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Employees' Perceptions Of Organizational Justice: A Comparison Among Human Resource Management Issues , Joan Marie Meldahl Jan 1995

Employees' Perceptions Of Organizational Justice: A Comparison Among Human Resource Management Issues , Joan Marie Meldahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focused upon comparing aspects of fairness in terms of various human resource management issues, in particular, salaries, promotions, scheduling, and performance appraisals. Greenberg's taxonomy of the classes of organizational justice was used as the basis for the aspects of fairness. A measure was developed for this study by compiling items corresponding to the aspects of justice delineated by Greenberg and by reviewing past measures to incorporate other aspects of justice specified by other researchers. The study analyzed the generalizability of the concept of fairness across the four human resource issues. Employees' degree of perceived fairness varied between ...


Expectations And Job Search Behavior Among Graduating University Seniors , Anna Rebekah Erickson Jan 1995

Expectations And Job Search Behavior Among Graduating University Seniors , Anna Rebekah Erickson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to examine the effects of expectations on the job search activity of university seniors. Participants included 370 graduating seniors (194 male, 171 female) at Iowa State University. The questionnaire was designed to measure attitudes toward job searching, expectation about the job market, and job search activity. Attitudes toward job searching was measured using the Career Locus of Control Scale (Trice, Haire & Elliott, 1989); the Job Search Self-Efficacy portion of the Outplacement Needs Inventory (Kanfer & Hulin, 1985); and the Job Seeking Confidence scale developed by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan (van Ryn & Vinokur, 1992). Expectations about the job market were measured with the Employment Outlook segment of the Career Exploration Survey (Stumpf, Colarelli & Hartman, 1983); and the Business Conditions ...


Assessment Of Personality And Vocational Interests: Redundant Versus Complementary , Marilla Lou Fox Jan 1995

Assessment Of Personality And Vocational Interests: Redundant Versus Complementary , Marilla Lou Fox

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The value to vocational counselors of using a broad perspective in assessing personality was examined. The overlap between two models of personality was explored. The first model was Holland's (1985a) vocational personality approach, most commonly assessed in terms of vocational interests. The second model was the Big Five factor approach (Digman, 1990), which purports to be a comprehensive model of personality. Particular attention was paid to the Neuroticism factor's role in the overlap between the models and its relationship to issues that come up in vocational counseling. Data were collected from 286 female and 204 male college students ...


Parent-Child Relationship Quality And Individual Well-Being In Adulthood: The Differential Effects Of Childhood Family Structure , Kristin Yagla Mack Jan 1995

Parent-Child Relationship Quality And Individual Well-Being In Adulthood: The Differential Effects Of Childhood Family Structure , Kristin Yagla Mack

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study addresses the limitations of previous research on single-parent families by using data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the long-term consequences of parental divorce and parental death as two specific types of childhood family disruptions. When compared to respondents raised by both biological parents, respondents raised by widowed parents reported significantly lower levels of contemporary parent-child relationship quality, but not lower levels of self-confidence or higher levels of psychological distress. Childhood family structure failed to demonstrate a significant influence on parent-child relationship quality, but had a negative effect on self-confidence ...


Women And Anger: The Roles Of Gender, Sex Role, And Feminist Identity In Women's Anger Expression And Experience , Susan Renee Stock-Ward Jan 1995

Women And Anger: The Roles Of Gender, Sex Role, And Feminist Identity In Women's Anger Expression And Experience , Susan Renee Stock-Ward

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined women's expression and experience of anger, by attempting to replicate and extend earlier work on women and anger. A selective literature review explored the areas of the psychology of women, sex roles, women and anger, and feminist identity, in order to give context to the research study;Participants completed a packet of self-report measures of anger, sex role, various psychological constructs, and feminist identity. Results failed to replicate a previous cluster analysis which utilized similar data, although the factor analysis solutions were almost identical. Additional descriptive statistics explored individual relationships between and among the anger and ...


Attributions Regarding Acquaintance Rape: Stage Of Relationship, Alcohol Use, And A Methodological Consideration , Rhonda S. Lovell Jan 1995

Attributions Regarding Acquaintance Rape: Stage Of Relationship, Alcohol Use, And A Methodological Consideration , Rhonda S. Lovell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined lay attributions regarding situations meeting the legal definition of rape and in addition examined a methodological question regarding the effect of use of a projective measure upon participant involvement and lay attributions. Eight scenarios completely crossed three two-level factors: stage of relationship, and victim and perpetrator alcohol consumption. The stage of relationship variable partially operationalized Shotland's (1989, 1992) courtship rape theory, which posits that acquaintance rape is not a unitary phenomenon. Half of the participants were asked to complete a projective section requesting that they complete sentence blanks regarding the inner cognitions and feelings of the ...


