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Cross-Generational Similarities Between Mothers' And Daughters' Abnormal Eating Behaviors, Kimberly K. Bushman May 1995

Cross-Generational Similarities Between Mothers' And Daughters' Abnormal Eating Behaviors, Kimberly K. Bushman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study was an investigation of the similarities and differences between mothers' and daughters' self-reported eating and dieting behavior. Also investigated was actual eating behaviors of mothers and daughters after consuming a milk shake preload presented as containing the caloric equivalents of one average meal.

Thirty-five mothers and their sixth-grade daughters completed a series of self-report instruments including the Bulimia Test-Revised, the Revised Dietary Restraint Scale, and the Anorexia-Bulimia Inventory. Subjects then individually completed a contrived ice cream taste test, which involved consuming a milk shake preload prior to tasting vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream. The relationship between mothers ...


Taxonomic Or Thematic: Categorization Of Familiar Objects By Preschool-Aged Children, David Owen Calhoun May 1995

Taxonomic Or Thematic: Categorization Of Familiar Objects By Preschool-Aged Children, David Owen Calhoun

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To acquire language, children must learn how to categorize objects on the basis of the meanings that cultures have assigned to the objects. A series of six experiments tested how preschool-aged children categorize familiar objects. Each experiment used a matching-to-sample format in which children matched pictures of familiar objects (comparisons) to a sample stimulus picture. The sample and one comparison related taxonomically (on the basis of function) from which the children were to find another stimulus that was the same as the sample. Each experiment was a systematic replication of published research and of the prior experiment. In all six ...


The Efficacy Of A Self-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Program For Body Image Dissatisfaction In Women With Subclinical Bulimia Nervosa, Ellen N. Emerson May 1995

The Efficacy Of A Self-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Program For Body Image Dissatisfaction In Women With Subclinical Bulimia Nervosa, Ellen N. Emerson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Subjects for this study were 40 women (N= 40) with subclinical bulimia nervosa who were randomly assigned to either a Cognitive Behavioral Treatment group (CBT) or to a waiting list control group. Treatment was provided for 8 weeks in an individual, self-administered format, using an audio-taped treatment package for Body Image Dissatisfaction (BID). Cognitive behavioral treatment focused on changing negative thoughts and feelings about one's body. No specific treatment focused on changing eating symptomatology or concomitant symptoms, although these were assessed. The waiting list control condition received assessment, followed by 8 weeks of no treatment. Treatment outcome measures were ...


The Efficacy Of Massed Versus Distributed Practice As A Function Of Desired Learning Outcomes And Grade Level Of The Student, Vanessa D. Moss May 1995

The Efficacy Of Massed Versus Distributed Practice As A Function Of Desired Learning Outcomes And Grade Level Of The Student, Vanessa D. Moss

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study examined the extent to which type-of-practice strategies (massed or distributed) had an effect on learning a verbal information (reading) or intellectual skill (math) task for second- and fourth-grade students. One hundred and ninety students from eight second- and fourth-grade classrooms participated in the study. Classrooms were randomly assigned to the two practice conditions and all students participated in a 9- week integrated learning system (ILS) intervention.

The present study found that intellectual skill tasks are learned slightly more effectively in a massed than distributed practice mode, though the difference was not statistically significant. Students also learned verbal information ...


An Analysis Of Item Bias In The Wisc-R With Kainaiwa Native Canadian Children, Deborah Faith Pace May 1995

An Analysis Of Item Bias In The Wisc-R With Kainaiwa Native Canadian Children, Deborah Faith Pace

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the responses of 332 Kainai students ranging in age from 6 to 16 years to the Information, Arithmetic, and Picture Completion subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in order to determine the validity of these subtests as a measure of their intelligence. Two indices of validity were assessed: (a) subtest unidimensionality, and (b) order of item difficulty. With regard to the assumption of unidimensionality, examination of the data indicated low item-factor loadings on the Information, Arithmetic, and Picture Completion subtests. Examination of difficulty parameters revealed a nonlinear item difficulty order on all three ...


A Psychometric Evaluation Of Five Commonly Used Measures Of Family Functioning And How They Correlate With Development Of Children With Disabilities, Matthew J. Taylor May 1995

A Psychometric Evaluation Of Five Commonly Used Measures Of Family Functioning And How They Correlate With Development Of Children With Disabilities, Matthew J. Taylor

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In response to the increased emphasis in early intervention on assessing family functioning, there has been substantial effort over the past 15 years to develop instruments that can measure important aspects of family functioning with families of children with disabilities. While the multitude of recently developed family measures has given researchers and clinicians a variety of instruments from which to choose, research on the quality of the data derived from these instruments has lagged behind. Considering the importance of family functioning in current early intervention programs and the potential impact on the type of intervention delivered, further investigation of the ...


