Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

1997

Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 187

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Making Sense Of Direction: Proximity And Order In Asymmetric Paired Comparison Data, Jonathan M. Borkum Dec 1997

Making Sense Of Direction: Proximity And Order In Asymmetric Paired Comparison Data, Jonathan M. Borkum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In a square asymmetric matrix, the relationships among objects in the lower triangular half-matrix, differ from the relationships among the same objects in the upper triangular half. Square, asymmetric matrices can arise in similarity and preference data, when the direction of comparison is important. An asymmetric matrix can be rendered symmetric by averaging corresponding entries above and below the main diagonal. The difference between the original and the symmetric matrix is purely asymmetric, or skew-symmetric. The symmetric and skew-symmetric pans are orthogonal. An eigenvector-eigenvalue decomposition analyses the asymmetries into rank 2 skew-symmetric matrices, having an optimum least squares fit to ...


Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul Dec 1997

Peer Versus Adult Models: Infants Immediate And Deferred Imitation Of Familiar And Novel Events, Robina Enayat Gul

Student Work

The present study examined the effects of different aged models (adult vs. peer) on infants' memory and imitative behaviors. Thirty infants between the age of 14- to 18-months were included in the study. Fifteen of the infants watched an adult model demonstrate two familiar three-step event sequences and two novel three-step event sequences on simple objects. The other fifteen infants observed a peer model perform the same event sequences on the same objects. Three questions were addressed: (a) Do infants learn to imitate three-step event sequences better from an adult or a peer model? (b) Do infants better recall familiar ...


Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle Dec 1997

Relationship History And Friendship Development In Adolescence, Jay L. Ringle

Student Work

Adolescents in grades 8, 10, 12, and college (13-22 year olds) completed the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI) (Berscheid, Snyder, & Omoto, 1989), a written relationship development narrative, and a graph of major relationship events for a designated friend in a same-sex and cross-sex relationship. Data collection was done in separate sessions for each relationship type, with order of com pletion randomly assigned.

Age and relationship differences were found for total score on the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), indicating that closeness in same-sex relationships increases gradually with age, whereas closeness in cross-sex relationships does not increase until later adolescence. When asked to ...


The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo Dec 1997

The Relationship Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Behaviors Of Women Who Have Undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, Heather Ferrillo

Nursing Master’s Theses

Due to the increasing number of women who are diagnosed with heart disease and who are undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, it is important to explore the psychosocial aspects involved in the recovery process of these women. This study examined the relationship between locus of control and health behaviors of women who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.


Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger Dec 1997

Affective Orientation, Alexithymia, And Multidimensional Empathy In Counselors-In-Training, Terrilyn J. Krueger

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive relationship between two affective measures, affective orientation and alexithymia, and five empathy measures in 67 master’s degree level counselor trainees. It was hypothesized that affective orientation would be predictive and alexithymia inversely predictive of five distinct dimensions of empathy: communicated, observed, emotional, cognitive, and relational. Communicated empathy was measured by trainees’ audio-taped responses to a client stimulus which were assessed by “blind” raters. Observed empathy was measured by practicum supervisors based on their observations of trainees with clients. Emotional, cognitive, and relational empathy were assessed by trainees’ self-reported responses ...


Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson Dec 1997

Differential Effects Of Individual And Group Pay Contingencies On Individual Performance, Judith A. Honeywell-Johnson

Dissertations

Individual productivity of high performers was compared under an individual monetary incentive system and a 10-member group monetary incentive system. Subjects were 4 college students, each assigned to a simulated 10-person group. Subjects individually performed four computerized work tasks (SYNWORK) simultaneously, and the total number of points earned on the tasks was the main dependent variable. A within-subject reversal design was used, with hourly pay (A), individual (B) and group (C) monetary incentives implemented in an ABCB pattern. Subjects, when working under the group incentive pay condition, were told that the number of points they earned during each session would ...


Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer Dec 1997

Differences In Perceptual And Subjective Body Image Between Weight Cycling And Noncycling Graduate Students, Karen Casebeer

Dissertations

This research began as an exploratory investigation into body image differences between individuals who were weight cyclers and those who were noncyclers. Participants were fem ale and m ale graduate students (n= 444) who completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 1990a), the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (M.A. Thompson & Gray, 1995), and the Weight History Questionnaire (W H Q ), a researcher developed self-report survey of weight, dieting, and demographic information. Data gathered from the WHQ were used to identify pairs of individuals who were matched on cycling status, gender, age, and body mass index. Fifteen such pairs were identified and matched among the females; however, due to lower numbers of males in the sample and also lower levels of weight cycling and dieting among these males, the matching process was not able to be accomplished for the males. Therefore, the study was completed only with the female portion of the sample. Data gathered from ...