Experiential Thanatopsis For Widows In Later Life , Monica Liles Schocken Jan 1995

Experiential Thanatopsis For Widows In Later Life , Monica Liles Schocken

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Demographics show a consistent trend toward higher proportions of elderly in our society. With this increase a larger number of individuals are becoming widowed. The purpose of this study was to investigate how structured learning activities in thanatopsis are experienced by widows in later life. Thanatology is the study of the experience of the dying and bereaved. Although people in all societies have speculated about death, the systematic study of its experience is a fairly recent development. In 20th-century Western culture, until the last few decades, a taboo existed against studying death and death related issues. Purposes being served by ...


Ecphoric Similarity And Confidence Judgments Of Eyewitnesses: Effects Of Extra-Memorial Information , Eric Paul Seelau Jan 1995

Ecphoric Similarity And Confidence Judgments Of Eyewitnesses: Effects Of Extra-Memorial Information , Eric Paul Seelau

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Thefts were staged for pairs of witnesses who were subsequently given a photo-lineup from which to identify the thief. Individual witnesses (N = 159) were asked by a uniformed security officer to make an identification from either a perpetrator-present or perpetrator-absent lineup. Witnesses who made an identification (n = 122) were randomly assigned to receive either no information, or one of two types of extra-memorial information: (a) the co-witness had identified the same person from the photospread, or (b) the identified suspect had prior criminal involvement. The officer then asked witnesses to make confidence judgments and ecphoric similarity judgments (i.e., perceived ...


Gendered Graphics: An Examination Of The Effect Of Gender On Visuals In Professional Communication , Michael Joseph Hassett Jan 1995

Gendered Graphics: An Examination Of The Effect Of Gender On Visuals In Professional Communication , Michael Joseph Hassett

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports a study that examines the effect of gender on the creation and interpretation of visuals used in diagrams of the sunflowerseed oil extraction process;Gender has long been considered an issue worth pursuing in studies of communication behaviors. Research completed on gender and communication can be divided into two areas: (1) studies investigating performance differences between males and females and (2) studies investigating the perception of differences between males and females. This dissertation explores definitions of gender and surveys research in gender and communication in both areas. It applies this research to the use of visual elements ...


A Qualitative Study Of The Faculty Work Culture In Selected Comprehensive High Schools In The United States , Sandra L. Barnes Jan 1995

A Qualitative Study Of The Faculty Work Culture In Selected Comprehensive High Schools In The United States , Sandra L. Barnes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the faculty work culture in selected comprehensive high schools in the United States. More specifically, the study was designed to describe the culture of the schools, determine the common and unique themes in the work culture, and to determine the relative strength and valence of specific school work culture elements;Qualitative methodology was employed in this study that was conducted in two phases. During Phase I data were collected using individual and focus group interviews to gain an "emic perspective of the shared beliefs, values, and basic assumptions held by staff that ...


The Locus Of Post-Lexical Semantic Matching Effects On Semantic Priming: Biasing A Binary Response Or A Binary Decision?, Bart Aaron Vanvoorhis Jan 1995

The Locus Of Post-Lexical Semantic Matching Effects On Semantic Priming: Biasing A Binary Response Or A Binary Decision?, Bart Aaron Vanvoorhis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two hundred introductory level students at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse and at Iowa State University served as participants. Forty participants each were assigned to each level of the between-subjects manipulation of type of task (standard lexical decision, standard pronunciation, single-response lexical decision, keypress go/no go and pronunciation go/no go). Type of priming (forward, mediated, and backward) served as a within-subjects manipulation;The pattern of priming across tasks failed to support predictions derived from Neely and Keefe's three-process theory (1989), which predicts mediated priming only for pronunciation and backward priming only for lexical decision. The data showed a ...


Courtship Violence: The Relationship Of Social Support With Psychological Distress And Help-Seeking Behavior , Carmen Rae Wilson Vanvoorhis Jan 1995

Courtship Violence: The Relationship Of Social Support With Psychological Distress And Help-Seeking Behavior , Carmen Rae Wilson Vanvoorhis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

One hundred and eleven female undergraduate students who had experienced violence in the context of a dating relationship were surveyed regarding: (1) responses they had received from non-professionals, (2) psychological distress, and (3) help-seeking behavior. For their participation, women either received extra credit toward an introductory level psychology course or were entered in a lottery for one of three chances to win 50.00. Women responded to the following questionnaires: Participant Response Questionnaire, Social Provisions Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Personality Inventory, Social Issues Inventory, Resources Scale, and General Information Questions ...