Meta-Analysis Of Home Visiting Research With Low-Income Families: Client, Intervention, And Outcome Characteristics, Christopher H. Morris May 1995

Meta-Analysis Of Home Visiting Research With Low-Income Families: Client, Intervention, And Outcome Characteristics, Christopher H. Morris

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Leaders in the field of home visiting and family support research have indicated that the inclusion of home visiting in comprehensive services for low-income families with young children can play a key role in improving a wide variety of outcomes for at-risk children and their families. These recommendations have been based in part on selected empirical findings from the home visiting literature. However, synthesis of empirical findings has proven difficult, due to the heterogeneity of this population and the diverse applications of home visiting as a service delivery strategy.

The present meta-analysis examined a representative sample of the peer-reviewed literature ...


A Meta-Analytic Review Of Studies Examining The Effects Of Childhood Sexual Abuse In Women, Sheryl A. Dagang May 1995

A Meta-Analytic Review Of Studies Examining The Effects Of Childhood Sexual Abuse In Women, Sheryl A. Dagang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent problem that impacts adult women and the mental health professionals who treat them. Decades of studies have been conducted examining the impact of childhood sexual abuse in order to be better able to treat clients with this history. Yet, few clear guidelines have resulted from these activities.

In order to gain a clearer picture of this research, a meta-analysis was conducted on 41 published studies to describe the nature of the problem, the subjects involved in these studies, the measures used to determine effect, and the impact of eight variables that potentially mediate the ...


Who's More Cruel, Johnny Or Jenny? Sex Differences In Adults' Perceptions Of Cruelty To Animals By Children, Teresa Michelle Thompson May 1995

Who's More Cruel, Johnny Or Jenny? Sex Differences In Adults' Perceptions Of Cruelty To Animals By Children, Teresa Michelle Thompson

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

As a symptom of Conduct Disorder, cruelty to animals (DSM IV, 1994) is often assessed via parental checklists (e.g., Child Behavior Checklist). However, little information exists on the criteria that adults use to make judgments of cruelty.


A Functionalist Approach To Emotions, Julien Guillaumot May 1995

A Functionalist Approach To Emotions, Julien Guillaumot

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

There are at least two ways in which emotions can be conceptualized. The first, and most widespread, one is the cognitive approach which implies the presence of internal processes or psychological mechanisms. The cognitive approach says that emotions are the result of evolutionary processes. The second approach is behaviorological. It states that emotions are learned and are nothing more than behaviorological and physiological events. Both approaches, even if different, have an extremely important effect on our world because they may help make societal decisions and therefore manage our environment in a better way. As we will see, though, authorities do ...


Socio-Cultural Variations In Interactions: A Study Of Children With Disabilities And Their Mothers, Elina O. Alexandrova May 1995

Socio-Cultural Variations In Interactions: A Study Of Children With Disabilities And Their Mothers, Elina O. Alexandrova

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

This investigation compared interaction behaviors of African-American and European-American mothers with children who had or were at medical risk for disabilities as measured by Maternal Behavior Rating Scale (MBRS; Mahoney, 1992). The relationships between these mothers' interaction ratings and three groups of independent variables (mother/family demographic characteristics, measures of family functioning, and child characteristics) were also examined. T-tests were used to examine the differences between the two groups. Significant differences were found on SES variables, particularly income. Samples were restricted to those with incomes of $32,500 or less. Analysis of covariance procedures were performed using race and family ...


The Effects Of Therapist Gender On Group Therapy For Eating-Disordered Clients, Todd A. Soutor May 1995

The Effects Of Therapist Gender On Group Therapy For Eating-Disordered Clients, Todd A. Soutor

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This present study examined the session-by-session content of group therapy for eating-disordered clients. The main objective of this study was to identify how therapist-client gender match affects group therapy process , regarding the disclosure of important issues relevant to eating-disordered clients. It was hypothesized that the group therapy process for eating-disordered clients would be qualitatively different if therapy was facilitated by a female as opposed to a male therapist. The evaluation of the research question required using an alternating treatments single-subject research design, in which the presentation of treatment conditions was counterbalanced across two therapy groups. The treatments consisted of three ...


