Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

Theses and Dissertations

Articles 1 - 30 of 2412

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Mindfulness And Blood Pressure Across Demographics: Analyses From The Serenity Study, Gabrielle R. Chin Aug 2019

Mindfulness And Blood Pressure Across Demographics: Analyses From The Serenity Study, Gabrielle R. Chin

Theses and Dissertations

Mindfulness, as a state, trait, and training, is linked with myriad positive mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding the individual characteristics potentially influencing links between mindful traits, mindfulness training, and physical health, is therefore important, yet remains under-addressed. Utilizing data from the ongoing Serenity Study (NCT02371317), the current project examines if (1) at baseline, higher trait mindfulness relates to lower BP consistently as a function of demographics, (2) Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training lowers BP consistently across demographic subgroups and initial levels of trait mindfulness, and (3) if change in trait mindfulness following MBSR training correlates with change in BP ...


"I Like . . . Red Bone:" Colorism, Rappers, And Black College Sorority Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Whitney Frierson Aug 2019

"I Like . . . Red Bone:" Colorism, Rappers, And Black College Sorority Women At A Predominantly White Institution, Whitney Frierson

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, I examine black college sorority women’s views about skin tone bias in hip-hop culture. I conduct interviews with 12 black undergraduate women in Black Greek Letter Sororities at a predominantly white institution. Prior research finds that rap music sends skin color messages to adolescent women through lyrical content and music videos. I build on this work by exploring how the experiences of being in college shape black college sorority women’s views on skin tone bias and hip-hop. I find that time in college has been an important life stage in which black sorority women gained ...


The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland Aug 2019

The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how the anxiety levels of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy are affected while holding hands with a secure attachment. This study utilized three experimental single-case designs: participant one measured under a B-design, participant two measured under a B-A design, and participant three measured under an A-B design. Each participant’s anxiety was assessed during six chemotherapy treatments and one meeting with their primary oncologist to discuss the prognosis of their cancerous disease. Results visually indicate a greater effect on anxiety reduction during treatment when the intervention is utilized compared to only ...


Tattoo Narratives And Counseling, Danny Lane Mccarty Aug 2019

Tattoo Narratives And Counseling, Danny Lane Mccarty

Theses and Dissertations

Much research has been done on tattoos and on those who acquire them, but most of the research has focused on negative correlations that might exist with people who have tattoos. This current research, however, showed that people’s tattoo narratives can relate to how they view self, others, and the world, and to how they approach life. A narrative approach to qualitative research was used, and ten people participated in the study. Participants’ views of self, others, and the world were discussed as these views emerged from the narratives. Their possible approaches to life were also addressed. Themes that ...


Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race Aug 2019

Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race

Theses and Dissertations

Confidence can be a strong predictor of accuracy if circumstances are ideal (Wixted & Wells, 2017), but ideal circumstances are not always present. As such it is important to understand ways to ameliorate potentially negative effects on eyewitness metacognition. Rapport building, though seen as an important element of police/witness interaction (Vallano et al., 2015), can lead to some potentially negative memory effects (Wright et al., 2015). Additionally steering, or the process of directing a witness toward a particular suspect, can increase false identifications. Recently the researcher has developed a paradigm meant to better calibrate confidence by reinstating the context of ...


The Impact Of Mother And Adolescent Offspring Distress Reduction Training On Maternal Anxiety And Alcohol Related Behaviors Following Conflict, Sarah Ann Bilsky Aug 2019

The Impact Of Mother And Adolescent Offspring Distress Reduction Training On Maternal Anxiety And Alcohol Related Behaviors Following Conflict, Sarah Ann Bilsky

Theses and Dissertations

Nearly half of people suffering from psychopathology meet criteria for more than one disorder. Scholars have focused on understanding factors that may simultaneously maintain multiple psychiatric problems. Elevated distress during interpersonal conflict is likely to maintain both alcohol use and anxiety psychopathology. Reducing distress elicited by normative mother-adolescent conflict holds particular promise. Conflict is common in families with problematic drinking and anxiety disorders and the affective impact of parent-offspring conflict is malleable. Distress reduction skills, such as cognitive reappraisal, are effective in reducing distress during conflict. The current study examined the unique and combined effects of training mothers and adolescents ...


