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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

2001

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Personality Differences Of First-Year Law Students Using The Theory Of Mental Self-Government, Charles Angelo Licata Dec 2001

Personality Differences Of First-Year Law Students Using The Theory Of Mental Self-Government, Charles Angelo Licata

Masters Theses

Thinking styles are described as ones conscious attempt to develop an awareness of stimuli within the surrounding environment. They reflect on the way we perceive, interpret, and integrate information, as well as influence the quality of information we supply to others. At the same time, personality traits have become important factors in understanding the preferences people may feel towards their careers, lifestyles, and quality of life. Furthermore, Myers and Briggs (1984) linked personality to the way we perceive and think about the environment by developing a new model of personality and thinking, which was based on the research and theories ...


Eeg Coherence And Amplitude Effects Of Rhythmic Auditory And Visual Stimulation With An Emphasis In Computational Methods, Jon Alan Frederick Dec 2001

Eeg Coherence And Amplitude Effects Of Rhythmic Auditory And Visual Stimulation With An Emphasis In Computational Methods, Jon Alan Frederick

Doctoral Dissertations

The photic driving response, the effect of a flashing light stimulus on the cortical EEG, has proven to be a sensistive neurometric that varies with differences in perception, mood, and physiological states. The diverse effects of photic stimulation have made commercially available "brainwave syncronizers" popular among consumers and even among some clinicians. It is common in the design of these devices to combine a rhythmic auditory stimulus with the visual stimulus. However, little if any experimental evidence supports the assumption that auditory stimulation enhances the photic driving effect. Therefore, this study compared the amplitude and coherence effects of three stimulation ...


A Study Of The Effect Of Group Family Play On Family Relations For Families With Children Considered At-Risk For Educational Failure, Carmen Colleen Baldus Dec 2001

A Study Of The Effect Of Group Family Play On Family Relations For Families With Children Considered At-Risk For Educational Failure, Carmen Colleen Baldus

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Physiological And Cognitive Factors In Asthma And Panic Disorder: Application Of The Cognitive And Dyspnensuffocation Fear Theories, Diana M. Dorhofer Dec 2001

Physiological And Cognitive Factors In Asthma And Panic Disorder: Application Of The Cognitive And Dyspnensuffocation Fear Theories, Diana M. Dorhofer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recently, the relationship of anxiety with asthma has been investigated in the psychological literature, revealing that individuals with asthma are more likely to develop panic disorder than are individuals without asthma (e.g., Carr, 1998). Two theories (dyspnedsuffocation fear theory and cognitive theory) have been used to explain how asthma symptoms are affected by panic attacks or panic disorder. The present study examines both theories, as well as a hypothesis developed by Carr (1 998) that suggests that the presence of panic disorder in individuals with asthma may lead to better lung functioning in response to stressful stimuli than for ...


Refugee Experiences Of Trauma And Ptsd Effects On Psychological, Physical, And Financial Well-Being, Karen J. Cusack Dec 2001

Refugee Experiences Of Trauma And Ptsd Effects On Psychological, Physical, And Financial Well-Being, Karen J. Cusack

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


A Comparison Of Intellectual Test Performance Across Native American And European American Children, Austin P. Keith Dec 2001

A Comparison Of Intellectual Test Performance Across Native American And European American Children, Austin P. Keith

Theses and Dissertations

Differential scoring across Native American and European .American groups on the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children - Third Edition (WISC-IIi) was examined while controlling for Full Scale IQ and age. Comparisons were made across the groups on Verbal IQ and Performance IQ, individual subtests, individual subtest items and two composite index scores. Results indicated no significant scorino differences between the two groups on Performance IQ or, on the Perceptual Organization Index, Significant scoring differences were also not evident on the Coding, Picture Arrangement, Arithmetic, Block Design, Vocabulary-, Object Assembly and Comprehension subtests. Significant scoring differences were found across the groups on ...


The Effects Of Expertise And Information Relevance On Information Search Strategy., Jason Lebsack Dec 2001

The Effects Of Expertise And Information Relevance On Information Search Strategy., Jason Lebsack

Student Work

Differences between experts and novices have been the focus of a variety of studies throughout the psychological literature. In general, task outcome differences have been found between experts and novices, but further study is needed to understand the mechanism for explaining these outcome differences. This study investigated taskprocessing differences between experts and novices, specifically, the use of relevant and irrelevant information. Forty human resource professionals served as experts and 40 undergraduate students served as novices in this study. Participants made two hiring decisions. Using an information board format, participants examined eight attributes across six candidates for the job of museum ...


