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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

1996

Institution
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Institutional Climate And Institutional Effectiveness At Three Community Colleges, Connie S. Buckner Dec 1996

Institutional Climate And Institutional Effectiveness At Three Community Colleges, Connie S. Buckner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to explore the impact of employee morale, as manifested in institutional climate data, upon institutional effectiveness; and (2) to determine the extent to which information generated by climate survey data was used in developing and implementing change initiatives at each of the institutions studied. Three institutions were selected for this multiple site case study. Four sources of data from each institution were used to provide a "picture" of institutional climate. These sources of data were (a) the Personal Assessment of the College Environment (PACE) climate survey, (b) institutional self-study reports, (c) reaffirmation ...


A Content Analysis Of Student's Perceptions Of Instructors, Bill C. Cassill Dec 1996

A Content Analysis Of Student's Perceptions Of Instructors, Bill C. Cassill

Masters Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

In his recent confirmatory factor analysis of the Instructional Development and Effectiveness Assessment rating instrument (IDEA), Marsh (1994) identified six factors matching those from his Students' Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ) rating instrument. However, four of these factors, Enthusiasm, Interaction, Learning, and Organization, were found to be highly intercorrelated. Due to this, other researchers have questioned whether these four factors are really independent constructs as Marsh asserts. Because of the question of independent constructs, many researchers feel that a greater reliance should be placed on the use of global rating items instead of items designed to measure specific dimensions of ...


The Effects Of An Information/Counseling Session And Partner Participation In Treadmill Testing On Sexual Functioning Following Myocardial Infarction, Betty J. Fisher Dec 1996

The Effects Of An Information/Counseling Session And Partner Participation In Treadmill Testing On Sexual Functioning Following Myocardial Infarction, Betty J. Fisher

Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of an intervention designed to reduce patient and partner anxiety regarding the resumption of sexual activities following myocardial infarction (MI). A multiple baseline across subjects design was employed.

Participants completed self-report measures o f sexual functioning, knowledge of psychological and physical sequelae to MI, depression and anxiety on a weekly basis for at least 3 weeks (to a maximum of 12 weeks) prior to participating in treadmill testing, and attending the information/counseling session. Couples also completed these assessments for a 4-week period following the intervention.

Six heterosexual couples in ...


The Mmpi-A: A Diagnostic Tool For Adhd Adolescents, Harry J. Marshall Dec 1996

The Mmpi-A: A Diagnostic Tool For Adhd Adolescents, Harry J. Marshall

Dissertations

This research investigated the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) as an instrument in the diagnosis of adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Subjects were 32 male and 12 female adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 who presented for evaluation and/or treatment for ADHD in one of three privately operated mental health clinics in a large, industrial, midwestem state. Upon establishment of the diagnosis by a psychologist who specializes in the area of ADHD, the subjects were invited to participate in the study and complete the MMPI-A. A correlational research design was used which ...


Interparental Conflict, Family Environment And Perceived Interpersonal Conflicts Among Late Adolescents, Harry Durell Johnson Dec 1996

Interparental Conflict, Family Environment And Perceived Interpersonal Conflicts Among Late Adolescents, Harry Durell Johnson

Student Work

The characteristics of interpersonal conflict within the family system during adolescence may be influenced not only by the attempts of adolescent's to individuate from their parents, but also by the environment in which this individuation process occurs. Family systems that are characterized by decreased family cohesion and increased interparental conflict may inadvertently provide environments that foster increases in conflict among its members. How these environmental factors are associated with the quantitative and qualitative aspects of conflict is an important question which is addressed in this study. The relationship between the family system environment (i.e., family cohesion and interparental ...