Need Fulfillment And Happiness In Botswana, Carolyn Moe Jul 2019

Need Fulfillment And Happiness In Botswana, Carolyn Moe

Theses and Dissertations

Happiness has been an important aspect of people’s lives spanning centuries and continents; as such, it is a widely researched area. A current prominent theory in happiness research is Needs Theory which has the premise that there are universal human needs and having these needs met would lead to a person’s happiness. Most often, the needs referenced are those presented by Abraham Maslow including needs of physiology, safety and security, love and belonging, esteem, knowing and understanding, aesthetics, self-actualization and transcendence. However, some studies have found that there are individuals who do not fit this theory either through ...


Reassessing The Confluence Model Of Men's Risk Of Sexual Aggression, Ebru Yucel Jul 2019

Reassessing The Confluence Model Of Men's Risk Of Sexual Aggression, Ebru Yucel

Theses and Dissertations

The confluence model of sexual aggression has been a gold standard for identifying men's risk of sexual aggression. However, many replications and iterations of the model have continued to produce similar results with slight improvement. This consistent occurrence may be due to changes in the dating landscape that have occurred since the synthesis of the confluence model. In addition, these replications and iterations of the confluence model have utilized different ways of measuring one of the core constructs of the confluence model: impersonal sex. This study had two aims: (1) identify the best method of measuring impersonal sex, and ...


Suicide Literacy And Laypersons’ Ability To Accurately Recognize Suicide Warning Signs And Risk Factors, Salman Ibrahim Jul 2019

Suicide Literacy And Laypersons’ Ability To Accurately Recognize Suicide Warning Signs And Risk Factors, Salman Ibrahim

Theses and Dissertations

Suicide is considered a public health crisis in the United States due to the large number of individuals attempting and completing suicide each year. Oftentimes, the first line of defense or “gatekeepers” against suicide is non-mental health professionals. The body of literature on suicide risk assessment has not explored the efficacy of non-mental health professionals’ ability to accurately recognize various levels of suicide risk. This study focused on examining whether non-mental health professionals ability to accurately recognize suicide risk in others is influenced by their level of suicide literacy (knowledge regarding the various aspects of suicide). This study also examined ...


Assessing The Functions Of Prescription Stimulant Abuse Among College Students, Matthew J. Dwyer Jul 2019

Assessing The Functions Of Prescription Stimulant Abuse Among College Students, Matthew J. Dwyer

Theses and Dissertations

Non-medical prescription stimulant use (NMPSU), such as using medications like Ritalin, Adderall, and Concerta without a prescription or at a higher dosage than prescribed, is a rising trend in American adults. Use is most prevalent among college age adults (18-25 years old). Survey research among experienced users has identified several reasons college students are engaging in NMPSU, including enhancement of cognitive, athletic, and social performance, but less is known about how the relative reinforcing value differs based on the reasons of use. Behavioral economic drug purchase tasks have been used to capture reinforcer strength and motivation related to use of ...


Schizotypy As A Predictor For Social Media Use And Internet Addiction Behaviors In Emerging Adults, Devin Massaro Jun 2019

Schizotypy As A Predictor For Social Media Use And Internet Addiction Behaviors In Emerging Adults, Devin Massaro

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the unique domains/symptom clusters within schizotypy as they relate to Facebook use and internet addiction behaviors, while controlling for co-morbid disorders such as depression and anxiety. Using an online survey, this study measured electronic media use, internet addiction behavior, and schizotypy in 270 undergraduate students (aged 18-30). We expected mood symptoms of anxiety and depression to predict both internet addiction and Facebook use in this sample, and controlled for these variables accordingly. We hypothesized that schizotypy would contribute significantly to the prediction of internet addiction and Facebook use above and beyond anxiety, depression, and demographic variables ...


Examining Early Maladaptive Schemas, Depression, And Health Behaviors, Juliana D'Onofrio Jun 2019

Examining Early Maladaptive Schemas, Depression, And Health Behaviors, Juliana D'Onofrio

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic disease continues to predominate the leading causes of death and account for the majority of healthcare expenditures in the United States. Researchers have identified that engagement in negative health behaviors, such as eating a poor diet, physical inactivity, risky sexual activity, nicotine and illicit drug use, and excessive alcohol consumption is a key risk factor for developing chronic disease later in life. In order to help motivate individuals to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, understanding why an individual might engage in negative health behaviors is warranted. Young's schema theory is a social cognitive theory that explores early maladaptive ...


