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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

1989

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A Phenomenological Investigation Of Creativity In Person Centered Expressive Therapy, Mukti Khanna Dec 1989

A Phenomenological Investigation Of Creativity In Person Centered Expressive Therapy, Mukti Khanna

Doctoral Dissertations

The field of creative or expressive arts therapies seeks to harness the power for'creative expression to the process of psychotherapy. Although expressive arts therapies are increasingly being used with a variety of populations, including the elderly, the disabled, intergenerational, and cross-cultural groups, a comprehensive theory of expressive arts therapies has yet to emerge. In addition, there is a paucity of research of what works in such therapies. A comprehensive theory of expressive arts therapies, however, can only emerge from the expressive arts themselves, reflecting the uniqueness of the creative process that is at their foundation. Qualitative research focusing on ...


Concurrent Validity Of The Pain Locus Of Control Scale And Its Relationship To Treatment Outcome Variables, Linda Kay Schaefer Dec 1989

Concurrent Validity Of The Pain Locus Of Control Scale And Its Relationship To Treatment Outcome Variables, Linda Kay Schaefer

Student Work

Studies have shown that locus of control orientation is related to emotional and behavioral adjustment to chronic pain. Researchers have begun the process of establishing the validity and reliability of the Pain Locus of Control Scale. This study was conducted to establish the concurrent validity of the PLC Scale at the time of follow-up from pain management treatment, an effort not previously undertaken. In addition, studies suggest that those persons with an Internal locus of control orientation demonstrate more favorable treatment outcomes, as compared to a Powerful others or Chance locus of control. This research examined the relationship between treatment ...


Conversational Repair Strategies Of Preschool Children During Naturalistic Interactions, Richard J. Stott Dec 1989

Conversational Repair Strategies Of Preschool Children During Naturalistic Interactions, Richard J. Stott

Theses and Dissertations

Within the area of pragmatics, the subject of children's repair strategies has been an issue of considerable research for many years. Most of this research has not addressed verbal and nonverbal repair strategy behaviors particularly among preschool children enrolled in an integrated preschool program. The purpose of the present study was to describe how preschool children enrolled in an integrated preschool program request clarification in naturalistic situations and how they use conversational repair strategies following a stacked sequence of requests for clarification by adults.

Naturalistic inquiry was used to establish an inventory of strategies used by handicapped and non-handicapped ...


The Interactive Effects Of Caffeine And Estrogen On Memory For Word Lists, Mary Ellen Arnold Dec 1989

The Interactive Effects Of Caffeine And Estrogen On Memory For Word Lists, Mary Ellen Arnold

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the effects of caffeine on word list recall. Erikson et al. (1985) found that caffeine impaired recall among females when words were presented at a slow rate. Arnold et al. (1988) observed a facilitory effect of caffeine on the recall, after practice, of females tested during Days 1-5 of the menstrual cycle. Research on cognitive task performance among females suggests that performance varies according to the phase of menstrual cycle. Medical research demonstrates a relationship between estrogen and caffeine metabolism. In this study, it was hypothesized that females' recall of word lists would ...


Influence Of Feedback Specificity And Simultaneous Goals On Task Performance, David W. Furst Dec 1989

Influence Of Feedback Specificity And Simultaneous Goals On Task Performance, David W. Furst

Student Work

A laboratory experiment was conducted examining the influence of feedback specificity and simultaneous quantity and quality goals on the performance of an assembly task including the effect of feedback specificity on perceptual and behavioral measures of intrinsic motivation. The hypotheses were framed in terms of a traditional goal setting model and a control systems-goal conflict model. Neither model was supported for the quantity performance measure in that varying the specificity of quantity of performance feedback did not result in differential quantity of performance. The traditional goal setting model was supported based on results from the quality performance measure . These results ...


A Morphological Study Of Paracrine Interactions In The Anterior Pituitary Of Lactating Rats Using Immunogold Techniques, Maria K. Statton Dec 1989

A Morphological Study Of Paracrine Interactions In The Anterior Pituitary Of Lactating Rats Using Immunogold Techniques, Maria K. Statton

Theses and Dissertations

One major function of prolactin in the female is the stimulation of mammary gland development for lactation. It is well established in the rat that during periods of lactation, when serum prolactin levels are high, there is a suppression of the serum luteinizing hormone level. Prolactin has also been shown to inhibit the postcastration rise in serum luteinizing hormone in rats. Work addressing the question of site and mechanism of action of the inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by prolactin has focused on the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and the relationship between the different cell types in the ...


