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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

1998

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Shyness And Social Discomfort As Measured By The Mmpi-2, Lori Hebel Dec 1998

Shyness And Social Discomfort As Measured By The Mmpi-2, Lori Hebel

Electronic Thesis Collection

The purpose of this study was to provide additional validity information for the Social Introversion Scale (Si), the Social Introversion Sub-scales (Si 1, Si 2 and Si 3), the Social Discomfort Content Scale (SOD) and the component scales (SOD 1 and SOD 2) of the MMPI-2. Previous research has focused on comparing the MMPI-2 with other self-report measures. The present study attempted to determine how well the MMPI-2 predicted behavioral observations of shyness and anxiety and self-reported discomfort in social situations. 88 participants took the MMPI-2 and then participated in a group activity. Observer and self-ratings of this activity were ...


Reconsidering Solidarity In The Mormon Village, Todd L. Goodsell Dec 1998

Reconsidering Solidarity In The Mormon Village, Todd L. Goodsell

Theses and Dissertations

In what became a classic rural community study, Lowry Nelson concluded in his first Mormon village series in the 1920's that the Mormon village is characterized by an extraordinary sense of solidarity. He claimed that this strong solidarity can be primarily explained by four factors of the social group: leadership, conflict, cooperation, and ideology. After resurveying the Mormon village in 1950, he concluded that solidarity had declined. However, a few problems become apparent to the present researcher looking back upon Nelson's findings. One of them is that Nelson never had a clear definition of solidarity to begin with ...


Temporal Integration In 17- And 20-Month Old Infants As Assessed By Elicited Imitation, Rebecca M. Starr Dec 1998

Temporal Integration In 17- And 20-Month Old Infants As Assessed By Elicited Imitation, Rebecca M. Starr

Student Work

The present study used a unique task derived from the elicited imitation paradigm to assess temporal integration in 17- and 20-month-old infants. Experiment 1 implemented a simpler task than has previously been used in order to tap temporal integration ability in 17-month-olds. The results indicated that the performance of 17- month-olds did not improve over that of previous research (de Haan & Bauer 1997). Experiment 2 added storage and processing demands to the de Haan and Bauer task in order to assess the robustness of temporal integration ability in 20-month-olds. The results indicated that the performance of 20-month-olds did not suffer ...


Science Experiences Of Six Elementary Student Teachers: A Case Study, Jacqueline K. Wilcox Dec 1998

Science Experiences Of Six Elementary Student Teachers: A Case Study, Jacqueline K. Wilcox

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study focused on the science experiences of six elementary student teachers. The purpose of the study was to learn how preservice teachers make meaning of science teaching during their student teaching experience. The sources of data were interviews with participants, descriptive field notes from observations of their science teaching, and artifacts collected from the site. The themes that emerged from data analysis were personal and professional career influences and constant adjustments of teaching strategies. The participants experienced these themes in varying intensities.

Learning to teach science to elementary children for the first time is complicated by the context ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Polycyclic Bis(Tert-Butylamido)Cyclodiphosph(Iii)Azane Complexes Of Lithium, Magnesium, And Tin, Ingo Schranz Dec 1998

Synthesis And Characterization Of Polycyclic Bis(Tert-Butylamido)Cyclodiphosph(Iii)Azane Complexes Of Lithium, Magnesium, And Tin, Ingo Schranz

Theses and Dissertations

Synthesis and single-crystal X-ray studies of the bis(fert-butylamido) cyclodiphosphazane cis-[(tBuNP)2(tBuNH)2], 1, and its lithium, magnesium, and tin(IV) salts are described. The pristine molecule has crystallographic C2 symmetry, both N-H groups being disposed in an endo fashion, and crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c with unit cell dimensions (193 K) a = 9.600(4) A, b = 5.904(4) A, c = 18.97(1) A, /? = 101.09(3)°, and Z = 2. Treatment of 1 with "BuLi or (nBu)2Mg in refluxing THF yielded the heterocubic cA-[(tBuNP)2(*BuNLi • THF)2], 2, and ...