Self-Affirmation Theory And The Change Of Perception Of Self And Threats, Isaac Wicker Jun 2019

Self-Affirmation Theory And The Change Of Perception Of Self And Threats, Isaac Wicker

Theses and Dissertations

In today’s American culture, people experience high rates of distress and depression (Kessler et al., 2005). Self-affirmation theory has been shown to help people reduce stress and defensiveness in the face of a wide variety of stressors. A shortcoming of self-affirmation exercises is that there are barriers to using them in naturalistic settings. One such barrier is that the affirmation content needs to be regulated so that it is not closely related to the salient stressor or else the effects of the affirmation could be counteracted. The current study sought to use a prompt-guided value selection for the self-affirmation ...


Teachers' Perceptions Of English Learners: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach, Cyndy Alvarez Jun 2019

Teachers' Perceptions Of English Learners: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach, Cyndy Alvarez

Theses and Dissertations

With an influx in immigration across the United States our educational policies have needed to change to meet the instructional needs of our students, especially our English Learners (Koyama, 2004; Mantero & McVicker, 2006). Historically, these educational language policies were an outcome of court cases that highlighted discrimination and racist practices against our English Learners. These cases, such as the Chicano civil rights movements or East L.A. “walkouts” in 1968, Lau v. Nichols (1974), Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools (1974), Rios v. Read (1978), and U.S. v. Texas (1981), Plyver v. Doe (1982), Castaneda v. Pickard (1981), have resulted in policies that provide English Learners access to instruction and support in developing bilingualism. Despite all these language policies that advocate for English Learners’ access to education, there have also been anti-bilingualism sentiments or “English-only” policies. These “English-only” policies are a reflection of individuals in our society being anti-English Learners.

The rise in culturally and linguistically diverse student population is made up of approximately 4 million of English Learners, with majority of students coming in with Spanish as their native language. Despite the changes in our student population becoming more culturally and linguistically diverse our teacher demographics continue to remain very homogenous encompassing of a majority White-middle class females. These differences between student and teachers have lead to cultural and language mismatches that make teachers vulnerable to stereotypes about students. Previous studies have found that teachers hold misperceptions, stereotypes, myths, deficit-based perceptions, or majoritarian rules (Estrada, Gómez, & Ruiz-Escalante, 2009; Fránquiz, Salazar, & DeNicolo, 2011; Gonzalez & Ayala-Alcantar, 2008; Harper & de Jong, 2004; Kolano & King, 2015; Mantero & McVicker, 2006; Marx, 2002/2009; Ortiz, 2011). These perceptions have been noted to impact teacher practices and instructional approaches, such as using a pedagogy of poverty (Diaz, Whitacre, Esquierdo, & Ruiz-Escalante, 2013; Ghaouar, 2015; Harper & de Jong, 2004). Research has suggested that teachers perceptions influence students academic performance and achievement (Diaz, Whitacre, Esquiero, & Ruiz-Escalante, 2013; Glock & Kovacs, 2013; Lumdsen, 1997; Mantero & McVicker, 2006; Richardson, 1996).

Considering the strong implications teachers perceptions have upon student performance, this study sought to gather a comprehensive understanding of teachers’ perceptions of English Learners. A comprehensive literature ...


The Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment Style, Rejection, And Risk Recognition, Jordan E. Marshall Jun 2019

The Relationship Between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment Style, Rejection, And Risk Recognition, Jordan E. Marshall

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to better understand the relationship between experiencing childhood sexual abuse, attachment, rejection, and risk recognition (risk appraisal and risk response). Participants consisted of 223 undergraduate women attending Illinois State University. A history of childhood abuse was reported by 37.7% of the participants. Participants completed a demographics questionnaire, the Hot Topics Survey, the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, and the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, Adult version (A-RSQ). Participants were under the impression that information was being gathered for an online dating application algorithm and were randomly assigned to either a rejection condition or a ...


Influence Of Authority And Message Framing On Compliance With Mental Health Treatment Recommendations, Morgan A. Ess May 2019

Influence Of Authority And Message Framing On Compliance With Mental Health Treatment Recommendations, Morgan A. Ess

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of source authority and message framing on compliance with mental health treatment recommendations. The current study used measures of attitudes and intentions to seek psychological help as well as the likelihood that an individual will request initial counseling information as proxies for observing help-seeking behavior. A pretest and posttest experimental design was implemented. Participants were 273 students at Illinois State University. At pretest, participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Kessler K6+, the Mental Help Seeking Attitudes Scale (MHSAS), the Mental Help Seeking Intentions Scale (MHSIS), and indicated engagement in past ...