Exiles From Spain's Civil War: Case Studies Of Two Literary Figures, Olga Colbert Dec 1989

Exiles From Spain's Civil War: Case Studies Of Two Literary Figures, Olga Colbert

Theses and Dissertations

The Spanish civil war and the political regime that resulted from it deprived Spain of the presence and immediate inspiration of a large group of remarkably creative individuals. Some of the best minds of a literary generation left their country to protest the political situation and to continue to be true to their inner voices. Besides numerous personal and professional adjustments, hese people were faced with a tremendous sense of uprooting hat inevitably accompanies the experience of exile.

Only a minority among those exiles settled in the nited States, due to isolationist policies and to stringent minigration legislation. Those who ...


The Effects Of Alcohol On Semantic Memory, Norman A. Kerbel Dec 1989

The Effects Of Alcohol On Semantic Memory, Norman A. Kerbel

Theses and Dissertations

Previous studies have shown that the effects of alcoholic intoxication on memory result from a functional decrease in capacity of working memory (e.g., Petros, Kerbel, Beckwith, Sacks, & Sarafolean, 1985). However, other studies looking at speeds of retrieval of information from long-term memory have brought this conclusion into doubt (Moskowitz & Roth, 1971). The present study presented subjects with decisions to be made regarding word pairs. Three conditions were used, each requiring different amounts of information to be accessed from long-term memory.

Sixty-six male college students, between the ages of 21 and 29 years, were divided into two groups. One group ...


Patterns Of Nutrient Acquisition In Canvasbacks During Spring Migration, Jeb A. Barzen Dec 1989

Patterns Of Nutrient Acquisition In Canvasbacks During Spring Migration, Jeb A. Barzen

Theses and Dissertations

Wetlands used by nesting birds have traditionally been considered the only habitats able to influence natality rates. I examined the potential for body reserves (fat, protein, and calcium) acquired on spring staging areas to be used for reproduction. My objectives were to: 1) describe changes in body reserves during spring, 2) examine alternative uses for body reserves in spring migrants, and 3) identify where reserves are acquired.

EXxring spring of 1984 and 198? I collected 151 canvasbacks fAvthva valisineria) at 3 staging areas: Navigation Pool 19 of the Mississippi River; Navigation Pools 7, 8, and 9 of the Mississippi River ...


Esther's Narrative In Bleak House, Jennifer Willa Tonn Sternhagen Dec 1989

Esther's Narrative In Bleak House, Jennifer Willa Tonn Sternhagen

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores the complexity of Dickens's involvement with his narrative and characters, specifically Esther Summerson in the novel Bleak House. The introduction examines his habit of interrupting the speech of his characters with direct authorial comments in order that he not give up his story entirely to a character, even in an extended first-person narration. It is noted that this is true even of characters who are autobiographical, like Pip or David Copperfield. Here my references are to the work of Susan R. Horton (The Reader in the Dickens World) and Mark Lambert (Dickens and the Suspended Quotation ...


Factors Perceived By Legislators, School Board Presidents, And Superintendents That May Inhibit Or Promote School District Consolidation Considerations In South Dakota, Sherlock V. Hirning Dec 1989

Factors Perceived By Legislators, School Board Presidents, And Superintendents That May Inhibit Or Promote School District Consolidation Considerations In South Dakota, Sherlock V. Hirning

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether various factors may be identified as having either inhibiting or promoting influence on school consolidation considerations in South Dakota public school districts. In addition, the study sought to identify clusters of factors by direction, intensity, and nature as perceived by the three groups surveyed.

The survey population included superintendents and school board presidents from eighty-five school districts with reported high school enrollments, in grades 9-12, of 100 or fewer students, and the entire 105-member legislative body of South Dakota. A self-designed survey instrument consisting of four separate sections--(I) assumptions, (II ...


The Integration Of Metabolic Measurement And The Behavioral Management Of Nutrition And Exercise For Treating Obesity, Cheryl Rae Maphies Dec 1989

The Integration Of Metabolic Measurement And The Behavioral Management Of Nutrition And Exercise For Treating Obesity, Cheryl Rae Maphies

Dissertations

Four female subjects participated in an eight-week, behavioral weight control treatment program that emphasized changing the behavior of food choice and aerobic exercise. This study also tested the hypothesis that by utilizing measurements of an individual's resting metabolic rate to determine caloric level, an individual could lose weight without a disproportional drop in metabolic rate. During the initial eight weeks, subjects' resting metabolic rates were determined through the measure of oxygen consumption. Caloric intakes were based on a reduction of 500-1000 calories per day from the estimated number of calories expended daily. Using a multiple-baseline design, the effects of ...