The Effect Of Biculturalism On Self-Esteem In Northern Plains Native American College Students, Mary J. Wilkie Dec 1998

The Effect Of Biculturalism On Self-Esteem In Northern Plains Native American College Students, Mary J. Wilkie

Theses and Dissertations

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biculturalism on self esteem in a sample of 51 Northern Plains Native American college students (29 females, 22 males). Subjects completed the Northern Plains Biculturalism Inventory (NPB1; Allen & French, 1994) and the Index of Self-Esteem (ISE; Hudson, 1982). Pearson Product- Moment correlations, independent t-tests, a multiple regression analysis, and an one-way analysis-of-variance was performed using the SPSS statistical package to examine, if any, the relationships between the NPBI subscales and the ISE total scores. This design tested the applicability of the Orthogonal Theory of Biculturalism (Oetting & Beauvais, 1990). It was predicted that higher combined scores on ...


Reasons, Goals, And Incentives For Corporate Philanthropy To Arts Organizations, Marsonda Mcnutt Schroeder Dec 1998

Reasons, Goals, And Incentives For Corporate Philanthropy To Arts Organizations, Marsonda Mcnutt Schroeder

Theses and Dissertations

One of the methods employed by corporations to create a favorable relationship with its publics is to use philanthropy to not- for-profit organizations such as the arts. From a communication point of view, this action may be looked upon as a gesture between the corporation, the recipient, and the publics which involves messages both sent and received. Research on this communication gesture is important because arts organizations need to know how the process works in order to help secure philanthropic dollars. Corporations need to understand the results of the process so that they can more effectively achieve the goals for ...


The Effects Of Social Skills Training And Reciprocal Social Skills Training With Parent/Guardian(S) On Behavior And Recidivism Of First Time Adjuncted Youth, Kathleen A. Bailey Dec 1998

The Effects Of Social Skills Training And Reciprocal Social Skills Training With Parent/Guardian(S) On Behavior And Recidivism Of First Time Adjuncted Youth, Kathleen A. Bailey

Dissertations

This research investigates the effect of social skills training on 46 first-time adjudicated males, ages 13 through 15 and placed on traditional probation. The independent variable was the type of group. Three types of groups were conducted: Group I (youth who received social skills training with their parents or guardians), Group II (youth who received social skills training without parents’ or guardians’ participation), and Group III (a control group of youth who did not receive social skills training). The dependent variable was the Jesness Inventory scales and subscales scores, and the type of offenses (status, misdemeanor, and felony). The research ...


Test Of Variables Of Attention (Tova) Utility In Differentiating Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes, Steven Andrew Westby Nov 1998

Test Of Variables Of Attention (Tova) Utility In Differentiating Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes, Steven Andrew Westby

Theses and Dissertations

Research has indicated that Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) can differentiate Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) subjects from controls without any psychiatric illness. However, CPTs have neither accurately differentiated ADHD children from those with other psychiatric disorders—nor differentiated subtypes of ADHD from each other. The Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), a new CPT, has several advantages over its predecessors which may allow the TOVA to be more effective in this differentiation process.

Data from ADHD subjects was selected from children who were administered the TOVA as part of their evaluation for ADHD at Lakeland Mental Health Center in Moorhead, MN, the ...


Gender Types, Self-Esteem, And Academic Achievement In Middle School Students, Kimberly D. Noll Oct 1998

Gender Types, Self-Esteem, And Academic Achievement In Middle School Students, Kimberly D. Noll

Student Work

The relationship among gender typing, self-esteem, and academic achievement was investigated in 314 middle school participants. Participants were administered the Children’s Sex Role Inventory (CSRI) and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory-School Form (CSEI). The results of the CSRI and CSEI were compared to each participant's score on the California Achievement Test (CAT). Analysis of variance, chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlation's were utilized to assess relationships among the variables. Results indicated that, in the current sample, self-esteem and achievement were unrelated, aschematic characteristics were correlated with high achievement, girls exhibited higher achievement than boys, both boys and girls ...