Affective And Cognitive Reactions As A Result Of Change In Health Status: The Roles Of Self-Esteem And Construct Accessibility , Gabie Ellen Smith Jan 1995

Affective And Cognitive Reactions As A Result Of Change In Health Status: The Roles Of Self-Esteem And Construct Accessibility , Gabie Ellen Smith

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study was designed to examine factors that affect cognitions related to health decision-making and willingness to engage in risky behaviors. This project assessed the influence of individual difference variables and risk status on health cognitions, such as perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, prevalence estimates, and willingness to take contraceptive risks. Specifically, an adaptation of the TAA enzyme paradigm (Jemmott, Croyle, & Ditto, 1986) was used to manipulate the risk status of participants relating to occurrence of unplanned pregnancy. Participants were 159 women from a Psychology department subject pool at a large mid-western university. Some participants received information suggesting that they were at an above average risk of pregnancy, while others received information that their risk was normal. The current study assessed how the relation between self-esteem and risk status influenced health cognitions. In addition, this project investigated how the relation between chronic concern about pregnancy and risk status affected health cognitions;Results concerning risk status and enzyme prevalence is consistent with other research using the TAA enzyme paradigm, such that persons at increased risk reported higher perceived prevalence estimates of the enzyme for the population than those in the told ...


Predictors In Late Adolescent College Students' Attitudes Towards Police And Their Attitudes Towards Parents, Teachers, And Police As A Function Of Self-Esteem , Kathleen Dee Smith Jan 1995

Predictors In Late Adolescent College Students' Attitudes Towards Police And Their Attitudes Towards Parents, Teachers, And Police As A Function Of Self-Esteem , Kathleen Dee Smith

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Probably one of the biggest concerns today of most Americans is the problem of crime. Police depend heavily upon citizens to help them fight crime, and so attitudes toward police are important since it is these attitudes which can directly help or hinder police effectiveness. Adolescents are over-represented in committing crimes; therefore, they become a target group in establishing positive community-police relations. Attitudes towards the self are equally important since how we feel about ourselves influences our attitudes towards others. This research investigated the variables of sex, race, age, city size, socioeconomic status, delinquency, police contact, and self-esteem to determine ...


Personality And Interests Of Gifted Adolescents: Differences By Gender And Domain , Rachel Harriet Heiss Jan 1995

Personality And Interests Of Gifted Adolescents: Differences By Gender And Domain , Rachel Harriet Heiss

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation includes two papers. The first is a review of the literature relating to personality characteristics of intellectually-gifted individuals. Special attention is given to differences relating to gender and domain. The second paper is an empirical study of the personality and interests of intellectually-gifted adolescents, focusing on differences related to gender and domain. The following describes and summarizes findings from the empirical study;Personality characteristics of intellectually gifted adolescents were examined to determine whether this population substantially differs from the general population, differs by gender, and manifests characteristics related to talent domain. The Adjective Check List, Study of Values ...


Nonlinear Factor Analysis , Ilker Yalcin Jan 1995

Nonlinear Factor Analysis , Ilker Yalcin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Factor analysis and more general structural equation modeling have been popular statistical tools in social and behavioral sciences, and are useful statistical methods in a wide range of applications. Traditional models in these types of analyses are linear in underlying factors or latent variables. The linear model assumes that the observed variables are linear functions of the underlying factors or latent variables. This assumption may not be valid or realistic in many applications. In behavioral sciences, it is often the case that the linear model fits the data well but with a larger number of factors than expected. In such ...


Consumer Response Toward Apparel Products In Advertisements Containing Environmental Claims , Hye-Shin Kim Jan 1995

Consumer Response Toward Apparel Products In Advertisements Containing Environmental Claims , Hye-Shin Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The marketplace orientation in which consumer decisions toward product purchase, use, and disposal are shaped by a desire to preserve and protect the environment is growing. As such, environmental attitudes of consumers have influenced clothing purchase decisions. The concern over the interdependencies among human societies and the environment has brought environmentalism to the forefront of business marketing strategies. The textiles and apparel industry has been challenged by such ecological concerns as pollution of air and water in the textile manufacturing process, waste disposal problems with textile fibers, and potential shortage of raw materials from production of synthetic fibers. Many apparel ...