The Psychological Typologies And Learning Styles Of Security Managers In A Large Industrial Organization, Michael John Witkowski Dec 1989

The Psychological Typologies And Learning Styles Of Security Managers In A Large Industrial Organization, Michael John Witkowski

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological typologies and learning styles of a population of security managers. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Learning Style Inventory 1985 (LSI 1985) were used with a population of 125 security managers. The return rate was 73% (N = 91).

Four research questions were investigated concerning: (a) psychological types of the population of security managers as measured by the MBTI, (b) the learning styles of the population as reported on the LSI 1985 and MBTI, (c) how the security management population compared with related occupations (e.g., police managers) after MBTI ...


Comparison Of Traditional And Computer-Assisted Administrations Of The Ppvt-R With Trainably Mentally Impaired Students, Wanda Balla Dec 1989

Comparison Of Traditional And Computer-Assisted Administrations Of The Ppvt-R With Trainably Mentally Impaired Students, Wanda Balla

Master's Theses

A group of 20 trainably mentally impaired students, ages 6-24, was randomly assigned to two groups, one of which received the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (Dunn & Dunn, 1981), manual administration, and the other a computer-assisted version, which required a switch closing response. Two weeks later, the order of administration was reversed. The results showed a difference of - 1.73 points in the manual to computer administration, and a -3 point difference from computer to manual administration. Overall difference between both administrations was -2.36 points, favoring the manual administration. Recommendations include systematic evaluation and/or training of TMI or lower- ...


Proxemic Behavior Of The Nonhandicapped Toward The Visually Impaired, Carol J. Olsen Nov 1989

Proxemic Behavior Of The Nonhandicapped Toward The Visually Impaired, Carol J. Olsen

Student Work

This study investigated spatial behavior of nonhandicapped individuals toward physically handicapped individuals. Initial seating distance was measured between a visually impaired experimenter and nonhandicapped subjects. Subjects were from the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Students completed a survey and then, one at a time, went to an adjacent room to answer some follow-up questions posed by a visually impaired confederate. Distances were measured and compared to other studies measuring handicapped/ nonhandicapped interactions. Previous research showed significant differences in distance between handicapped/ nonhandicapped interactions and nonhandicapped/nonhandicapped interactions. Greater distances were chosen when interacting with a physically handicapped individual than with ...


The Predictive Value Of Mmpi Personality Style In Obesity Therapy, Jeffrey J. Harvey Sep 1989

The Predictive Value Of Mmpi Personality Style In Obesity Therapy, Jeffrey J. Harvey

Student Work

The present study assessed whether psychopathology influences obese subject’s ability to lose weight. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was used to differentiate between 46 pathological and 52 nonpathological subjects. A repeated measures analysis of variance did not support the hypothesis that the degree of weight loss is negatively associated with the amount of psychopathology measured by the MMPI. In addition, an analysis of covariance was conducted in an attempt to control for possible confounding factors at the start of treatment and also failed to support the hypothesis.


Myers-Briggs Type Indicator : Consistency As A Result Of Genuine And Discrepant Personality Type Feedback, Stephanie Ann Falk Aug 1989

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator : Consistency As A Result Of Genuine And Discrepant Personality Type Feedback, Stephanie Ann Falk

Master's Theses

Because of the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1988), psychological practitioners, consultants and researchers need to address implications of personality type feedbeck for clients, employees, and research subjects. This study investigated consistency of the MBTI as a result of genuine and discrepant personality type feedback. True and false feedback was expected to influence subjects in the directton of feedback given. Subjects were selected based on their Sensing-Intuitive (S-N) preference scores. Each of the forty subjects was given either true personality type feedback (TFG) or false personality type feedback (FFG), and then retested. Results showed that the ...


Facial And Pictorial Recognition As A Function Of Massed Versus Distributed Presentation And Imaging Instructions, John Allyn Cayard Aug 1989

Facial And Pictorial Recognition As A Function Of Massed Versus Distributed Presentation And Imaging Instructions, John Allyn Cayard

Master's Theses

Beneficial effects of distributed practice and rehearsal on recognition has been demonstrated in numerous memory studies for verbal stimuli and manual skills. However, no research has been reported using non-verbal, pictorial stimuli. In addition, few studies have examined the effects of pictorial rehearsal. The present research examines the effects of massed versus distributed practice and post-exposure imaging on pictorial memory. The first and third experiments used faces while the second used plant stimuli. In general, the results showed beneficial effects for post-presentation imaging. Presentation mode produced complex effects, but generally supported the superiority of distributed presentation. The results of Experiment ...