Worker Productivity As A Function Of The Percentage Of Monetary Incentives To Base Pay, Carol J. Frisch Dec 1996

Worker Productivity As A Function Of The Percentage Of Monetary Incentives To Base Pay, Carol J. Frisch

Dissertations

Several studies have shown that individuals working under pay conditions with monetary incentives have higher levels of productivity than individuals working for non-incentive pay, such as hourly wages (Abernathy, Duffy, & O’Brien, 1982; Dierks & McNally, 1987; Farr, 1976; Gaetani, Hoxeng, & Austin, 1986; George & Hopkins, 1989; London & Oldham, 1977; Orpen, 1982; Nebeker & Neuberger, 1985; Terborg & Miller, 1978; Yukl, Wexley, & Seymore, 1972). It has also been noted that a minimum of 30% incentive is generally accepted as necessary to affect (employee) motivation (Fein, 1970), and increasing incentives above this level will not result in appreciable increases in employee performance (Fein, 1970; Henderson, 1989).

The purpose of this study was: (a) to investigate the monetary incentive continuum to determine if increases in the percentage of incentives to base pay would result in increases in performance, as well as (b) to evaluate the accuracy of the accepted 30% incentive standard and determine the optimum level of percentage of incentives to ...


Fluency Training On Quantitative Skills Tested By The Graduate Record Examination, Pamela L. Vunovich Dec 1996

Fluency Training On Quantitative Skills Tested By The Graduate Record Examination, Pamela L. Vunovich

Dissertations

This research consisted of an evaluation of a Graduate Record Examination (GRE) preparation course and two ancillary studies. Eighteen students enrolled in one of three courses (spring, summer, or fall) during which they spent approximately 140 hours preparing for the GRE using self-instructional texts and supplementary materials. Two sets of fluency practice drills with both accuracy and speed criteria were developed to improve students' performance on the quantitative portion of the GRE. The first set of four drills used in the spring and summer courses covered basic skills (basic math, fractions, decimals, and percentages). The second set of 42 drills ...


The Association Of Five Therapist Characteristics With Therapists' Suspicion Of Childhood Sexual Abuse In Adult Client Cases, Sherri I. Terrell Dec 1996

The Association Of Five Therapist Characteristics With Therapists' Suspicion Of Childhood Sexual Abuse In Adult Client Cases, Sherri I. Terrell

Dissertations

One hundred and twenty-five doctoral level psychologists interning at university counseling centers throughout North America were surveyed to explore the association of therapists' suspicion of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adult client cases with five therapist characteristics: (a) gender; (b) having or not having had personal therapy; (c) having or not having professional experience with three or more clients who are survivors of CSA; (d) having or not having a close friend, family member, or significant other who is a survivor of CSA; and (e) being or not being a survivor of CSA.

Information was collected on interns' demographics and ...


Measuring Organizational Climate For Diversity, Amy L. Vick Oct 1996

Measuring Organizational Climate For Diversity, Amy L. Vick

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The Climate for Diversity Index measures three dimensions associated with the ability of organizations or units to create an environment that allows members of all sociocultural backgrounds to participate and fully develop. The climate for diversity impacts individual outcomes such as general job satisfaction, affective commitment, identification with a psychological group/department, organizational citizenship behavior, and the intent to turnover. Several structural models depicting the relationship between the climate for diversity and the individual outcome variables were examined. Significant differences in perceptions of the climate for diversity are predicted by ethnicity, disability, and position. Data were provided by 319 members ...


The Cowboy Way: A Study Of Leadership As Portrayed In Western Film, Ralph L. Turner Aug 1996

The Cowboy Way: A Study Of Leadership As Portrayed In Western Film, Ralph L. Turner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to examine leadership through the medium of film, specifically the genre of the western. The western is iconographic; representative of the American ethos, the western embodied the "frontier myth." The purposes of this study were to examine how leadership was portrayed in a selected sample of western films dating from 1945 to 1995, and to categorize and characterize the leadership methods exhibited in each film. Qualitative in design, the study was concerned with broad description and discovery. Using observation as the data collection technique and content analysis as the research method, the study examined a sample of ...