Self-Perceived Youth Leadership And Life Skills Development Among Iowa Ffa Members , Gary James Wingenbach Jan 1995

Self-Perceived Youth Leadership And Life Skills Development Among Iowa Ffa Members , Gary James Wingenbach

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe Iowa FFA members by their self-perceived youth leadership life skills development, participation in FFA leadership activities, participation in nonFFA leadership activities, achievement expectancy, years in the FFA, age, gender, self-reported grade point average, and place of residence, (2) assess the level of youth leadership life skills development possessed by Iowa FFA members, (3) determine if a relationship exists between self-perceived leadership life skills development and participation in FFA leadership activities, nonFFA leadership activities, achievement expectancy, years in the FFA, age, gender, self-reported grade point average, and place of residence, and (4 ...


Informing Clients Of Confidentiality Limits And Subsequent Child Abuse Reporting Decisions: The Role Of Dissonance , Katherine M. Nicolai Jan 1995

Informing Clients Of Confidentiality Limits And Subsequent Child Abuse Reporting Decisions: The Role Of Dissonance , Katherine M. Nicolai

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study proposed a causal model of child abuse reporting behavior framed within cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957). It was hypothesized that the failure to provide information regarding confidentiality limits to clients would result in dissonance. Further, it was predicted that when clients subsequently disclose that they are abusing a child, clinicians' dissonance would lead to behaviors associated with decreased reporting;Two hundred and forty-eight licensed psychologists from Arkansas, Connecticut, and New Mexico responded to a survey addressing the provision of confidentiality information in therapy and child abuse reporting decisions. Each respondent received a survey containing one of four vignette ...


Patterns And Predictors Of Depressive Symptoms Among The Elderly , Qiaoming Liu Jan 1995

Patterns And Predictors Of Depressive Symptoms Among The Elderly , Qiaoming Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study combines stress theory and the life course perspective to examine patterns and predictors of depressive symptoms in old age. Much of the research on depressive symptoms examines patterns across the life course, treating the elderly as a single category. While this perspective demonstrates important contrasts across the life course, it tends to ignore important variation that occurs within the age range typically considered to be the elderly (Feinson, 1985; Newmann, 1989; Newmann, Engel, and Jensen, 1991). Stress theory and the life course perspective provide a strategic context for studying diverse relationships among self-reported physical health, household income, social ...


Therapist Conducted Debriefing Interviews , Lloy Lane Brigham Jan 1995

Therapist Conducted Debriefing Interviews , Lloy Lane Brigham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The use of ethnographic debriefing interviews has increasingly been used as an effective means of introducing information into the therapeutic system. Research has demonstrated that these interviews are an important addition to the overall family therapy process. This dissertation describes client family experiences of being debriefed by their therapist and a separate debriefer. Results indicated that clients are willing to be debriefed about their therapy experience by either therapist or debriefer. Several important domains were examined by families. These include: Therapist and debriefer comparisons, preference for debriefer, preference for therapist, experience of being debriefed, and how debriefing could be made ...


A Longitudinal Investigation Of The Relationships Among Parental Life Stress, Parental Self-Esteem, Marital Satisfaction, And Parental Depression , Wen-Ling Chen Jan 1995

A Longitudinal Investigation Of The Relationships Among Parental Life Stress, Parental Self-Esteem, Marital Satisfaction, And Parental Depression , Wen-Ling Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study is a two-year investigation to examine the relationships among parental life stress, parental self esteem, parental marital satisfaction, and parental depression both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Participants are married, middle-aged parents from the midwest farm belt;Multiple regression was conducted to analyze the data. The cross-sectional results indicated that parental life stress increased parental depression and decreased parental self-esteem and parental marital satisfaction. Parental self-esteem and parental marital satisfaction did function as mediating variables between parental life stress and parental depression. Self-esteem was associated with marital satisfaction for mothers but not for fathers;The results of longitudinal data ...


The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff Jan 1995

The Relation Of Violent And Nonviolent Toys To Play Behavior In Preschoolers , Karen Ellen Goff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although play and toys have been shown in the literature to benefit children in a variety of domains, relatively little is known about the effects of specific types of toys on the behavior and attitudes of children. Chapter 1 consolidates research that has attempted to discover the relationship between children's attitudes/behaviors and war toys. Research concerning the benefits of play and toys to children is presented, followed by the opposing viewpoints of aggression theorists regarding this issue. Research supporting each side of the debate is presented. Finally, variables that are likely to affect the war toy-child aggression relationship ...