The Effects Of Feedback Referent And Content Upon Self-Determination, Rated Task Interest, And Intrinsic Motivation, Kerry L. Sheehan Aug 1989

The Effects Of Feedback Referent And Content Upon Self-Determination, Rated Task Interest, And Intrinsic Motivation, Kerry L. Sheehan

Student Work

This study was an attempt to determine if verbal feedback could be used to convey information about feedback referent and feedback content to individuals in an experimental setting, and if so, if that information would influence their perceptions of perceived task competence, self-determination, task-interest, and intrinsic motivation. Eighty subjects were used from psychology classes. The majority were college freshmen or sophomores. Results showed that subjects did attend to the feedback referent, but that the referent had no subsequent influence on any of the dependent variables. Additionally, the feedback content manipulation did not produce the predicted effects upon the dependent variables ...


Use Of Visual Phonics In The Remediation Of Children's Phonological Disorders, Diane E. Dacquay Aug 1989

Use Of Visual Phonics In The Remediation Of Children's Phonological Disorders, Diane E. Dacquay

Theses and Dissertations

Investigations within the field of child phonology- have been concerned with the acquisition of a phonemic repertoire as well as the developmental rules for combining phonemes sequentially. Children acquire the adult phonological system by simplifing their productions through the application of phonological processes. Speech-language pathologists target phonological processes for remediation when they are atypical of children's developmental stage or when the processes are unusual in form.

A recently developed hand symbol system called Visual Phonics (1985) may enhance the remediation of phonological processes. Support for this proposition comes from studies which have incorporated, with some success, the use of ...


Principal Transfer In Urban Manitoba School Divisions: Superintendent And Principal Perceptions Of The Transfer Process And Its Intended And Actual Succession Effects, Brian David Boese Aug 1989

Principal Transfer In Urban Manitoba School Divisions: Superintendent And Principal Perceptions Of The Transfer Process And Its Intended And Actual Succession Effects, Brian David Boese

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived value of principal transfer by examining and describing superintendent and principal perceptions of school division transfer processes and of anticipated and actual succession effects. Five superintendents and ten principals--the superintendent, one elementary principal, and one secondary principal from each of five of the ten metropolitan school divisions located in Winnipeg, Manitoba--were interviewed by the researcher. The superintendents described one of two general types of transfer used in moving principals--a long-term career/organizational development process and a short-term vacancy chain process. The principals reacted to these descriptions and gave their perceptions ...


The Michif Technique: Code-Switch Cue, Carol Starzer Wildeman Aug 1989

The Michif Technique: Code-Switch Cue, Carol Starzer Wildeman

Theses and Dissertations

The Michif technique is a method of language modification which encourages code-switching by introducing a third language as a cue. The method targets syntax modification and does not apply to phonetic modification.

The technique derives its name from the Michif Language which is the cue language used in the study. The learning of Michif is not a long-range goal of this study, but rather through the use of Michif code-switching Ccin be fun and nonthreatening.

The Michif technique follows the bidialect real view which encourages the use of code-switching in formal environments and the use of the vernacular while in ...


The Writing Processes Of Theodore Taylor And Jane Yolen, Jean Myers Stevenson Aug 1989

The Writing Processes Of Theodore Taylor And Jane Yolen, Jean Myers Stevenson

Theses and Dissertations

This study is a description of the writing processes of two professional writers for children and young adults, Theodore Taylor and Jane Yolen. Theories concerning the writing process and implications for classroom use, as expressed by Cowley, Smith, Murray, Flower and Hayes, Graves, and Calkins, are the basis for an examination of the working papers for Taylor's The Cay and Rocket Island and Yolen's The Bird of Time and The Sultan's Perfect Tree which have been donated to the Kerlan Collection at the University of Minnesota.

The working papers include notes, drafts, revisions, galley and foundry proofs ...