Childhood Sexual Abuse, Personality, And Risk Recognition, Emily M. Harms May 2019

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Personality, And Risk Recognition, Emily M. Harms

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and personality in predicting risk recognition among college-aged women. Participants included 223 female undergraduate students at Illinois State University. Students were presented the opportunity to receive extra credit for participating in the study. Participants completed a demographics questionnaire, the Big Five Inventory, and the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 – Brief Form. Participants then read through a risk recognition vignette that was divided into 13 scenes and were asked to indicate when they were no longer comfortable in the situation and when they would leave the ...


The Association Between Attachment And Conflict Resolution During Friendship Conflict Among College Students, Alison Hamlet May 2019

The Association Between Attachment And Conflict Resolution During Friendship Conflict Among College Students, Alison Hamlet

Theses and Dissertations

This study is about college students' attachment to friends and how conflict resolution is related to the level of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Studies have found low attachment anxiety and low attachment avoidance to be related to effective coping strategies and to the compromising conflict resolution style. Many studies have focused on how participants generally resolve conflict. The current study is focused on how participants have actually resolved conflict and how they believe they would resolve conflict in a hypothetical situation. Participants answered if they could think of a conflict with a friend in the past 6 months and ...


The Differential Effects Of An Interspersing Procedure Among Students At Different Instructional Levels, Samantha Dehaan Sullivan May 2019

The Differential Effects Of An Interspersing Procedure Among Students At Different Instructional Levels, Samantha Dehaan Sullivan

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports the results of a research project that examined the effects of varying rates of reinforcement on students’ math performance and assignment preference. The relationship between students’ instructional level and the rate of reinforcement threshold for influencing assignment preference was also explored. Participants were fourth and fifth grade elementary students who were receiving remedial math services through the school’s Response to Intervention program.

Twenty elementary students (12 females, 8 males) completed all parts of the study and were included in the analyses. All participants completed a series of control-experimental assignment pairs with varying rates of interspersing at ...


Joint Attention And Imitation: How Early Social Skills Relate To Language, Social Behavior, And Overall Responsiveness To Early Intervention In Children With Autism, Claire E. Karlen May 2019

Joint Attention And Imitation: How Early Social Skills Relate To Language, Social Behavior, And Overall Responsiveness To Early Intervention In Children With Autism, Claire E. Karlen

Theses and Dissertations

Joint attention, the ability to coordinate one’s attention with that of another person (Dawson et al., 2004), and imitation, the ability to copy another person’s behavior (Sevlever & Gillis, 2010), are two of the initial methods by which children learn from and interact with the world around them (Trevarthan, 1979). These two skills are related to the development of language, social skills, and play. Further, they seem to come naturally in typically developing children. For children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, these skills are often delayed or entirely absent, thereby potentially leading to significant impediments in the acquisition of crucial functional skills (Dawson et al., 2004). Social orienting theory posits that children with ASD exhibit such deficits in joint attention and imitation because of their lack of attention to social stimuli and, as a result, the decreased attempts by others in their environment to engage them (Dawson et al., 2004).

Current estimates report that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) averages one in every sixty-eight children (CDC, 2014). For children with ASD, research has repeatedly emphasized the importance of both early identification and early intervention (Koegel, Koegel, Ashbaugh, & Bradshaw, 2014; National Research Council, 2001). One early intervention model that is based on social orienting theory is the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), which considers dyadic interactions between the therapist and the child as a prime avenue for learning not only basic social skills such as joint attention and imitation but also more complex social skills, language, and play (Rogers & Dawson, 2010).

Data from 23 children participating in an ESDM program were examined in the current study; specifically, the researcher assessed whether children demonstrated significant skill growth over the ...