An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson Dec 1997

An Assessment Of Generalization Across Settings Of A Parenting Strategies Program For Adhd Children, Barbara M. Todd-Nelson

Dissertations

When collapsed across gender and subject pools, Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects three to five percent of school-aged children (DSMIV, 1994). Intervening upon environmental contingencies for ADHD-diagnosed children is one of the least intrusive forms of treatment and is often very effective (Atkeson & Forehand, 1978; Forehand & King, 1977; Barkley, 1986; Webster-Stratton, 1993). As noted by many researchers (Allen, Tamowski, Simonian, Elliott & Drabman, 1991; Drabman, Hammer, & Rosenbaum,1979; Stokes & Osnes, 1989), it is necessary to assess generalization of treatment effects across the behavior therapy literature. Few have examined generalization from the home setting to the classroom. Since many referrals occur when problem behaviors are exhibited at school (Al-Issa, 1982 ...


Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller Dec 1997

Programmed Instruction: Within-Subject Analysis Of Four Types Of Instructional Material, Matthew L. Miller

Dissertations

Skinner (1958) expressed the need for an increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of education. In particular, he suggested that programmed instruction could provide such efficiency. The present study used a within-subject design to compare the effects of four types of instructional materials: those requiring overt construction responses, overt discrimination responses, covert reading of text with highlighted key words, and covert reading of standard text. The material requiring overt responding produced greater learning than did the covert reading materials, with or without highlighting. There was no difference found between the two types of overt responding; nor were there differences between ...


Experiencing Humour: A Critical Care Phenomenon, Jan Skinner Nov 1997

Experiencing Humour: A Critical Care Phenomenon, Jan Skinner

Theses

Humour, whilst frequently occurring within the Critical Care environment, has been traditionally viewed as both macabre and in poor taste. However, for the Registered Nurse working in this setting, humour plays a vital role in the day to day functioning at the unit level, and is identified as an important component in the development of interpersonal relationships between both co-workers and clients. Therefore, by describing this experience, the thesis seeks to elucidate this concept of humour and the experience of this phenomenon for the Registered Nurse working within the Critical Care environment.

On reviewing the literature it becomes evident that ...


Subsystem Variables Associated With Positive Foster Mother-Foster Child Relationships, Meg Sandow Oct 1997

Subsystem Variables Associated With Positive Foster Mother-Foster Child Relationships, Meg Sandow

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Many researchers have explored variables that appear to influence a foster child's placement, and both researchers and theorists have noted the need for an overarching understanding of the variables that may affect a foster child's care and progress. This study examined four interlinking subsystems of foster care: the foster child, the family of origin, the foster parent, and the social worker. Data regarding relevant variables for each of these subsystems were analyzed by means of canonical correlations, factor analyses, a multiple regression, and zero-order correlations. Participants in the study were 42 foster children from the Chesapeake and Suffolk ...


Group Therapy For Sexually Abused Adolescents : Assessment Of Coping Skills, Negative Beliefs, And Self-Esteem, Kimberly R. Akin Aug 1997

Group Therapy For Sexually Abused Adolescents : Assessment Of Coping Skills, Negative Beliefs, And Self-Esteem, Kimberly R. Akin

Master's Theses

The sexual victimization of children in an increasing crime problem in this country and is now also recognized as a serious mental health issue. It has been estimated that the risk of victimization could be as high as one in ten for boys (Finkelhor, 1979) and one in three for girls (Anderson, Martin, Mullen, Romans, & Herbison, 1993). Girls are eight times as likely as boys to suffer rape (Finkelhor & Dziuba-Leatherman, 1994). Prevalence rates estimate between 15% and 38% of women (Finkelhor, 1984; Herman, 1981) and 6% of men (Finkelhor, 1984) have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA).

There is also increasing evidence of the lasting traumatic impact of CSA. For some children its effects may persist over many years, even into adult life. McConkey (1992) estimates that at ...