Developmental Changes Among Beginning Psychotherapy Supervisors, Mark D. Nordlund Oct 1998

Developmental Changes Among Beginning Psychotherapy Supervisors, Mark D. Nordlund

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

This study investigated changes among beginning supervisors as they gained experience. Over three administrations in the course of an academic year, beginning supervisors (N = 14, 57% female) and their supervisees (N = 36, 58% female) provided ratings that offered mixed support for developmental changes among beginning supervisors. Significant increases were noted on the Supervisor Evaluation Ratings (SER) for satisfaction with supervision, supervisor competence, and efficacy of supervisor interventions. On the Level of Supervision Scale (LSS), supervisors reported a mild preference for offering case conceptualizations in supervision and a mild preference against using didactic instruction. Supervisors strongly preferred a collaborative style over ...


An Experimental Analysis Of The Effects Of Two Types Of Interpretation In The Context Of An Acceptance-Based Psychotherapy, Lucianne Hackbert Sep 1998

An Experimental Analysis Of The Effects Of Two Types Of Interpretation In The Context Of An Acceptance-Based Psychotherapy, Lucianne Hackbert

Psychology ETDs

While many psychotherapists can agree that interpretive statements are an important aspect of the psychotherapeutic process, there are many divergent ideas about what constitutes a good interpretation and why making interpretations is thought to be an effective therapeutic strategy. Efforts to demonstrate the features and characteristics of successful interpretations have not been conclusive. Recent efforts to empirically demonstrate the immediate effects of interpretation have produced results that suggest that these effects differ significantly across individuals. While interpretation has been included as a component within a variety of treatments with demonstrated efficacy, the question of how interpretation relates to outcome remains ...


Continuity Of Emotions Across Pre-Sleep State And The Content Of Dreams, Teresa M. Picciocchi Aug 1998

Continuity Of Emotions Across Pre-Sleep State And The Content Of Dreams, Teresa M. Picciocchi

Master's Theses

The relationship between unmanipulated pre-sleep states and the affective composition of dreams was investigated. Sixty college students completed the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) prior to retiring for the night and the Differential Emotion Scale {DES-IV) focusing upon any dream recalled upon awakening. In support of the Continuity Theory, which states that our personalities and experiences are reflected in our dreams, significant positive correlations were found between pre-sleep curiosity and the presence of interest in the dream, pre-sleep anger and anger in the dream and pre sleep depression and sadness within the dream. Support for the Day Residue effect was obtained ...


A Comparison Of Relation-Breaking Behaviors, Relation-Maintaining Behaviors, And Maternal Sensitivity In Population Of Handicapped And Non-Handicapped Infants, Karol Basel Aug 1998

A Comparison Of Relation-Breaking Behaviors, Relation-Maintaining Behaviors, And Maternal Sensitivity In Population Of Handicapped And Non-Handicapped Infants, Karol Basel

Student Work

The infant enters the world with certain abilities that allow him or her to interact with the environment. Early on infants demonstrate a preference in viewing the human face (Fantz, 1968) and selectively responding to the sounds of human speech (Eimas, Sigueland, Jusczyk, & Vigorito, 1971). The early development of perceptual sensitivities enable the infant to become a partner in the social environment. It has been suggested that the ability to engage in social interactions provides the infant with the structure to organize cognitive and affective experiences (Stern, Beebe, Jaffe, & Bennett, 1977). Through the interaction process the infant first learns such aspects of functioning as the rules governing conversational turn taking (Bateson, 1975; Schaffer, Coll is & Parsons, 1977), attachment to the caregiver (Ainsworth, Bell, & Slayton, 1974; Blehar, Lieberman, & Ainsworth, 1977), problem solving and sociability (Matas, Arend, & Sroufe, 1978; Pastor, 1981), and curiosity and ego control (Arend, Gove, & Sroufe, 1979).


The Relationship Of Perceived Social Support, Health Status, And Quality Of Life In Female Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients, Seanne S. Tyson Aug 1998

The Relationship Of Perceived Social Support, Health Status, And Quality Of Life In Female Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients, Seanne S. Tyson

Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to explore the relationship among perceived social support, health status, and quality of life in a sample of female systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. A strong positive correlation was found between perceived social support and quality of life. Negative correlations were found between perceived health status and perceived social support, and perceived health status and quality of life. Last, a negative correlation was found between objective health status and quality of life. In multiple regression analyses, perceived social support explained a significant amount of variance in the quality of life variable in conjunction with both observed ...