Comparison And Generalization Of Behavioral And Cognitive-Behavioral One-Session Exposure Treatments For Small Animal Phobias, Ellen I. Koch Dec 2001

Comparison And Generalization Of Behavioral And Cognitive-Behavioral One-Session Exposure Treatments For Small Animal Phobias, Ellen I. Koch

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Involvement Of Females As Authors, Editors, And Participants In Journals Concerned With Mental Retardation And Related Topics, Cari L. Porter Dec 2001

Involvement Of Females As Authors, Editors, And Participants In Journals Concerned With Mental Retardation And Related Topics, Cari L. Porter

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Using Performance Analysis To Increase Staff Compliance With Acquisition Programs For Children With Autism, Scott Traynor Dec 2001

Using Performance Analysis To Increase Staff Compliance With Acquisition Programs For Children With Autism, Scott Traynor

Master's Theses

Improvement in the rate of learning on acquisition programs for individuals diagnosed with autism often depends on the quality of instruction delivered by direct-care staff The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a performance analysis on targeting environmental variables that were maintaining less than optimal staff performance for a least-to-most prompting procedure used to teach a hand-washing task to preschool children diagnosed with autism. Direct observations of technician/child dyads were followed by informant interviews with technicians, supervisors, and other key staff members that pinpointed variables that were maintaining/hindering staff compliance with a prompting procedure designed to promote child ...


The Effect Of Cultural Affiliations On Attitudes, Beliefs, And Reactions To The Fighting Sioux Nickname Issue Between Northern Plains American Indian And Majority Culture College Students, Angela Larocque Dec 2001

The Effect Of Cultural Affiliations On Attitudes, Beliefs, And Reactions To The Fighting Sioux Nickname Issue Between Northern Plains American Indian And Majority Culture College Students, Angela Larocque

Theses and Dissertations

The main puqjo.sc of this study was to compare the effect of cultural affiliation on altitudes, beliefs, and reactions to the Fighting Sioux Nickname and logo issue for 60 Nonhem Plains American Indian college students and 61 non-Indian college students at the University of North Dakota. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire and the University of North Dakota Fighting Sioux Nickname Attitudes, Beliefs, and Reactions (UNDFSNABR) survey. In addition, American Indian subjects completed the Nonhem Plains Bicuhuralism Inventory (NPBI), Using the Northern Plains Biculluralisin Inventory (NPBI) to identify cultural identification among American Indian participants, the hypotheses of the current study ...


The Analysis Of Selective Information Processing And Neuropsychological Functioning In Individuals At-Risk For Eating Disorders: The Use Of A Pictorial Adaptation To The Stroop Paradigm, Using Print Media Advertisements, Kristine L. Lokken Dec 2001

The Analysis Of Selective Information Processing And Neuropsychological Functioning In Individuals At-Risk For Eating Disorders: The Use Of A Pictorial Adaptation To The Stroop Paradigm, Using Print Media Advertisements, Kristine L. Lokken

Theses and Dissertations

There is evidence that women with bulimic symptoms are characteristically impulsive and have difficulty inhibiting various behaviors. Neuropsychological profiles of women with bulimic symptoms show patterns of impulsivity, inefficient problem solving ability, and an inability to inhibit irrelevant information. Women with bulimic symptoms also express substantially greater acceptance and internalization of sociocultural mores of thinness, and are more vulnerable to negative influence from laboratory exposure to stimuli representing “thin ideal” stereotypes. The present study examined a possible common link between the characterological and neuropsychological features of women with bulimic symptoms and their susceptibility to negative influence from mass media representations ...


A Study Of Native American Ged Graduates At Four Tribal Community Colleges In North Dakota, Karen Starr Gillis Dec 2001

A Study Of Native American Ged Graduates At Four Tribal Community Colleges In North Dakota, Karen Starr Gillis

Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the General Educational Development (GED) graduates of four tribal colleges in North Dakota. The purpose was to provide answers to five research questions and to determine baseline data on Indian education in an area not fully studied. The study will assist in closing the gap between research already conducted with Hispanics and African American populations.

The study accumulated data on participants in GED programs at the four adult education and/or testing centers at the tribal colleges in North Dakota for the years 1990–1999. The participants were analyzed using a set of variables that was ...