Effects Of Linear And Non-Linear Incentive Pay Systems With Individual And Group Payouts On The Social Psychology Phenomenon Of Social Loafing, Delores A. Tinley Smoot Aug 1997

Effects Of Linear And Non-Linear Incentive Pay Systems With Individual And Group Payouts On The Social Psychology Phenomenon Of Social Loafing, Delores A. Tinley Smoot

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the experiment investigated the occurrence of social loafing behavior when individuals are engaged in a production task. Social loafing is defined as a decrement in individual performance when working co-actively with a group. Second, the experiment compared the effectiveness of three incentive pay systems (linear, positively and negatively accelerating) in eliminating social loafing behavior and in generating performance levels higher than those generated by a flat or hourly pay system.

Sixteen undergraduate students, all female, participated in twenty-five 15- minute work sessions in which they made widgets from pop beads. Subjects ...


Human Impulsivity: Effects Of Reinforcement Procedure, Catherine A. Karas Aug 1997

Human Impulsivity: Effects Of Reinforcement Procedure, Catherine A. Karas

Dissertations

In this study, positive and negative reinforcement procedures were directly compared across subjects to determine whether more impulsive responding would occur with one reinforcement procedure when compared to the other, under a discrete-trial choice procedure. For both reinforcement procedures, taped music served as the reinforcer. For the positive reinforcer, subjects brought in their own music, from which tapes were made for use in the study. Subjects then ranked the tapes according to their preferences. For the negative reinforcers, the investigators made tapes of various types of music, and all subjects ranked their preferences for these tapes. Subjects were then presented ...


The Development And Validation Of A Multicomponent Scale Measuring Aids Phobia, Jessica Purtan Harrell Aug 1997

The Development And Validation Of A Multicomponent Scale Measuring Aids Phobia, Jessica Purtan Harrell

Master's Theses

The development, reliability, and validity of a new instrument, the Multicomponent AIDS Phobia Scale (MAPS), is described. The results indicate that the MAPS has strong internal consistency and moderate test-retest reliability. In addition, an assessment of concurrent and discriminant validity indicates statistically significant correlations with other self-report measures of anxiety, hypochondriasis, obsessive compulsive disorder, and fear of AIDS. The results of a factor analysis indicate that the scale consists of 2 factors: fear of infection and fear of others/avoidance. The instrument appears to be a reliable and valid measure of AIDS Phobia and may prove useful for improving clinical ...


Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing (Emdr) In The Treatment Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Dismantling The Cognitive Component, Karen Cusack Aug 1997

Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing (Emdr) In The Treatment Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Dismantling The Cognitive Component, Karen Cusack

Master's Theses

Twenty-three individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for post traumatic stress disorder were randomly assigned to either a standard EMDR treatment group or a modified treatment group that omitted the cognitive reprocessing component of EMDR. All subjects were assessed on a variety of pretest posttest measures including the SCL-90- R, the Impact of Events, the Structured Interview for PTSD, SUDS, and Validity of Cognitions (VoC). Results of repeated measures ANOVAs indicate a significant decrease across all pre to post measures, with these results being maintained at a 1 month followup. With the exception of SUDs and SCL-90-R anxiety scores, there were no ...


Acculturation In Relation To Somatization And Mental Health Attitudes Among Asian Americans, Natasha A. E. Wong Jul 1997

Acculturation In Relation To Somatization And Mental Health Attitudes Among Asian Americans, Natasha A. E. Wong

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)

A total of 98 Asian Americans completed surveys which consisted of a demographic questionnaire, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA), the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale (ATSPPHS), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Pearson correlations were conducted between acculturation and the four subscales of the ATSPPHS, acculturation and somatization as indicated by the somatic items on the SCL-90-R, and somatization and the four subscales of the ATSPPHS. Significant negative correlations were found between acculturation and somatization, and somatization and the interpersonal openness subscale of the ATSPPHS. A significant positive correlation was also found between acculturation and the interpersonal ...


A Test Of The Self-Regulatory Model Of Prejudice Reduction, Sonja Williams Jul 1997

A Test Of The Self-Regulatory Model Of Prejudice Reduction, Sonja Williams

Student Work

Two assumptions derived from Devine and Monteith’s (1993) self-regulatory model of prejudice reduction were tested utilizing a stereotype-activating stimulus believed to be similar to one which is more likely to occur in everyday-life than those used in previous research. Black and white actors making ambiguously hostile statements were evaluated by 92 low and high-prejudiced participants. Rating-scale data provided partial support for the assumption that low-prejudiced participants inhibit stereotype-consistent responses and replace them with personal, more egalitarian beliefs. Specifically, low-prejudiced participants provided significantly more favorable ratings than their high-prejudiced counterparts (p = .030). Reaction-time data provided support for the model’s ...