The Treatment Utility Of The Arousal Predisposition Scale In Predicting The Outcome Of Exposure Therapy With Small Animal Phobias, Ellen I. Koch Aug 1998

The Treatment Utility Of The Arousal Predisposition Scale In Predicting The Outcome Of Exposure Therapy With Small Animal Phobias, Ellen I. Koch

Master's Theses

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an in vivo, one-session exposure procedure modified from that described by Lars-Goran Ost for the treatment of small animal phobias. This study also assessed the ability of the Arousal Predisposition Scale to predict treatment outcome. Subjects received treatment for snake, spider, rat, mouse, or crawling insect phobia. Three groups were utilized (treatment, phobic control and non-phobic control). The treatment session included both behavioral and self-report measures of anxiety. Almost all treatment subjects showed dramatic improvement on both of these types of measures during posttest and one-month follow-up. The treatment and non-phobic control groups were ...


Laterality Of The Perception Of Computer Presented Written Sexual Words By Right-Handed Males And Females, Randall W. Stewart Aug 1998

Laterality Of The Perception Of Computer Presented Written Sexual Words By Right-Handed Males And Females, Randall W. Stewart

Dissertations

The right hemisphere of males has been shown to possess a greater capacity for accurate perception of emotional non-verbal material (pictures) than the left hemisphere. The same is true for females, but with a smaller difference between the two hemispheres. Some previous research has partially confirmed these relationships using tachistoscopic presentation of emotional words. The present study, using briefly exposed computerpresented sexual words, compared perception accuracy with respect to a sexuality rating of clearly sexual and clearly non-sexual words, in the right versus the left visual field, and with males versus females. As with previous research using verbal stimuli, the ...


A Computer/Tutorial System Compared With A Workbook/Tutorial Systeg For Presenting Instructional Material To At-Risk Elementary School Students, Vincent O. Hodge Aug 1998

A Computer/Tutorial System Compared With A Workbook/Tutorial Systeg For Presenting Instructional Material To At-Risk Elementary School Students, Vincent O. Hodge

Dissertations

Two different ways of presenting instructional material and reacting to students’ responses were compared. One, taking advantage of several features of multimedia instruction involved a desktop computer and various computer-presented consequences of correct and incorrect responses (largely chosen by the student). The other consisted in presenting the same instructional materials (the SRA primary curriculum) in a workbook form with tutors' comments and praise as the main form of response consequence. The two methods were compared with respect to various measures of student and system performance, including student accuracy (percent correct responses), types of errors, amount of correct response repetition (over-responding ...


Mdma And Learning: Effects Of Acute And Neurotoxic Exposure, Thomas P. Byrne Aug 1998

Mdma And Learning: Effects Of Acute And Neurotoxic Exposure, Thomas P. Byrne

Dissertations

In two experiments, the effects of MDMA were examined on the acquisition of lever-press responding by rats exposed to procedures in which water delivery was delayed by 0, 10, or 20 seconds. In the first experiment, naive, water-deprived rats received an intraperitoneal injection of MDMA (0, 1.0, 3.2, or 5.6 mg/kg) prior to one experimental session. Response acquisition was observed under all conditions at all drug doses. MDMA increased both response rates and reinforcers earned in a dose-dependent fashion, but only when reinforcement was immediate. Under conditions of delay, MDMA had no effect on the number ...


An Investigation Of The Cultural Coping Concerns Of Nigerian Graduate Students At Clark Atlanta University: A Multi-Cultural Implication For The Counseling Process, Zibo Sam Porbeni Jul 1998

An Investigation Of The Cultural Coping Concerns Of Nigerian Graduate Students At Clark Atlanta University: A Multi-Cultural Implication For The Counseling Process, Zibo Sam Porbeni

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

The study investigates the psycho-cultural and social influences on the academic and social coping concerns of Nigerian graduate students studying at Clark Atlanta University.