The Nature Of Hope Among Men And Women Living With Hiv-Aids, Jeannie Vaughn Gillian Aug 1996

The Nature Of Hope Among Men And Women Living With Hiv-Aids, Jeannie Vaughn Gillian

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this qualitative study was to discover how individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience hope. Still considered a life-threatening illness, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) continues to challenge those who are affected by it. In an attempt to enhance understanding of the nature and role of hope in HIV-related illness, repeated in-depth conversational interviews were conducted over 24 months in naturalistic settings.

Participants in this longitudinal study originally included 5 women and 30 men; 15 deaths have occurred since the onset of the study. Of the 28 participants who completed the study, all but ...


Central Opioid Regulation Of Parental Behavior In Juvenile Rats, Jacquelyn C. Wellman Aug 1996

Central Opioid Regulation Of Parental Behavior In Juvenile Rats, Jacquelyn C. Wellman

Master's Theses

Morphine disrupts full parental behavior (FPB) in adult rats when administered into the preoptic area; effects are reversed with naloxone. The current study emphasizes central administration of morphine into the preoptic area and effects on parental behavior in juveniles and possible naloxone blockade. In Experiment 1, juveniles outfitted with cannulae assemblies aimed at the preoptic region were administered a regimen of morphine, naloxone, or saline, and 30 minutes later were exposed to neonates. Behavior was scored for 1 hour and animals were considered parental if they responded with FPB for 2 consecutive days. Saline and naloxone groups responded to the ...


The Effects Of Wraparound Services On The Adjustment Of Four Severely Emotionally Disturbed Youth: A Controlled Multiple Baseline Study, Michael J. Myaard Aug 1996

The Effects Of Wraparound Services On The Adjustment Of Four Severely Emotionally Disturbed Youth: A Controlled Multiple Baseline Study, Michael J. Myaard

Dissertations

This naturalistic study employed a controlled multiple baseline design (Baer, Wolf & Risley, 1968; Poling, 1995) across subjects and behaviors to examine the effects of wraparound services on the adjustment of four Severely Emotionally Disturbed teenagers at risk o f long term residential placement. Subjects were selected on a clinical trials basis upon referral into a public sector interagency service system within a small rural county. The Vermont System For Tracking Client Progress served as the primary dependent measure and was sampled daily for one year, the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale and detailed financial data were also sampled. Distinct sequential effects ...


Relationship Between Life Change Events And Communication Apprehension, Elaine Bylund Aug 1996

Relationship Between Life Change Events And Communication Apprehension, Elaine Bylund

Student Work

This research investigates relationships between communication apprehension (CA) and life change events, using college students at a Midwestern university. Instruments used were the Personal Report o f Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA- 24) which measured CA, both overall and in four subareas, and a modified version of the Adolescent Life Change Event Questionnaire (ALCEQ), which records life change events during formative years and past year before being questioned.

No significant relationships were found between the overall scores of the two instruments in this study, although demographic information showed that the younger college students reported more public speaking apprehension than the older groups ...


A Qualitative Exploration Of Women Survivors’ Disclosure Of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Joanne Dodgson Aug 1996

A Qualitative Exploration Of Women Survivors’ Disclosure Of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Joanne Dodgson

Dissertations

In clinical literature regarding adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, disclosure of abuse is considered a vital aspect of healing (Courtois,1988; Herman, 1992). Despite the apparent significance of disclosure, few studies have been conducted to investigate this process. Integrating feminist and qualitative research perspectives, I sought to explore disclosure through the stories, language, and perspectives of women survivors. I was interested in learning about the following issues: (a) the ways in which survivors' disclosure unfolded, (b) the ways in which survivors understood and made meaning of their disclosures, and (c) the ways in which survivors' lives changed through the ...


Culture-Specific Hiv/Std Prevention Programming For Lesbian And Bisexual Women, Kathleen M. Morrow Aug 1996

Culture-Specific Hiv/Std Prevention Programming For Lesbian And Bisexual Women, Kathleen M. Morrow

Dissertations

HIV/AIDS prevention research continues to target populations in which AIDS is already responsible for a significant number of deaths. Since an AIDS diagnosis often indicates the transmission of HIV several years earlier, targeting groups currently manifesting AIDS neglects those groups which may be at risk for transmission of HIV today. Among the lowest incidence in known cases of AIDS are women who have sex with women. Despite a preponderance of biomedical research which implicates vaginal secretions and blood products as vehicles in HIV transmission, there remains only a minimal effort to educate these w om en regarding their risk ...


Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing Treatment Of Communication Anxiety: A Closer Look, Teresa Foley Aug 1996

Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing Treatment Of Communication Anxiety: A Closer Look, Teresa Foley

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to replicate the results of previous research with respect to EMD/R (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) and of this researcher’s investigation of EMD/R treatment of public-speaking anxiety (Foley & Spates, 1995). The present study, however, included components to permit more extensive analysis of the elements of treatment that contribute to therapeutic effectiveness. The study investigated the contribution of assessment speeches to treatment effectiveness by using a two factor design in which one factor featured a condition of pre-treatment/post-treatment speeches vs. a condition of post-treatment speeches only. The other factor featured two treatment conditions, permitting consideration of the contribution of the imaginal exposure component of EMD/R to treatment effectiveness. One treatment condition received EMD/R while the other condition received an alternative treatment that differed from EMD/R only in that there were no instructions to visualize the traumatic event during the eye movement component.

Subjects were 32 college students who suffered from communication anxiety and had experienced a specific traumatic event related to a communication situation. The research was carried out in a two factor repeated measures design consisting of four treatment groups: EMD/R-speech condition, EMD/R-no speech condition, Alternative treatment-speech condition, Alternative treatment-no speech condition.

Results showed a significant decrease from pre to post-treatment for all groups on several measures. There were no significant differences between groups; however, the results on one measure (CAI) suggest that if power were increased, the groups would differ significantly with respect to the pre treatment behavioral assessment factor.


Measuring Changes In Spontaneous Play Behavior In Preschoolers With Autism Associated With A Receptive Language Intervention, Jori Reijonen Aug 1996

Measuring Changes In Spontaneous Play Behavior In Preschoolers With Autism Associated With A Receptive Language Intervention, Jori Reijonen

Dissertations

Children diagnosed with Autistic Disorder have well documented deficits in the development of pretend play. When it occurs, spontaneous pretend play differs from play seen in other children in frequency, duration, and quality. The present study examined the effects of teaching preschoolers with Autism to follow one-part directions to play during discrete trial receptive language training sessions on spontaneous play skills.

Receptive language tasks were designed to teach simple pretend play skills (e.g., "Feed the doll with a spoon"). Spontaneous play was continuously sampled during free play sessions in the clinic and in the child's home before these ...


Differences In Retention Rates Between Cocaine And Alcohol Dependent Individuals In A Drug-Free Setting, Barbara A. Johnston Aug 1996

Differences In Retention Rates Between Cocaine And Alcohol Dependent Individuals In A Drug-Free Setting, Barbara A. Johnston

Master's Theses

Substance abuse treatment outcome is an important area for clinical research. Furthermore, it is important to identify sub-populations which may require additional treatment services in order to improve outcome. Cocaine dependent individuals have been identified as a group that provides many challenges to clinicians and researchers due to the high incidence of relapse. The current study explored the differences in treatment retention between persons diagnosed with either cocaine or alcohol dependence. There was a significant difference between the length of stay for the two groups (p=.003). However, there was not a significant difference in type of discharge between the ...


An Investigation Of The Effects Of Intense Coaching On Sat I Verbal Scores Of A Select Group Of High School Juniors, Kimberly J. Pennamon Jul 1996

An Investigation Of The Effects Of Intense Coaching On Sat I Verbal Scores Of A Select Group Of High School Juniors, Kimberly J. Pennamon

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

This study investigated the effects of a counseling module on SAT I verbal test scores.

The junior high school subjects, who were enrolled un an Upward Bound Program, consisted of three males and two females. The subjects met the program's income and academic criteria.