Fostering The Development Of Domain-General, Nonlinear Mental Models: A Foundation For Systemic Thinking, Jeffrey S. Sinn Jul 1997

Fostering The Development Of Domain-General, Nonlinear Mental Models: A Foundation For Systemic Thinking, Jeffrey S. Sinn

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Two experiments examined whether people can develop a domain-general, nonlinear mental model when provided with an appropriate conceptual model. Both experiments presented causal loop models (i.e., variables connected in a circle by arrows representing causal relationships) as a conceptual model for positive feedback. Study 1 found that participants trained in causal loop modeling could accurately represent scenarios of low but not high complexity. Study 2 expanded on the design of Study 1 by varying the type of training and type of aid presented during testing. Participants received training with modeling instruction, training with cue-utilization instruction (i.e., participants were ...


African-American Males' Perception Of Law Enforcement: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Adolph Brown Iii Jul 1997

African-American Males' Perception Of Law Enforcement: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Adolph Brown Iii

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This study compared the psychophysiological reactivity of African American and European American males to authority. Nineteen African American males and 23 European American males were randomly assigned to either be interrogated by a police officer, or see a police officer interrogate that experimenter or view a videotape of police activity. Participants' physiological reactivity, acceptance of authority, fear of negative evaluation or social anxiety, and apprehension and anxiety in stressful situations as well as EMG, SCR, heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure were measured. African American males were hypothesized to show greater physiological response than European American males and participants who ...


To Lead A Team: Construct Validity Evidence For Team Leadership In The High-Tech Industry, Johanna M. Merritt Jul 1997

To Lead A Team: Construct Validity Evidence For Team Leadership In The High-Tech Industry, Johanna M. Merritt

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to gather evidence of construct validity for functions of team leadership. The research built on a continuing line of background research. Three hundred and thirty-seven team leaders from sixty-three companies in the manufacturing electronics industry participated in the studies and completed surveys.

Four types of validity evidence were examined: content, criterion-related, convergent, and discriminant. Content validity evidence was demonstrated in Study 1. The overwhelming majority of team leaders perFormed the proposed functions and rated them as important. A confirmatory analysis did not indicate a parsimonious fit among the seven functions that were generated from background research ...


A Comparison Of Coping Styles And Body Image Of Abused And Non-Abused Women, Laura Elizabeth Brown Jul 1997

A Comparison Of Coping Styles And Body Image Of Abused And Non-Abused Women, Laura Elizabeth Brown

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This study compared body image, patterns of coping, and the relationship between these factors in subjects with and without a reported background of childhood incest. Self-report measures of personal experience (Relevant Variable Questionnaire and the Assessment of Coping Interview), body image (the Human Figure Drawing Test (HFDT) and the Body Image Assessment (BIA)), and coping (the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (AECOM) Coping Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)) were administered individually to twenty-two women with reported incest histories and an equal number of women with no reported history of sexual or physical abuse. Significant ...


The Effect Of Control Strategies On Sixth Graders' Metacognitive Awareness, Pamela Haag Clower Jun 1997

The Effect Of Control Strategies On Sixth Graders' Metacognitive Awareness, Pamela Haag Clower

Student Work

This experimental action research study provided sixth grade students five lessons about metacognitive control skills, with pre- and post-instruction measurements of the students’ observable behaviors and notation of the students’ think-alouds regarding their metacognitive activity. The purpose of the study was twofold: 1. To test whether students’ metacognitive awareness can be increased, and 2. To compare the performance of students who initially demonstrate higher metacognitive awareness by scoring above the median on a Metacognitive Awareness Inventory with student who students scored below the median on the inventory. Because research has shown metacognitive ability to operate independently of academic ability and ...


Do Reinforcer Surveys Enhance A Brief Parenting Skills Program For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered Children?, Maria A. Channell Jun 1997

Do Reinforcer Surveys Enhance A Brief Parenting Skills Program For Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered Children?, Maria A. Channell

Dissertations

Several clinical researchers have documented the benefits of evaluating reinforcer preference prior to the implementation of behavioral parent training programs. However, this has not been specifically tested with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered (ADHD) population in relation to parent training. This between groups study investigated whether systematically altering parent delivered reinforcers to match children’s preferred reinforcers would result in an even greater increased compliance and decreased noncompliance.

One group received a brief (4-6 session) parenting program based on Patterson’s (1974) model. A second group received the same program with an added component wherein the child completed a reinforcer survey ...