The research collection of data among Nigerian graduate students at Clark Atlanta University highlights the roles played by different variable factors such as educational, social, cultural and economic, which may create stress that may in turn affect the well-being of the student's academic and social life.

The stipulated data in this research portrays the importance of establishing a multi-cultural counseling program that will enhance the students; past and present psycho-cultural experiences and offer counseling and ...


Understanding Choice As A Dimension Of Literature Based Reading Instruction, Barbara Wonder Olson Jul 1998

Understanding Choice As A Dimension Of Literature Based Reading Instruction, Barbara Wonder Olson

Theses and Dissertations

Literacy instruction is supported by educational theories of teaching and learning that put students at the center of the curriculum. In learner-centered classrooms students are actively involved in authentic reading and writing that allows them the autonomy to read and write for their own purposes. In these settings teachers share the responsibility for learning with students and create learning environments that support student ownership.

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate what happened in an elementary classroom when students were given literacy choices. This qualitative study provided an in-depth picture of literacy in a fourth grade classroom. It ...


Buber's I-Thou/I-It Construct And Gilligan's Connected/Separate Self Construct: A Theoretical Creative Inquiry, Nancie R. Ziemke Jul 1998

Buber's I-Thou/I-It Construct And Gilligan's Connected/Separate Self Construct: A Theoretical Creative Inquiry, Nancie R. Ziemke

Theses and Dissertations

William Heard's application of Martin Buber's dialogical theory to the practice and theory of therapy bears a striking similarity to the relational theories developed by Carol Gilligan and the writers associated with the Stone Center. Yet these two theoretical constructs have never been critically and formally compared. This study proposes to help fill that gap by critically comparing and contrasting the dialogical and relational constructs.

Seven questions will be addressed. (a) What is Buber's I-Thou/I-It construct?; (b) What is Gilligan's Connected Self construct and the Stone Center's relational construct?; (c) How do Buber and ...


Temporal Lobe Transients And Prayer, Donald E. Newberry Jul 1998

Temporal Lobe Transients And Prayer, Donald E. Newberry

Theses and Dissertations

Persinger (1983) theorized that religious experiences involve the production of brief, micro-seizures that originate in the limbic system and affect the temporal lobes of the brain. According to this theory, ritual behavior could be used by individuals to induce micro-seizure activity. The theory predicted that an increase in alpha and theta activity in the temporal lobes of the brain would occur when subjects had a religious experience.

To test this, male and female Christian college students completed a Prayer Experiences Questionnaire inquiring about their religious experiences during prayer. Individuals scoring in the upper and lower 30 percent of the possible ...


The Relationship Between A Dimensional Ratings Of Perceived Exertion Scale And Heart Rate In Young Children, Anita Marie Tougas Jul 1998

The Relationship Between A Dimensional Ratings Of Perceived Exertion Scale And Heart Rate In Young Children, Anita Marie Tougas

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a dimensional rating of perceived exertion scale (D-RPE) for young children while exercising. Sixteen boys and girls (ages 6-8 years) peiformed two incremental walking tests on a motorized treadmill. Each subject walked at 3.2 miles per hour until the subject was fatigued or voluntarily stopped the test. The intensity was increased by increasing the treadmill incline 2.5% every two minutes. Heart rate (HR) was monitored at each two minute interval by a heart rate monitor worn across the chest. Either a mouthpiece or oxygen face mask was ...


Analyzing The Effects Of Display Characteristics And Cognitive Variables On Performance Using Keystroke And Eye Movement Data, Orhan E. Beckman Jul 1998

Analyzing The Effects Of Display Characteristics And Cognitive Variables On Performance Using Keystroke And Eye Movement Data, Orhan E. Beckman

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Information about how operators use their eyes while interacting with visual displays is often an overlooked aspect of human-computer interaction. Such information is fundamental to assessing the quality of software interfaces and understanding the cognitive processes that underlie operator behavior. Other research evaluating information displays evolved from using reaction time and subjective data as dependent variables to using oculometric measures. In the current research conventional performance measures are coupled with oculometric measures to evaluate the influence display characteristics and cognitive variables have on performance.