An Investigation Of The Construct Validity Of The Preschool And Kindergarten Behavior Scales, Clarice E. Jentzsch May 1995

An Investigation Of The Construct Validity Of The Preschool And Kindergarten Behavior Scales, Clarice E. Jentzsch

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A relatively recent measure, the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales (PKBS), has been developed to measure both problem behavior and social competence in young children. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of the PKBS through the application of several validation procedures. Results of the study support construct validity of the PKBS. In a discriminant analysis, the PKBS classified correctly 89.36% of the 94 subjects. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine social-emotional behavior differences between kindergarten students who were divided into different behavioral status groups based on a teacher nomination procedure ...


The Effects Of Critical Thinking Skills Training On Student Performance In An Educational Psychology Class, Eric J. Gee May 1995

The Effects Of Critical Thinking Skills Training On Student Performance In An Educational Psychology Class, Eric J. Gee

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Critical thinking skills have become an important part of current educational practices. However, there is little empirical evidence comparing the effectiveness of the programs teaching these skills. In addition, there are questions as to whether the skills should be taught within the class content or separate from the class content.

This study assigned students attending labs as part of an educational psychology class to two experimental conditions (content-based and content-free) and a control condition. Measures were scores on lab papers and test scores for the class. In addition, an attitude survey was used to assess student attitudes to each condition ...


Gender And Depression: Analysis Of The Effects Of Sex Roles, Sex-Role Self-Discrepancy, And Attributional Style, Scott V. Cutler May 1995

Gender And Depression: Analysis Of The Effects Of Sex Roles, Sex-Role Self-Discrepancy, And Attributional Style, Scott V. Cutler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of attributional style, sex roles, and sex-role self-discrepancy in the relationship between gender and depression. Epidemiological studies report a higher incidence of depression among women then men (approximately 2:1). Among the various theories suggested to explain this gender difference, sex roles, attributional style, and self-discrepancy have been conceived as possible explanations. The relationship between gender and depression may be better understood through examining the possible contribution of these three independent variables.

To examine these theories, a sample of 130 subjects was drawn from clients at the USU Counseling Center ...


Taxonomic Or Thematic : Categorization Of Familiar Objects By Preschool-Aged Children, David Owen Calhoun May 1995

Taxonomic Or Thematic : Categorization Of Familiar Objects By Preschool-Aged Children, David Owen Calhoun

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To acquire language, children must learn how to categorize objects on the basis of the meanings that cultures have assigned to the objects. A series of six experiments tested how preschool-aged children categorize familiar objects. Each experiment used a matching-to-sample format in which children matched pictures of familiar objects (comparisons) to a sample stimulus picture. The sample and one comparison related taxonomically (on the basis of similar features) and the other comparison related thematically (on the basis of function) from which the children were to find another stimulus that was the same as the sample. Each experiment was a systematic ...


Common Dimensions Of Social Skills Of Children And Adolescents: A Review And Analysis Of The Literature, Paul Caldarella May 1995

Common Dimensions Of Social Skills Of Children And Adolescents: A Review And Analysis Of The Literature, Paul Caldarella

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previous research in the area of social skills of children and adolescents has resulted in confusion over the number and name of empirically derived dimensions. While much work has been done to derive empirically based taxonomies of child and adolescent problem behaviors, such is not the case for positive social behaviors. The present study conducted an extensive review, analysis, and synthesis of over two decades of factor analytic research on child and adolescent social skills to derive an empirically based taxonomy.

Results suggest five dimensions that occurred in over one third of the studies: Peer Relations, Self-Management, Academic, Cooperation, and ...


Establishing The Validity Of The College Adjustment Scales (Cas) As Outcome Measures In A University Counseling Center: A Test Of Construct And Convergent Validity, Denise K. Wiswell May 1995

Establishing The Validity Of The College Adjustment Scales (Cas) As Outcome Measures In A University Counseling Center: A Test Of Construct And Convergent Validity, Denise K. Wiswell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The College Adjustment Scales (CAS) are a multidimensional psychological measure designed specifically for use in college and university settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the College Adjustment Scales (CAS) to function as outcome measures in university counseling centers. Study 1 assessed the ability of the CAS to track change following brief therapy using a nonequivalent control group design. Study 2 assessed the convergent validity of the CAS by correlating two of the nine CAS scales with two established measures. The results of a three-factor MANOV A revealed that the CAS were able to track ...