A quasi-experimental method was used consisting of a pre- and post-test design. The SAT I Prep Class constituted the module used. The duration of the class was 60 days using a total of 10.91 hours of contact time over nine meetings.

The researcher found the pre- and post-test verbal test scores were 418 and ...


The Use Of Prior Knowledge In Learning From Examples, Stephen B. Blessing '89 Jul 1996

The Use Of Prior Knowledge In Learning From Examples, Stephen B. Blessing '89

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines the way people acquire procedures from examples, and provides a computational model of the results. In four experiments, people learned an analog of algebra. For each experiment, the initial know ledge that people had of the task was varied. In two experiments (Experiments 1 and 3), the syntactic know ledge that people had concerning the task w as manipulated. The knowledge of syntax that participants had, particularly the ability to correctly parse the character string, was found to be a major determiner in the way participants acquired the rules. Experiment 2 explicitly manipulated participant's awareness as ...


Orthographically Mediated Inhibition Effects: Evidence Of Activational Feedback During Visual Word Recognition, Jason F. Reimer Jul 1996

Orthographically Mediated Inhibition Effects: Evidence Of Activational Feedback During Visual Word Recognition, Jason F. Reimer

Student Work

According to the multistage activation model of visual word recognition (Besner & Smith, 1992a, 1992b; Borowsky & Besner, 1993), during visual word recognition, activation can spread from semantic to orthographic representations via a feedback mechanism. Two experiments were conducted in order to test directly whether or not such feedback occurs, and if so, under what conditions. In order to directly measure feedback, a mediated priming paradigm was utilized. In this paradigm, participants named aloud targets that were preceded either by a semantically related prime (e.g., dog - cat! or by a prime that is related to the target via a mediating word (e.g., dog - (cat) - vat). In this case the mediating word cat is semantically related to the prime, and is both orthographically and phonologically related to the target. Direct evidence of activational feedback was obtained in the form of mediated inhibition effects which were found in the presence of semantic priming effects. These mediated inhibition effects are consistent with activational feedback, thus, they support the multistage activation model of visual word recognition and not the activation-verification model (Paap, Newsome, McDonald, & Schvaneveldt, 1982; Paap, McDonald, Schvaneveldt & Noel, 1987).


Wisc-Iii Profile Patterns Of Learning Disabled Children, Russell Goetting Jul 1996

Wisc-Iii Profile Patterns Of Learning Disabled Children, Russell Goetting

Student Work

The present study examined the performance of a heterogeneous population of learning disabled children (N=171) and children with learning disabilities in reading (LD-R), math (LD-M), and reading and math (LD-R+M) on the WISC-III ACID and SCAD subtests (Arithmetic, Coding, Information, Digit Span, and Symbol Search). Archival WISC-III scores of children that have been verified as having a learning disability in fourteen Midwestern school systems were used to answer the research questions in this study. Two different methods of examining performance on the ACID and SCAD subtests were used in this study, the index score method and the profile ...


Affect During Conflicts Between Adolescents And Their Best Friends, Other Friends And Acquaintances, Mary J. Spenceri Jul 1996

Affect During Conflicts Between Adolescents And Their Best Friends, Other Friends And Acquaintances, Mary J. Spenceri

Student Work

While conflict, in general, has received much attention in the literature, "affect felt" during conflicts and its influence has not been a major concern to researchers. Only a few investigations of "affect intensity" associated with conflict have been conducted. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of affect intensity, an individual differences factor, in the affect experienced in conflict situations with friends and acquaintances by different age groups, and the resolution strategies that are used. Students from grades 5, 8, and 11 and first and second year college students completed the Affect Intensity Measure, a conflict questionnaire ...


The Influence Of Time Pressure And Information Load On Rule-Based Decision-Making Performance, Brooke Browne Schaab Jul 1996

The Influence Of Time Pressure And Information Load On Rule-Based Decision-Making Performance, Brooke Browne Schaab

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Performance was evaluated under varying levels of time pressure and information load to determine their influence on simple rule-based decision-making. Consistent errors, biases, and heuristics found in human decision-making have been attributed to attempts to reduce attentional demands and to the limitations of working memory. Do these same mistakes occur when little or no demand is placed on working memory and the decision is made by following a set of simple rules? Using a simulation of a radar operator's task, 96 participants monitored a display for 24 min. Time pressure was manipulated by increasing or decreasing the number of ...


