditional alcohol education classes or alcohol counseling. ROAM also provides participants with an experience in which they are introduced to healthy alternatives to their high ...


Measuring Marriage Or Measuring Individuals: An Ontological Analysis Of Marital Therapy Outcome Measures, Joseph Andrew Ostenson Dec 2009

Measuring Marriage Or Measuring Individuals: An Ontological Analysis Of Marital Therapy Outcome Measures, Joseph Andrew Ostenson

Theses and Dissertations

Many scholars have noted the pervasiveness of individualism in American culture, particularly in the marriage culture. Unfortunately, assuming individualism in the marriage culture poses very specific threats to marriage as an institution. Some claim that these individualistic assumptions have also infiltrated the marital sciences, undermining the efforts of researchers who hope to defend marriage. This dissertation explores that claim by analyzing seven of the most popular marital outcome instruments used by marital researchers today for individualistic assumptions. Using a conceptual analysis called "contrasting relations," the meanings of both the content and the process of the instruments are laid out according ...


An Empirical Methodology For Engineering Human Systems Integration, Nicholas S. Hardman Dec 2009

An Empirical Methodology For Engineering Human Systems Integration, Nicholas S. Hardman

Theses and Dissertations

The systems engineering technical processes are not sufficiently supported by methods and tools that quantitatively integrate human considerations into early system design. Because of this, engineers must often rely on qualitative judgments or delay critical decisions until late in the system lifecycle. Studies reveal that this is likely to result in cost, schedule, and performance consequences. This dissertation presents a methodology to improve the application of systems engineering technical processes for design. This methodology is mathematically rigorous, is grounded in relevant theory, and applies extant human subjects data to critical systems development challenges. The methodology is expressed in four methods ...


Identifying The Indicators Of Individual Readiness For Positive Life Change Amongst Defenders Within A Remand Setting, Stephen Norman Barlow Dec 2009

Identifying The Indicators Of Individual Readiness For Positive Life Change Amongst Defenders Within A Remand Setting, Stephen Norman Barlow

Theses

Over 60 years ago Mr L. Nott, the Comptroller-General of New South Wales prisons, observed that prisoners do not change because the state wants them to change, but because they are not ready to change. He emphasised that what happens in the internal world of the prisoner affects their ability to change more than anything the correctional system can do. This thesis looks to the internal world of a small group of remand prisoners (called 'defenders') and examines how they express their readiness for change. This study examines defenders' strengths: what is right with them rather than what is wrong ...


Mindfulness, Health, Well-Being, And Patient Care Of Oncologists, Amanda Kracen Dec 2009

Mindfulness, Health, Well-Being, And Patient Care Of Oncologists, Amanda Kracen

Theses and Dissertations

Demands on physicians in the workplace are growing, as are the occupational and psychosocial stressors they encounter. However, there is scant research regarding physicians, their patient care, and strategies that enhance their well-being. Mindfulness, the ability to be present in the moment, is increasingly being encouraged among healthcare workers for personal benefits and possible positive effects for patients. Thus, the present study examined (a) the health, well-being, and patient care practices of oncologists, (b) the relationship between oncologists’ mindfulness and health indicators (general health and sleep problems) with three outcomes (satisfaction with life [SWL], job satisfaction, and suboptimal patient care ...


An Examination Of Factors That Influence Friendships In Young Adults From Intact And Divorced Families, Stephanie Wolf Dec 2009

An Examination Of Factors That Influence Friendships In Young Adults From Intact And Divorced Families, Stephanie Wolf

Theses and Dissertations

Specific factors affecting young adult friendship development have been identified by the literature with little focus on which are most influential in determining friendship composition.. Hierarchical regression was used to examine such factors. Participants included 400 undergraduate Psychology students at a state university in the mid-Atlantic region. Findings indicated parental relationships were the strongest predictor of friendship quality. Parent-child bonds, conflict between parents, and emotion regulation skills best predicted levels of intimacy. Parent-child bond-especially with mother-best predicted satisfaction with friendship network as did conflict between parents. In addition, parent-child bond with mother and conflict between parents were found more important ...