A Role And Reference Account Of Information Structure In Somali, Jennifer Girard Dec 2001

A Role And Reference Account Of Information Structure In Somali, Jennifer Girard

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is a study of focus structure in Somali within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Focus is an important phenomenon in Somali, and this thesis investigates the different types of focus which occur in Somali, the effects of the focus markers on other features in the language, and the interaction between syntax and focus structure. Data on Somali focus structure was collected in consultation with three native speakers of Somali, and also gathered from previous research on the Somali Language. Although word order in Somali is relatively free, focus structure is correspondingly rigid, a finding which ...


Premarital Counseling And Divorce, Michael L. Davis Nov 2001

Premarital Counseling And Divorce, Michael L. Davis

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Student Scholarship

The concern over divorce in America has become more and more prominent in recent years. It is estimated that divorce costs society billions of dollars each year, in addition to the social costs it exacts on children and adults alike, such costs include a variety of public health problems including (but not limited to) suicide, teen pregnancy, and substance abuse.

This study reviews the relevant literature about marriage and divorce in the United States and presents research in the area of premarital counseling. Five couples were surveyed to obtain their opinions about premarital counseling and methodologies in divorce prevention. The ...


Living In Prison: Evaluating The Deprivation And Importation Models Of Inmate Adaptation, Lisa Danielle Velarde Oct 2001

Living In Prison: Evaluating The Deprivation And Importation Models Of Inmate Adaptation, Lisa Danielle Velarde

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to broaden knowledge in the area of adjustment to incarceration. Clemmer (1950) proposed that a process known as prisonization develops as inmates adjust to the arduous circumstance of incarceration. Previous research has compared two competing models of adaptation, known as importation and deprivation, as predictors of prisonization. Given that Clemmer (1950) originally hypothesized that prisonization serves as a method of adjusting to the prison environment, the present study explored the relationships among the importation model, the deprivation model, prisonization, and adjustment. In an attempt to take into consideration both person and environmental factors ...


The Moderating Role Of Trust On The Relationship Between Ingratiatory Communication Strategies And Interactional Fairness, Erik Drafsten Oct 2001

The Moderating Role Of Trust On The Relationship Between Ingratiatory Communication Strategies And Interactional Fairness, Erik Drafsten

Student Work

Previous research has shown that when perceptions of both procedural justice and distributive justice are low, increasing perceptions of interactional fairness can serve to reduce negative consequences that an organization may face, including subtle forms of retaliation, or what are known as organizational retaliatory behaviors (ORB). In an organizational setting personal attempts to improve perceptions of interactional fairness, under conditions of low distributive and procedural justice, can take on ingratiatory-like qualities when the source attempting to boost these perceptions of interactional fairness uses flattery, expresses excessive empathy, or excessive sympathy. Research has shown that ingratiatory actions such as these become ...


Does Postformal Thinking Facilitate Recovery From Grief And Promote Well-Being During Bereavement In Widows?, Sharon Lee Sanders Sep 2001

Does Postformal Thinking Facilitate Recovery From Grief And Promote Well-Being During Bereavement In Widows?, Sharon Lee Sanders

Theses Digitization Project

Widows were assessed on four measures relating to recovery from bereavement: postformal thinking (measured as dialectical thinking), recovery from grief (measured as past feelings and present feelings), well-being (measured by three subscales: autonomy, environmental mastery, and positive relations with others), and age at time of participation. Eighty participants completed and returned questionnaires. It was hypothesized that age of the participant and the development of postformal thinking would predict higher scores on recovery from grief and well-being. Analysis was performed using a Structural Equation Model with a comparative fit index (CFI) of .98. Results showed that age and postformal thinking did ...


The Impact Of Communication Medium And Outcome Severity On The Effectiveness Of Social Accounts, Peter D. Timmerman Sep 2001

The Impact Of Communication Medium And Outcome Severity On The Effectiveness Of Social Accounts, Peter D. Timmerman

Student Work

The present study was designed as a partial test of the model of social accounts by Folger and Cropanzano (1998). Organizational justice researchers have shown that social accounts are effective in reducing negative reactions and displacing blame from the decision-maker following a harmful decision. Using a 2 x 3 completely randomized design, the study examined the effects of outcome severity and media choice on four types of fairness perceptions, medium appropriateness, anger, and turnover intentions. A temporary pay cut scenario was used to manipulate two levels of outcome severity, and the company president provided an explanation of the pay cut ...