Examination Of Student-Athletes' Developmental Transition From Youth Sport To College Sport, Coleman Childers May 2019

Examination Of Student-Athletes' Developmental Transition From Youth Sport To College Sport, Coleman Childers

Theses and Dissertations

The majority of research in developmental sport psychology has targeted the youth and adolescent age groups (aged five to 18) and has tended to avoid athletes in organized and highly competitive environment such as major college athletics. The transition from high school to college brings many challenges. Academically and socially, students encounter increased course rigor, decreased in-class time, and adjustment to new social groups. Additionally, student-athletes encounter scrutiny from the public, extensive time commitments, changing social dynamics, and physical and mental demands as they combine athletic and academic pursuits. This on-going study explores student-athletes’ perspectives of the developmental transition from ...


Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson May 2019

Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson

Theses and Dissertations

The term “ambient images” has begun to show up in much of the current literature on facial recognition. Ambient images refer to naturally occurring views of a face that captures the idiosyncratic ways in which a target face may vary (Ritchie & Burton, 2017). Much of the literature on ambient images have concluded that exposing people to ambient images of a target face can lead to improved facial recognition for that target face. Some studies have even suggested that familiarity is the result of increased exposure to ambient images of a target face (Burton, Kramer, Ritchie, & Jenkins, 2016). The current study ...


Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Enhanced Mentoring For Delinquency Prevention, Allison Smith May 2019

Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Enhanced Mentoring For Delinquency Prevention, Allison Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Youth with certain risk factors (e.g., from a minority group, low-income status, previous contact with the juvenile justice system) are particularly at risk for juvenile delinquency and associated problems (e.g., school failure, mental health problems). In addition, these problems are quite costly to youth, their families, and society as a whole. Mentoring programs have shown modest, but consistent, effects in the prevention and reduction of juvenile delinquency and associated problems. Previous research has identified promising enhancements (i.e., advocacy/teaching roles for mentors, rigorous match processes, comprehensive mentor training, ongoing mentor support) that may increase the effectiveness of ...


Buffering Of Physiological And Affective Reactivity By A Single Proactive 5-Minute Stress Management Technique, Kayla Talia Johnson May 2019

Buffering Of Physiological And Affective Reactivity By A Single Proactive 5-Minute Stress Management Technique, Kayla Talia Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

A plethora of recent research highlights the long-term chronic disease risks of elevated blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and affective and cognitive responses to mental stressors and how traditional forms of mindfulness meditation (MM) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) may help offset these long-term risks. On top of that, briefer forms of MM (e.g., 3-day training sessions) have shown benefits for emotional and physical health. Further, perseverative cognitions, or the tendency to worry and rumination about stressful events, is linked with heightened CV reactivity, and may impede the success of stress management techniques. The purpose of this study ...


Relationship Between Women's Goals And Pregnancy Risk Behaviors, Sarah Elizabeth Kienzler May 2019

Relationship Between Women's Goals And Pregnancy Risk Behaviors, Sarah Elizabeth Kienzler

Theses and Dissertations

Among adult women, ages of 18 and 24 years old, a high percentage of the pregnancies that occur are unplanned (Finer & Zolna, 2016; Guttmacher Institute, 2016) and unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a greater risk of negative health outcomes for mothers and their infants (Dott, Rasmussen, Hogue, & Reefhuis, 2010; Hellerstedt, Pirie, Lando, Curry, McBride, Grothaus, & Clark Nelson, 1998; Kost, Landry, & Darroch, 1998; Mosher, Jones, & Abma, 2012; Pulley, Klerman, Tang, & Baker, 2002; Sharma, Synkewecz, Raggio, & Mattison, 1994; Weller, Eberstein, & Bailey, 1987). Work among adolescents has found a link between adolescents’ perception of the effect of pregnancy on their lives and academic goals and whether or not they were at risk of pregnancy/became pregnant (Bell, Glover, & Alexander, 2013; Gomez-Scott & Cooney, 2014; Jumping-Eagle, Sheeder, Kelly, & Stevens-Simon, 2008; Kogan et al., 2013; Luster & Small, 1994; Sipsma, Ickovics, Lewis, Ethier, & Kershaws, 2011). This work has not been extended into adults despite existing evidence that adult women’s family planning behaviors may be influenced by the same consideration of how pregnancy will influence their lives. The current research investigated whether younger college women’s perception of the effect pregnancy would have on their important goals predicted their family planning behaviors, including: whether or not participants were abstinent in the last three months, perceptions of the effectiveness of contraceptive used at last sexual intercourse, scientifically-established effectiveness of that contraceptive, and how consistently women used contraceptives (how often they had sex without contraceptives) in the last three months.

