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The Efficacy Of Massed Versus Distributed Practice As A Function Of Desired Learning Outcomes And Grade Level Of The Student, Vanessa D. Moss May 1995

The Efficacy Of Massed Versus Distributed Practice As A Function Of Desired Learning Outcomes And Grade Level Of The Student, Vanessa D. Moss

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study examined the extent to which type-of-practice strategies (massed or distributed) had an effect on learning a verbal information (reading) or intellectual skill (math) task for second- and fourth-grade students. One hundred and ninety students from eight second- and fourth-grade classrooms participated in the study. Classrooms were randomly assigned to the two practice conditions and all students participated in a 9- week integrated learning system (ILS) intervention.

The present study found that intellectual skill tasks are learned slightly more effectively in a massed than distributed practice mode, though the difference was not statistically significant. Students also learned verbal information ...


Television And Its Relationship To A Person's Character, Keri Phillips Jan 1995

Television And Its Relationship To A Person's Character, Keri Phillips

Master's Theses

The following study looked at the relationship between the types of television shows a person watches, either violent, neutral, or nonviolent, and his/her score on the Character Counts Questionnaire (CCQ), which measures a person's character and ethical values. Subjects were asked to complete the CCQ and rate on a five point bipolar scale, whether they enjoyed or did not enjoy watching the selected television shows. While using the CCQ, several problems were found and changes were made to overcome them. The most prevalent problem was that the original scoring method was so rigid it did not give a ...


Employees' Perceptions Of Organizational Justice: A Comparison Among Human Resource Management Issues , Joan Marie Meldahl Jan 1995

Employees' Perceptions Of Organizational Justice: A Comparison Among Human Resource Management Issues , Joan Marie Meldahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused upon comparing aspects of fairness in terms of various human resource management issues, in particular, salaries, promotions, scheduling, and performance appraisals. Greenberg's taxonomy of the classes of organizational justice was used as the basis for the aspects of fairness. A measure was developed for this study by compiling items corresponding to the aspects of justice delineated by Greenberg and by reviewing past measures to incorporate other aspects of justice specified by other researchers. The study analyzed the generalizability of the concept of fairness across the four human resource issues. Employees' degree of perceived fairness varied between ...


Expectations And Job Search Behavior Among Graduating University Seniors , Anna Rebekah Erickson Jan 1995

Expectations And Job Search Behavior Among Graduating University Seniors , Anna Rebekah Erickson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the effects of expectations on the job search activity of university seniors. Participants included 370 graduating seniors (194 male, 171 female) at Iowa State University. The questionnaire was designed to measure attitudes toward job searching, expectation about the job market, and job search activity. Attitudes toward job searching was measured using the Career Locus of Control Scale (Trice, Haire & Elliott, 1989); the Job Search Self-Efficacy portion of the Outplacement Needs Inventory (Kanfer & Hulin, 1985); and the Job Seeking Confidence scale developed by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan (van Ryn & Vinokur, 1992). Expectations about the job market were measured with the Employment Outlook segment of the Career Exploration Survey (Stumpf, Colarelli & Hartman, 1983); and the Business Conditions ...


Assessment Of Personality And Vocational Interests: Redundant Versus Complementary , Marilla Lou Fox Jan 1995

Assessment Of Personality And Vocational Interests: Redundant Versus Complementary , Marilla Lou Fox

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The value to vocational counselors of using a broad perspective in assessing personality was examined. The overlap between two models of personality was explored. The first model was Holland's (1985a) vocational personality approach, most commonly assessed in terms of vocational interests. The second model was the Big Five factor approach (Digman, 1990), which purports to be a comprehensive model of personality. Particular attention was paid to the Neuroticism factor's role in the overlap between the models and its relationship to issues that come up in vocational counseling. Data were collected from 286 female and 204 male college students ...


Women And Anger: The Roles Of Gender, Sex Role, And Feminist Identity In Women's Anger Expression And Experience , Susan Renee Stock-Ward Jan 1995

Women And Anger: The Roles Of Gender, Sex Role, And Feminist Identity In Women's Anger Expression And Experience , Susan Renee Stock-Ward

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined women's expression and experience of anger, by attempting to replicate and extend earlier work on women and anger. A selective literature review explored the areas of the psychology of women, sex roles, women and anger, and feminist identity, in order to give context to the research study;Participants completed a packet of self-report measures of anger, sex role, various psychological constructs, and feminist identity. Results failed to replicate a previous cluster analysis which utilized similar data, although the factor analysis solutions were almost identical. Additional descriptive statistics explored individual relationships between and among the anger and ...


Emily Dickinson: The Concept Of Catharsis, Jennifer Wolfley Jan 1995

Emily Dickinson: The Concept Of Catharsis, Jennifer Wolfley

English Master’s Theses

Emily Dickinson remains recognized as one of greatest poets of the American literature canon. The majority of her work, while often considered dark and abstract, was unread by anyone else in her lifetime. Why then would she choose to create such a large volume of troubled writing in secret? This thesis project explores this question using a psychological lens, and examines the work for any possible therapeutic effects it may have had on Dickinson. The project further suggests that Dickinson suffered from clinical depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and extreme personality disorders. (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) II is used throughout ...


Attributions Regarding Acquaintance Rape: Stage Of Relationship, Alcohol Use, And A Methodological Consideration , Rhonda S. Lovell Jan 1995

Attributions Regarding Acquaintance Rape: Stage Of Relationship, Alcohol Use, And A Methodological Consideration , Rhonda S. Lovell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined lay attributions regarding situations meeting the legal definition of rape and in addition examined a methodological question regarding the effect of use of a projective measure upon participant involvement and lay attributions. Eight scenarios completely crossed three two-level factors: stage of relationship, and victim and perpetrator alcohol consumption. The stage of relationship variable partially operationalized Shotland's (1989, 1992) courtship rape theory, which posits that acquaintance rape is not a unitary phenomenon. Half of the participants were asked to complete a projective section requesting that they complete sentence blanks regarding the inner cognitions and feelings of the ...