Response Expectancy And Experimenter Bias As Factors Affecting Hypnotic Responsiveness, K. Shannon Wilson Aug 2001

Response Expectancy And Experimenter Bias As Factors Affecting Hypnotic Responsiveness, K. Shannon Wilson

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examined the effect of subjects' expectations regarding their hypnotizability, and the effect of experimenter bias, on subsequent levels of hypnotic responsiveness. Ninety undergraduate psychology students, none of whom had previously been hypnotized, participated in the study. Subjects were divided into four groups (two groups of 30 and two groups of 15), in a two by two design. The two experimental groups received a manipulation (subtle alterations of lighting conditions in the experimental room in order to confirm suggestions given under hypnosis) designed to increase their level of expectations regarding their hypnotic performance. Their actual hypnotic responsiveness was then ...


Attitudes Toward Suicidal Women Based On Gender Of The Participant And Race Of The Target Figure., Carrie E. Smith Aug 2001

Attitudes Toward Suicidal Women Based On Gender Of The Participant And Race Of The Target Figure., Carrie E. Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender on attitudes toward Black and White suicidal females.

Participants included 37 Caucasian graduate students who completed demographic questionnaires, Suicide Behavior Questionnaires (SBQ) (Ellis & Jones, 1996), and one of two scenarios with a modified version of the Suicide Attitude Vignette Experience Scale (SAVE) (Stillion, White, Edwards, & McDowell, 1989). The research design was a 2 (sex of participant) x 2 (suicide ideation of participant) x 2 (race of target figure) independent groups factorial. Independent ANOVAS were performed to interpret the significance of main and interaction effects.

No main effects were ...


Affectional Orientation, Sex Roles, And Reasons For Living., Shana Valere Hamilton Aug 2001

Affectional Orientation, Sex Roles, And Reasons For Living., Shana Valere Hamilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to research gender, affectional/sexual orientation, and sex roles to determine how people respond to the Expanded Reasons for Living Scale by Linehan, Goodstein, Nielsen, and Chiles (1983). This study used the Bem Sex Role Inventory, short form (Bem, 1981) to assess androgynous and nonandrogynous people.

Results from the statistical analysis revealed that bisexuals had the lowest reasons for living score followed by gay men/lesbians, and then heterosexuals on the Total RFL, as well as on the Responsiblility to Family and Moral Objections subscales. On the Child-Related Concerns subscale heterosexuals had a higher ...


Making Organizational Punishment Work: The Effects Of Social Accounts And Punishment Severity, Andrew L. Noon Aug 2001

Making Organizational Punishment Work: The Effects Of Social Accounts And Punishment Severity, Andrew L. Noon

Student Work

Punishment continues to be used by organizations as one method to eliminate unwanted employee behaviors. Bennett (1998) argued that managers must be aware of two aspects of the punishment situation: (a) the punishment intensity and (b) the negative consequences of the punishment. Previous research indicates that strong punishments are most effective at changing unwanted behaviors, but strong punishments are also more prone to producing negative attitudes in the punished individual. One way managers may be able to reduce the negative impact of punishment is by using explanations regarding the need for punishment. These explanations are called social accounts. Not all ...


Graphical Perception Of Nonlinear Trends: Discrimination And Extrapolation, Lisa A. Best Aug 2001

Graphical Perception Of Nonlinear Trends: Discrimination And Extrapolation, Lisa A. Best

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigated several factors involved in the perception of nonlinear relationships in time series graphs. To model real-world data sets, the graphed data included different sample sizes and levels of variability, and represented different underlying trends. Graph format was also varied. The purpose of the experiments was to determine how these factors affect both trend discrimination and extrapolation accuracy, with the overall goal of determining what types of graphs are optimal in different situations. In Experiment 1, subjects viewed time series graphs on a computer screen and had to identify the type of trend that was present. Six trends ...


The Emergence Of The Capacity For Guilt In Preschoolers: The Role Of Personal Responsibility In Differentiating Shame From Guilt, Jamie L. Walter Aug 2001

The Emergence Of The Capacity For Guilt In Preschoolers: The Role Of Personal Responsibility In Differentiating Shame From Guilt, Jamie L. Walter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the development of guilt and shame in preschool children, as well as individual differences related to the expression of these emotions. Sixty-one children in three age groups were videotaped in a mishap paradigm in which an experimentally manipulated doll's arm fell off during play. Children were randomly assigned to either an ambiguous or a personal responsibility condition. Videotapes were coded for behavioral (e.g., latency to repair, avoidance) and affective (e.g., joy, tensionlwony) reactions. Individual differences were assessed through parental reports using the My Child (Kochanska, DeVet, Goldman, Murray, & Putman, 1994) and teacher ratings using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Inventory (SCBE; LaFreniere, Dumas, Capuano, & Dubeau, 1992 ...