Twelve subjects used a software program to complete a series of specified tasks. Subjects were asked ...


A Psychophysiological Assessment Of The Efficacy Of Event-Related Potentials And Electroencephalogram For Adaptive Task Allocation, Lawrence J. Prinzel Iii Jul 1998

A Psychophysiological Assessment Of The Efficacy Of Event-Related Potentials And Electroencephalogram For Adaptive Task Allocation, Lawrence J. Prinzel Iii

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The present study was designed to test the efficacy of using Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) for making task allocations decisions. Thirty-six participants were randomly assigned to an experimental, yoked, or control group condition. Under the experimental condition, a compensatory tracking task was switched between manual and automatic task modes based upon the participant's EEG. ERPs were also gathered to an auditory, oddball task. Participants in the yoked condition performed the same tasks under the exact sequence of task allocations that participants in the experimental group experienced. The control condition consisted of a random sequence of task allocations ...


The Influence Of Model Features On Goodness-Of-Fit Indices: Choosing Indices To Evaluate Your Model, Andrea E. Berndt Jul 1998

The Influence Of Model Features On Goodness-Of-Fit Indices: Choosing Indices To Evaluate Your Model, Andrea E. Berndt

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to examine the performance of eight goodness-of-fit indices (i.e., the chi-square statistic, Comparative fit index, Critical N; Goodness-of-fit index, Normed fit index, Nonnormed fit index, Root mean square error of approximation, and Relative noncentrality index) used in structural equation applications. Study 1 consisted of (a) an empirical review in four journals (1986-1996) to determine the "typical" application, (b) a "recreation" of the goodness-of-fit indices from the published research, (c) a multiple regression analysis of the "recreated" indices to determine if values were predicted based on model and sample features, and (d) the development of a ...


Factor Analysis Of The Mmpi-A Content Scales: Item-Level And Scale-Level Analyses, Lisa Kay Mccarthy Jul 1998

Factor Analysis Of The Mmpi-A Content Scales: Item-Level And Scale-Level Analyses, Lisa Kay Mccarthy

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This investigation identified and interpreted the overall factor structure of the MMPI-A content scales through the use of scale-level analyses, and examined the factor structure of each individual content scale through item-level analyses. The MMPI-A normative sample (805 males, 815 females) and a clinical sample (266 males, 92 females) were used in the analyses. Scale-level analyses yielded a two factor solution for the normative male and clinical groups and a one factor solution for the normative sample and normative female group. The factors were labeled General Maladjustment and Externalizing Tendencies. Item-level analyses provided one factor solutions for the majority of ...


Effects Of Process Vs. Outcome Accountability, Responsibility, And Indentifiability On Solution Quality, Megan Potter Jun 1998

Effects Of Process Vs. Outcome Accountability, Responsibility, And Indentifiability On Solution Quality, Megan Potter

Student Work

This study investigated the effect of accountability, responsibility, and identifiability on the quality of solutions generated to an ill-defined problem. Accountable participants provided written justification for their output, either the solution generation process (process accountability) or the solution generation outcome (outcome accountability). Participants perceived themselves as either sharing responsibility for solution generation with others (shared responsibility) or solely responsible for solution generation (sole responsibility). Lastly, participants were either identifiable, such that their responses could be traced to them personally, or anonymous. Solution quality was measured by resolving power, or the degree to which a solution resolves conflicting aspects of the ...


Preparation For The Gre, Corina Groeger Jun 1998

Preparation For The Gre, Corina Groeger

Dissertations

The present research consisted of two empirical studies and a literature review. The first study was a systematic replication of the studies by Miller, Goodyear-Orwart, and Malott (1996) and Vunovich and Malott (1997). Fourteen undergraduate students and one graduate student participated in four intensive, extensive, structured Graduate Record Examination (GRE) preparation courses that met for seven weeks and lasted between 99 and 140 hours. The courses offered a monetary reward for students who met a minimum of 92% for attendance and participation during the course. The results of this study showed statistically significant mean improvements of 145 points for the ...