Ecphoric Similarity And Confidence Judgments Of Eyewitnesses: Effects Of Extra-Memorial Information , Eric Paul Seelau Jan 1995

Ecphoric Similarity And Confidence Judgments Of Eyewitnesses: Effects Of Extra-Memorial Information , Eric Paul Seelau

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Thefts were staged for pairs of witnesses who were subsequently given a photo-lineup from which to identify the thief. Individual witnesses (N = 159) were asked by a uniformed security officer to make an identification from either a perpetrator-present or perpetrator-absent lineup. Witnesses who made an identification (n = 122) were randomly assigned to receive either no information, or one of two types of extra-memorial information: (a) the co-witness had identified the same person from the photospread, or (b) the identified suspect had prior criminal involvement. The officer then asked witnesses to make confidence judgments and ecphoric similarity judgments (i.e., perceived ...


The Locus Of Post-Lexical Semantic Matching Effects On Semantic Priming: Biasing A Binary Response Or A Binary Decision?, Bart Aaron Vanvoorhis Jan 1995

The Locus Of Post-Lexical Semantic Matching Effects On Semantic Priming: Biasing A Binary Response Or A Binary Decision?, Bart Aaron Vanvoorhis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two hundred introductory level students at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse and at Iowa State University served as participants. Forty participants each were assigned to each level of the between-subjects manipulation of type of task (standard lexical decision, standard pronunciation, single-response lexical decision, keypress go/no go and pronunciation go/no go). Type of priming (forward, mediated, and backward) served as a within-subjects manipulation;The pattern of priming across tasks failed to support predictions derived from Neely and Keefe's three-process theory (1989), which predicts mediated priming only for pronunciation and backward priming only for lexical decision. The data showed a ...


Courtship Violence: The Relationship Of Social Support With Psychological Distress And Help-Seeking Behavior , Carmen Rae Wilson Vanvoorhis Jan 1995

Courtship Violence: The Relationship Of Social Support With Psychological Distress And Help-Seeking Behavior , Carmen Rae Wilson Vanvoorhis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

One hundred and eleven female undergraduate students who had experienced violence in the context of a dating relationship were surveyed regarding: (1) responses they had received from non-professionals, (2) psychological distress, and (3) help-seeking behavior. For their participation, women either received extra credit toward an introductory level psychology course or were entered in a lottery for one of three chances to win 50.00. Women responded to the following questionnaires: Participant Response Questionnaire, Social Provisions Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Personality Inventory, Social Issues Inventory, Resources Scale, and General Information Questions ...


Affective And Cognitive Reactions As A Result Of Change In Health Status: The Roles Of Self-Esteem And Construct Accessibility , Gabie Ellen Smith Jan 1995

Affective And Cognitive Reactions As A Result Of Change In Health Status: The Roles Of Self-Esteem And Construct Accessibility , Gabie Ellen Smith

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study was designed to examine factors that affect cognitions related to health decision-making and willingness to engage in risky behaviors. This project assessed the influence of individual difference variables and risk status on health cognitions, such as perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, prevalence estimates, and willingness to take contraceptive risks. Specifically, an adaptation of the TAA enzyme paradigm (Jemmott, Croyle, & Ditto, 1986) was used to manipulate the risk status of participants relating to occurrence of unplanned pregnancy. Participants were 159 women from a Psychology department subject pool at a large mid-western university. Some participants received information suggesting that they were at an above average risk of pregnancy, while others received information that their risk was normal. The current study assessed how the relation between self-esteem and risk status influenced health cognitions. In addition, this project investigated how the relation between chronic concern about pregnancy and risk status affected health cognitions;Results concerning risk status and enzyme prevalence is consistent with other research using the TAA enzyme paradigm, such that persons at increased risk reported higher perceived prevalence estimates of the enzyme for the population than those in the told ...


Personality And Interests Of Gifted Adolescents: Differences By Gender And Domain , Rachel Harriet Heiss Jan 1995

Personality And Interests Of Gifted Adolescents: Differences By Gender And Domain , Rachel Harriet Heiss

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation includes two papers. The first is a review of the literature relating to personality characteristics of intellectually-gifted individuals. Special attention is given to differences relating to gender and domain. The second paper is an empirical study of the personality and interests of intellectually-gifted adolescents, focusing on differences related to gender and domain. The following describes and summarizes findings from the empirical study;Personality characteristics of intellectually gifted adolescents were examined to determine whether this population substantially differs from the general population, differs by gender, and manifests characteristics related to talent domain. The Adjective Check List, Study of Values ...


Informing Clients Of Confidentiality Limits And Subsequent Child Abuse Reporting Decisions: The Role Of Dissonance , Katherine M. Nicolai Jan 1995

Informing Clients Of Confidentiality Limits And Subsequent Child Abuse Reporting Decisions: The Role Of Dissonance , Katherine M. Nicolai

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study proposed a causal model of child abuse reporting behavior framed within cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957). It was hypothesized that the failure to provide information regarding confidentiality limits to clients would result in dissonance. Further, it was predicted that when clients subsequently disclose that they are abusing a child, clinicians' dissonance would lead to behaviors associated with decreased reporting;Two hundred and forty-eight licensed psychologists from Arkansas, Connecticut, and New Mexico responded to a survey addressing the provision of confidentiality information in therapy and child abuse reporting decisions. Each respondent received a survey containing one of four vignette ...