Facilitating The Generalization Of Social Skills With Bibliotherapy And Positive Peer Reporting, Angelina C. Krieger Dec 2009

Facilitating The Generalization Of Social Skills With Bibliotherapy And Positive Peer Reporting, Angelina C. Krieger

Theses and Dissertations

Social competence is needed for interaction among peers, teachers, and families in order for children to be successful in school. Children enter school with various levels of social competence. Social skills training is an effective method for building social skills; however, many programs fail to generalize these skills across settings and time. This study investigated the effects of a social skills training intervention for first and second grade students with emotional and behavioral problems. The intervention blended direct instruction, role-plays, and children's literature, with peers supporting both the acquisition and generalization of the social skills through positive peer reporting ...


College Students And Stress Management: Utilizing Biofeedback And Relaxation Skills Training, Shannon Jones Anstead Dec 2009

College Students And Stress Management: Utilizing Biofeedback And Relaxation Skills Training, Shannon Jones Anstead

Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of biofeedback and relaxation skills training to help alleviate college students' stress symptoms. Data was collected from 659 full-time college students who attended a total of 1,170 biofeedback sessions over the course of two years. Results of the study indicated that the top three stress-related symptoms students experienced were (a) feeling overwhelmed, (b) feeling anxious, and (c) difficulty concentrating. Furthermore, the top three stressors rated by students were (a) too much to do, (b) homework, and (c) classes and school. In addition, the top three coping strategies utilized by students to ...


2008 U.S. Presidential Election: Persuasive Youtube Interactions About War, Health Care, And The Economy, Lindsey Zimmerman Dec 2009

2008 U.S. Presidential Election: Persuasive Youtube Interactions About War, Health Care, And The Economy, Lindsey Zimmerman

Psychology Theses

Persuasive appeals posted to United States presidential candidates’ YouTube videos were coded using a grounded theory mixed-methods design. 37,562 comments about education, energy, Iraq, health care, the economy, and the presidential debates were randomly collected by date and time for three studies using coding analysis: pilot, presidential primaries, and the presidential election. Seven argument types were identified and theoretically refined according to dual process models of persuasion: reason-based, candidate-based, emotion-based, endorsements, enthusiasmheuristic, other-interest and self-interest. Theoretical comparisons and hypothesis testing of argument types were conducted by issue and election event. Consistent with impression involvement, reason-based appeals were more frequent ...


Differences In Computer Mediated Versus Face To Face Negotiation, Melissa Oates Dec 2009

Differences In Computer Mediated Versus Face To Face Negotiation, Melissa Oates

Psychology and Child Development

Ninety Cal Poly students participated in a study to test the hypothesis that e-negotiators would be more likely than face-to-face (FTF) negotiators to employ unethical or competitive negotiation styles in a subsequent negotiation after being lied to in a previous negotiation. Sixty-four Cal Poly students were randomly assigned to partake in a computer mediated or FTF negotiation over the sale of a car. After the initial negotiation was completed, buyers in each condition were led to believe they had been lied to about the accident history of the car. Participants then completed The Incidents in Negotiation Questionnaire by Robinson, Lewicki ...


Job Offer Expectancies: An Analysis Of Antecedents, Outcomes And Moderated Effects, Matthew Millard Dec 2009

Job Offer Expectancies: An Analysis Of Antecedents, Outcomes And Moderated Effects, Matthew Millard

All Dissertations

Restricted by limited time and resources, job applicants are often required to make decisions based on their own estimations of an organization's likelihood to extend a job offer. These estimations, or offer expectancies, may be linked to several applicant attitudes and behaviors that have yet to be examined fully in the literature (e.g., job pursuit or information seeking behaviors, search expansion, etc.). We know relatively little about how these perceptions are formed. In this study, actual job applicants were asked to report their perceptions of and behavioral intentions towards organizations that they are currently applying to but have ...