Understanding The Relationships Among Counseling Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, Developmental Level, Coursework, Experience, And Counselor Performance, Catherine E. Kocarek Aug 2001

Understanding The Relationships Among Counseling Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, Developmental Level, Coursework, Experience, And Counselor Performance, Catherine E. Kocarek

Dissertations

Bandura’s (1977, 1982) Self-Efficacy Theory and later Social Cognitive Theory (1986) provided the theoretical framework for understanding counselor self-efficacy (CSE). Bandura’s theory has been utilized in many different areas; however, in this study the focus was counselor self-efficacy (CSE) and its importance to counselor training. Variables within the CSE literature such as anxiety, trainee developmental level, amount of training, counseling experience, and counselor performance were identified. The first purpose of this study was to use the first five variables to predict their influences on counselor performance. The second purpose was to examine two variables, CSE and developmental level ...


Quality Of Life Factors Among Recovering Alcoholics, George Edwin Compton Jr. Aug 2001

Quality Of Life Factors Among Recovering Alcoholics, George Edwin Compton Jr.

Dissertations

The inspiration for undertaking the current research came from the Student Investigator’s own experience of 19 years in recovery from alcoholism. During his early years in graduate school, the Student Investigator witnessed occasional misunderstandings among some academics and helping professionals regarding the nature of alcoholism, and, specifically, the tasks involved in sustaining enduring recovery from alcoholism. Thus, this dissertation research, which has sought to examine, through qualitative research methodology, the factors involved in achieving and sustaining quality of life in extended recovery from alcoholism was undertaken.

Several authors have noted the need for research which focuses on long-term recovery ...


Executive Coaching As An Individually Tailored Consultation Intervention: Does It Increase Leadership?, Sheila Kampa-Kokesch Aug 2001

Executive Coaching As An Individually Tailored Consultation Intervention: Does It Increase Leadership?, Sheila Kampa-Kokesch

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to: (a) consolidate/critique the executive coaching practice literature and empirical research to determine what is known about executive coaching as an individual consultation intervention, and (b) provide additional knowledge about outcomes by testing whether executive coaching affects leadership as measured by the MLQ 5x (Short Form) (Bass & Avolio, 1995).

Twenty-seven coaches, 50 clients (pre/early- or post/later coaching), and 62 direct-report/peers participated. Coaches provided demographic information, invited client participation, and distributed surveys to clients. Clients provided demographic information, rated themselves on a leadership instrument, and invited direct-report/ peer participation. Direct-report/peers ...


Emotional Expression Management And Social Acceptance In Childhood: Ability, Strategy, And Gender., Gregory S. Young Aug 2001

Emotional Expression Management And Social Acceptance In Childhood: Ability, Strategy, And Gender., Gregory S. Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The present study was designed to examine the relationship between children's ability to manage emotional expressions and peer acceptance. Specifically, using a mild mood induction paradigm, children between the ages of 8- to 10-years were instructed to neutralize and dissemble genuinely negative emotions. Children's ability to effectively manage their negative emotional expressions was then examined with respect to gender differences and in relation to peer acceptance ratings. Results indicated that girls were significantly better than boys at substituting positive expressions for genuine negative ones, were marginally worse than boys at neutralizing negative expressions, and overall were significantly more ...


The Making Of A Textbook On Behavior Analysis And Autism A Behavior Analytic Approach, Sebastien Bosch Aug 2001

The Making Of A Textbook On Behavior Analysis And Autism A Behavior Analytic Approach, Sebastien Bosch

Dissertations

After deciding that a need existed for writing a textbook on autism from a behavior analytic perspective, Dr. Malott and I developed Behavior Analysis. Autism and Related Disabilities (BAARD) for use by the students enrolled in the autism practicum at Western Michigan University. As in a circular relationship, the practicum students evaluated and guided the subsequent revisions of the manuscript, and the revisions influenced the subsequent evaluations. BAARD covers all the principles and concepts of behavior analysis that are relevant to treatments and issues in autism and related disabilities and numerous treatments and phenomena specific to developmental disabilities.

During its ...