Cross-Cultural Differences And Intercultural Cooperation In The Context Of Change And Uncertainty: Americans And Finns In The Workplace, Maija Llisa Herweg Jul 1996

Cross-Cultural Differences And Intercultural Cooperation In The Context Of Change And Uncertainty: Americans And Finns In The Workplace, Maija Llisa Herweg

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

American and Finnish workers in financial institutions in the United States and in Finland were interviewed in their respective languages to explore cross-cultural differences in response to change and uncertainty in the work place. Changes were explored in the domains of organizational, process, procedure and work content, and technological changes in the work place. As a point of departure for this study, Hofstede's IBM study, as it pertains to Uncertainty Avoidance--a measure he used to evaluate culture-based resistance to change--was used for this study.

Differences in the kinds of change considered difficult to adjust to were found in the ...


An Artificial Life Model Of Engineering Attrition Contemplation: Why Do Federally Employed Civilian Engineers Think Of Quitting?, John William Herweg Jul 1996

An Artificial Life Model Of Engineering Attrition Contemplation: Why Do Federally Employed Civilian Engineers Think Of Quitting?, John William Herweg

Engineering Management & Systems Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The research objective is, using engineer turnover, to develop an Artificial Life (A-Life) model and simulation methodology useful for studying behavioral variables of individuals in an organization.

One consequence of work stress is burnout, and its extreme expression is quitting or turnover. Various models have been used to explain and predict this behavior. Behavior models are useful tools to explore the ability of organizational policies to reduce stress levels and turnover. Advancing the usefulness of models is a goal which assists all research on human behavior. A-Life offers a new and different methodology for this purpose. It provides an ability ...


Neuropsychological Assessment Of Battered Women, Mona Matheney Tiernan Jul 1996

Neuropsychological Assessment Of Battered Women, Mona Matheney Tiernan

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This study examined the effect of physical battering on the neuropsychological functioning of women. Twenty-five battered women and twenty-five non-battered women were administered a neuropsychological screening battery (11 separate tests, yielding 16 variables) to assess for possible deficits in the areas of attention/concentration, memory, visual-perceptual skills, sensory-motor skills, novel problem solving, and verbal fluency. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire, a post-concussive syndrome checklist, and a questionnaire evaluating for the presence of depressed mood and possible effects of depression. Potential participants with a history of previous head injury (occurring from a source other than battering) or other neurological disorders ...


Development Of The Inventory Of Life Span Events, Julie A. Dickison Jul 1996

Development Of The Inventory Of Life Span Events, Julie A. Dickison

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The possible relationship between stressful life events and subsequent illness has been studied in the past few decades, resulting in several widely-used questionnaires. However, these measures tend to focus on recent events and attempt to remove subjective rating of a stressful event by the respondent. These two factors may limit these scales clinical utility. An alternative measure, the Inventory of Life Span Events (ILSE) is proposed, to quantify the life-stress burden for childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and across the entire life span. ILSE was compared to other leading measures for life events, hassles and perceived stress, and was more closely related ...


Living In Two Worlds: Asian-American Women And Emotion, Kimberly S. Gangwish Jun 1996

Living In Two Worlds: Asian-American Women And Emotion, Kimberly S. Gangwish

Student Work

Asian-American women have faced certain difficulties in growing up due to the distinct differences in Asian and American cultures. The two cultures have philosophical differences as well as differences in acceptable manners of behaving and communicating. The expression of emotion is one of these areas. This research study looks at the differences in the two cultures concerning the expression of emotions and how this affects the women who are trying to live within both worlds. Ten first-generation Asian-American women were interviewed, using an oral history method, concerning three different situations. One situation involving just their parents, another involving their friends ...