An Examination Of The Influence Of Stress And Coping On Psychosocial Functioning In Caregivers Of Children With Sickle Cell Disease, Josie S. Welkom Dec 2009

An Examination Of The Influence Of Stress And Coping On Psychosocial Functioning In Caregivers Of Children With Sickle Cell Disease, Josie S. Welkom

Psychology Theses

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that affects approximately 1 out of every 600 African-American newborns (NHLBI, 2006). Research suggests that caregivers of children with SCD are at risk for maladjustment. The purpose of this current study was to build upon previous research regarding stress and coping of parents of children with SCD. Additionally, novel information regarding the effects of racial identity was explored. Participants included 103 caregivers (M = 41.1 years old, SD = 8.04 years) of children with SCD. Parents completed a demographic form, the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Pediatric Inventory for Parents, Coping Health Inventory for ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Racial Factors And Critical Social Analysis Among A Group Of African American Youth, Brandeis H. Green Dec 2009

Exploring The Relationship Between Racial Factors And Critical Social Analysis Among A Group Of African American Youth, Brandeis H. Green

Psychology Theses

The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of racial identity and racial socialization beyond peer and parental influence, to the development of critical social analysis in African American youth. Young people perceive injustice and inequality in their world in varying ways. The recognition of societal inequalities, or the development of critical social analysis may be a contributing factor to activism for youth. Factors such as sense of agency, parental and peer influence and intellectual curiosity have previously been explored as contributors to activism for African American youth (Watts, 1999). Study results indicated support for the link between ...


Investigating The Role Of Emotion Perception In The Adaptive Functioning Of Individuals On The Autism Spectrum, Margaret B. Hudepohl Dec 2009

Investigating The Role Of Emotion Perception In The Adaptive Functioning Of Individuals On The Autism Spectrum, Margaret B. Hudepohl

Psychology Theses

Cognitive functioning has historically been used to predict adaptive outcomes of individuals with autism spectrum disorders; however, research shows that it does not adequately predict these outcomes. Therefore, the current study explored the role of emotion perception in the adaptive functioning of individuals with ASDs. Emotion perception was assessed using the DANVA-2, which has audio and static face stimuli, and the DAVE, dynamic, audio-visual emotion movies. Adaptive functioning was assessed using the Vineland-II Socialization, Communication, and Daily Living domains. Results indicated that individuals with ASDs demonstrated significant impairments in both adaptive functioning and emotion perception compared to typical individuals. Findings ...


Descriptive Expierence Sampling Of Individuals With Bulimia Nervosa, Sharon Jones-Forrester Dec 2009

Descriptive Expierence Sampling Of Individuals With Bulimia Nervosa, Sharon Jones-Forrester

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Despite 30 years of research, much remains unknown about inner experience in individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN); yet attaining a clearer understanding of inner experience in BN may prove to be crucial in uncovering the nature of this profoundly disruptive disorder. The present study used Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) to examine inner experience in 13 participants with BN, replicating to some degree Doucette (1992) and Jones-Forrester (2006). Results in the present study were largely consistent with Doucette (1992) and Jones-Forrester (2006) but substantially different from beliefs about inner experience from the extant non-exploratory DES BN literature. Specifically, the present study ...


Adherence To Psychotherapy For Post-Traumatic Stress In Veterans Of Military Combat In Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) And Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom), Nicolle C. Angeli Dec 2009

Adherence To Psychotherapy For Post-Traumatic Stress In Veterans Of Military Combat In Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) And Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom), Nicolle C. Angeli

Psychology Dissertations

Elucidating factors associated with adherence to treatment for physical and mental health conditions is important, given well-documented associations between non-adherence and poor treatment outcomes. Researchers have worked to identify such factors; however, most studies focus on adherence to medical, rather than, psychological treatments. Clarifying variables that predict adherence to psychotherapy is particularly important for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), for whom treatment, which typically involves exposure to trauma-related stimuli and imagery, can be aversive. It may consequently be associated with high nonadherence rates, even though studies indicate that greater adherence to PTSD treatment relates to better treatment outcomes. Research ...


Emotional Regulation In Infants Of Postpartum Depressed Mothers, Christina Louise Franklin Dec 2009

Emotional Regulation In Infants Of Postpartum Depressed Mothers, Christina Louise Franklin

Theses and Dissertations

A large body of evidence has accumulated which indicates that infants of postpartum depressed mothers are at risk for negative sequelae including later psychopathology. However, methodological difficulties including discordant definitions of postpartum depression and the use of paradigms which used the mother-infant relationship to assess infant emotional expression and regulation have decreased the ability to reach a consensus regarding the nature and transmission of that risk. This study sought to address those methodological difficulties by employing an established paradigm designed to elicit emotionality in infants, the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith & Rothbart, 1999).

Participants were 30 women who met ...