The Efficacy Of Pediatric Pain Management Techniques For Infants During Inoculation Procedures, Kimberly K. Wisdorf-Houtkooper Jun 1997

The Efficacy Of Pediatric Pain Management Techniques For Infants During Inoculation Procedures, Kimberly K. Wisdorf-Houtkooper

Dissertations

In this study four different pre-immunization interventions were compared with respect to their effects on modifying arousal level before an immunization and their effects on the level and duration of distress after the immunization. In addition, the study evaluated whether the infants’ pre-inoculation behavioral state affected their response to a painful stimulus. Data consisting of facial expression, presence or absence of cry, cry duration, and behavioral state were collected prior to, during, and after the inoculation. Forty-two subjects were randomly assigned to one of four soothing conditions. These included: rocking, swaddling, sucking on a pacifier, and a control group.

An ...


Effects Of Alternative Activities On Productivity Under Different Percentages Of Incentive Pay, Grainne A. Matthews Jun 1997

Effects Of Alternative Activities On Productivity Under Different Percentages Of Incentive Pay, Grainne A. Matthews

Dissertations

This study examined whether low percentages of incentive pay would be as effective as high percentages in maintaining work performance in the presence of competitive alternative activities. Incentives may increase performance primarily by decreasing time spent performing alternative activities. Although the link between performance and pay is tighter when the percentage of incentive pay is higher, laboratory studies have not found the expected difference. It is possible that previous simulations of work settings have not offered realistic competing contingencies. This study used a computer simulation of a quality inspection task and provided computer games as alternative activities to participants who ...


Improvement In Public Sector Decision Making, Charles K. Bens May 1997

Improvement In Public Sector Decision Making, Charles K. Bens

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Student Scholarship

Improving public sector decision making has been a continuous quest since the emergence of democratic governance in early Greece. Resistance to more involvement by citizens has been one of the major barriers to improvement, as elites struggle to retain control of the reigns of government. Increasing urbanization and levels of education have produced pressure to solve a growing list of difficult problems. Expectations have risen faster than governments' ability to respond, which has led to a loss of confidence and increasing citizen initiatives to gain control of the public sector. A model for reform of public sector decision making is ...


The Relationship Between Personality Traits And Transformational Leadership Among North Carolina Elementary Public School Principals, Robert J. Mcgrattan May 1997

The Relationship Between Personality Traits And Transformational Leadership Among North Carolina Elementary Public School Principals, Robert J. Mcgrattan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the relationship between personality traits as identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and transformational leadership as measured by The Nature of School Leadership. The subjects were 74 North Carolina public school elementary principals. The principals completed the MBTI. Principals also provided pertinent demographic information. Selected teachers in each school were asked to give their perception of the principal as a transformational leader by completing The Nature of School Leadership. Data were analyzed to look for significant relationships between personality and demographics as they related to transformational leadership. The analysis of demographic information yielded gender as a significant ...


The Emotional Attributes Questionnaire: Self- And Other-Reports Of Guilt And Shame, Heidi L. Eyre May 1997

The Emotional Attributes Questionnaire: Self- And Other-Reports Of Guilt And Shame, Heidi L. Eyre

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Shame and guilt are considered to be important emotions for empirical study for a variety of reasons. Developmental psychologists are interested in the emergence of shame and guilt as they relate to the child's understanding of societal and familial expectations/norms and the subsequent development of conscience (Zahn-Waxler & Kochanska, 1990). Social psychologists study how guilt and shame are used to create power differentials and restore equity to relationships (Baumeister, Stillwell, & Heatherton, 1994). Finally, clinicians have long thought shame and guilt to be involved in the development of disorders such as anxiety and depression (H.B. Lewis, 1971). However, those ...


An Examination Of Cognitive And Behavioral Characteristics Of Kainaiwa Children Diagnosed With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Deborah Faith Pace May 1997

An Examination Of Cognitive And Behavioral Characteristics Of Kainaiwa Children Diagnosed With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Deborah Faith Pace

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the scores of 450 Kainaiwa children from Kindergarten to grade 3 on social, behavioral, cognitive and cultural measures. The subjects consisted of children in three different classification groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Special Education, and Regular Education. The purpose of the study was to examine group membership to determine whether or not children who were diagnosed as FAS presented unique intellectual, behavioral, social and cultural characteristics from those of their regular and special education peers.

These results support the conclusion of previous research that FAS children differ significantly from their special and regular education peers. No ...