Heterosexual female students, ages 18-24, from a large urban university completed the online Qualtrics survey (N = 204; sexually-active over the last three months n = 154). These young women did not have children and were not currently pregnant or trying to ...


Effects Of Genre Tag Complexity On Popular Music Perception And Enjoyment, Lauren Shepherd May 2019

Effects Of Genre Tag Complexity On Popular Music Perception And Enjoyment, Lauren Shepherd

Theses and Dissertations

The popular online streaming platform Spotify added over 1400 genre tags in the last two years. Despite that numerous artists and composition competitions claim to seek projects that “transcend the traditional notion of genre,” the industry has only added more complex and mystifying genre labels. This dichotomy between artists and industry ignores the effects these labels have on consumers. Do more complex genre tags enhance the listening experience for the average consumer by providing additional information about what they are about to hear? The current research seeks to examine the effects of the granularity of genre tags on popular music ...


Reducing The Risk: Psychological And Technological Approaches For Improving Handwashing Practices In The Foodservice Industry, Jeffrey Allan Clark May 2019

Reducing The Risk: Psychological And Technological Approaches For Improving Handwashing Practices In The Foodservice Industry, Jeffrey Allan Clark

Theses and Dissertations

As Americans are spending greater portions of their dollar on food consumed outside the home, the foodservice industry plays more of an integral part of daily existence compared to previous generations. Given the numerous annual foodborne illness outbreaks that threaten human lives while undermining confidence in the food supply, food safety is a pertinent issue for industry stakeholders, government regulators, and consumers. Food worker handwashing reduces the risk of foodborne illness transmission, yet compliance with this simple behavior is a complex problem. This dissertation addresses, predominantly, the issue of sub-optimal handwashing practices through applying psychology and technology, including wearable computers ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Motor Planning With Core Vocabulary: A Behavior Analytic Account, Alison Judith Karnes May 2019

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Motor Planning With Core Vocabulary: A Behavior Analytic Account, Alison Judith Karnes

Theses and Dissertations

As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases, it is important for practitioners to continue to improve evidence-based practices (EBP) for the treatment of ASD symptoms (i.e., impairments in social communication and repetitive behaviors and restricted interests; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). It is estimated that 30-50% of individuals with autism do not acquire functional speech (Wodka, Mathy, & Kalb, 2013). These individuals would make appropriate candidates for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC; Mirenda, 2003). One form of AAC is the speech-generating device (SGD). Over the last ten years, tablet-based technologies including iPad minisⓇ have been emphasized in the SGD research (Lorah, Parnell, Whitby, & Hantula, 2014b). One of the limitations in the tablet-based ...


Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long May 2019

Electrophysiological Correlates Of Visual Object Category Formation In A Prototype-Distortion Task, Stephanie Marie Long

Theses and Dissertations

In perceptual learning studies, participants engage in extensive training in the discrimination of visual stimuli in order to modulate perceptual performance. Much of the literature in perceptual learning has looked at the induction of the reorganization of low-level representations in V1. However, much remains to be understood about the mechanisms behind how the adult brain (an expert in visual object categorization) extracts high-level visual objects from the environment and categorically represents them in the cortical visual hierarchy. Here, I used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in object representation formation during a hybrid visual search and prototype ...


Effects Of Critical Reflection On University Students’ Cognitive Achievement In Agricultural Mechanization, Patterson P. Hilaire May 2019

Effects Of Critical Reflection On University Students’ Cognitive Achievement In Agricultural Mechanization, Patterson P. Hilaire

Theses and Dissertations

Experiential learning continues to play a vital role in agricultural education and mechanization laboratories (Shoulders & Myers, 2013). An essential component of experiential learning is critical reflection. Critical reflection helps students process and construct meaning from laboratory experiences. A study conducted by Shoulders and Myers (2013) revealed that only 15.4% of the agricultural educators the researchers interviewed incorporated reflective practices laboratory experiences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of critical reflection on students’ achievement following five agricultural mechanization laboratory activities. The results from this study revealed that critical reflection had a consistently positive effect on immediate cognitive achievement but not delayed cognitive achievement among the participants of this study; however, the results for delayed cognitive achievement were mixed. Recommendations include further research into effective practices for helping students increase long term learning from laboratory instructions.