Application Of Library Least-Squares Analysis To Human Whole-Body Counter Spectra Derived From Low Level Gamma Emissions, Hang-See Ong Aug 1989

Application Of Library Least-Squares Analysis To Human Whole-Body Counter Spectra Derived From Low Level Gamma Emissions, Hang-See Ong

Theses and Dissertations

The method of library least-square analysis (LLSA) has been applied to gamma ray spectra obtained from the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center whole body counter. The validity of the method was tested under various conditions. Mathematical formulation of the method is presented along with a detailed description of the computer program algorithm used. Special features, schemes and pitfalls of the computer program (or the method as a whole) are discussed in detail


The Effects Of Monthly Expenses On Worker Choice Of The Percent Age Of Incentive Pay To Expected Total Pay: A Simulation, Shezeen Oah Aug 1989

The Effects Of Monthly Expenses On Worker Choice Of The Percent Age Of Incentive Pay To Expected Total Pay: A Simulation, Shezeen Oah

Master's Theses

Because studies that examine factors that affect worker preference for different pay systems are difficult to conduct in the workplace, the feasibility of using a laboratory simulation was assessed. The dependent variable was subject choice of the percentage of incentive pay to total pay. The independent variable was the percentage of monthly expenses to monthly income. The higher the incentive percentage the greater the potential earnings, but the greater the variability of pay and the probability that subjects would be unable to pay expenses. Work performance was simulated by the roll of a die. Thirty college students worked in groups ...


A Comparison Of Selected Old And New Right Wing Groups: Involvement With Law Enforcement, Elvin W. Keith Iii Aug 1989

A Comparison Of Selected Old And New Right Wing Groups: Involvement With Law Enforcement, Elvin W. Keith Iii

Master's Theses

This study has determined that current right wing extremist groups in the U.S. have no greater propensity for damage to the national security than older right wing groups.

Although right wing groups are dangerous due to the popularity of conservative causes and the proliferation of modern weaponry, an examination reveals that dedication and increased military capability are offset by more efficient law enforcement response and lack of support by the general populace.

A careful examination of the American right wing, both old and new shows the disparity between the two groups. Emphasis is placed on exploring the old right ...


Compliance With Universal Precautions By Health Care Workers In A Rural Community Emergency Room, Jane E. Devries Aug 1989

Compliance With Universal Precautions By Health Care Workers In A Rural Community Emergency Room, Jane E. Devries

Master's Theses

Performance feedback has been used in various organizations to correct problems in the areas of safety, customer service, absenteeism, and tardiness. The present research examined the effects of performance feedback to increase compliance with universal precautions in an emergency room department. Four subjects (Registered Nurses) were observed for glove wearing in any of six different situations common to the emergency room. These included cleaning instruments, cleaning a laceration, giving an injection, phlebotomy, inserting an intravenous catheter, and obtaining and/or transporting specimens other than blood. A multiple baseline experimental design was employed in this study. Results indicated that performance feedback ...


Temporal Discrimination Training Of Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury Using Computer-Based Operant Procedures, Robert Edward Obrecht Aug 1989

Temporal Discrimination Training Of Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury Using Computer-Based Operant Procedures, Robert Edward Obrecht

Master's Theses

Computer-based interresponse time (IRT) and matching-to-sample (MTS) procedures were employed in two experiments to assess and effect changes in temporal discriminations made by adults with a history of traumatic brain injury. The results of Experiment One support the interpretation that maintaining correct IRT > t performance was a function of stimulus conditions that included signalled IRTs, values of t less than 3-seconds, a contract agreement to maintain performance, and other contingencies not explicitly part of the design. The results of Experiment Two, that minimal response latencies on MTS tasks are mediated equally well by an experimenter's verbal prompting as well ...


Effects Of Recent Parental Divorce, Parental Conflict, And Social Support On The Social And Emotional Adjustment Of College Students, Suzanne Autumn Bhatt Jul 1989

Effects Of Recent Parental Divorce, Parental Conflict, And Social Support On The Social And Emotional Adjustment Of College Students, Suzanne Autumn Bhatt

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Construct Validity And Development Of Local Norms In The Assessment Of Adhd., Rose Ternes Hunter Jul 1989

Construct Validity And Development Of Local Norms In The Assessment Of Adhd., Rose Ternes Hunter

Student Work

A pilot study was performed to determine the validity of on-task behavior and locally developed attention tasks# to assist in the identification of children with ADHD. Subjects were third grade students in the Hampton City Public Schools. Means and standard deviations were computed for time-on-task as well as number correct and number committed for each of five separate attention tasks. A correlation analysis was performed to compare results of attention tasks with each other as well as with the Abbreviated Conners Teacher's Scale (ACTS), a Hyperactivity Index, and IQ. Results were in the expected direction, although correlations with ACTS ...