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Apology Effectiveness: The Impact Of Prior Wrongful Behaviour And Voluntariness Of Apologies Within Juvenile Justice, Isolde Larkins Jan 2018

Apology Effectiveness: The Impact Of Prior Wrongful Behaviour And Voluntariness Of Apologies Within Juvenile Justice, Isolde Larkins

Theses : Honours

The justice system diverts young offenders away from further contact through restorative justice processes. Juvenile justice conferencing allows for the goals of restorative justice to be met, including meeting the needs of victims and offenders. Apologies, when offered by offenders to victims within a conferencing setting, can assist with meeting these restorative goals. Apologies, however, need to be effective to have the desired outcome. Several variables influence the effectiveness of apologies, including the perceived voluntariness of apologies, with prompted apologies reducing apology effectiveness. The reduced effectiveness of prompted apologies might be an issue during conferencing as some offenders are prompted ...


Saving Behaviour In The Australian Dream: Its Relationship With Aspiration And Motivation, Financial Literacy, And Materialism, Ming D’Iapico-Bien Jan 2018

Saving Behaviour In The Australian Dream: Its Relationship With Aspiration And Motivation, Financial Literacy, And Materialism, Ming D’Iapico-Bien

Theses : Honours

In Australia, most people aspire to achieve the “Australian dream” of owning their homes. Australian house prices have risen dramatically in comparison to people’s incomes, but despite this, many Australians still strive to enter the property market. The aim of this correlational study was to investigate the relationships between saving behaviour (with the ultimate goal of spending accumulated savings on a house deposit) and various psychological variables over and above sex, age, education, employment status, and income. The investigated predictor variables were motivation, extrinsic aspiration, financial literacy, and materialism. Previous research grounded in self-determination theory (SDT) has shown that ...


Using Eeg Data To Predict Engagement In Face-To-Face Conversations, Brooke Maddestra Jan 2018

Using Eeg Data To Predict Engagement In Face-To-Face Conversations, Brooke Maddestra

Theses : Honours

To date engagement in face-to-face conversation has been studied almost exclusively through the post event measurement of self-reporting surveys or questionnaires. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used for decades to examine brain activity for both research and diagnostic purposes. Medical grade EEG equipment is both costly and confined to being used within laboratory settings. With the recent advent of off-the-shelf consumer grade portable EEG-devices, novel psychological research on cognitive computations that have traditionally been confined to self-report, is now a reality. Although it is well documented that people use their cognitive abilities during conversations, an extensive literature search found no studies ...


Using Physiological Measures To Measure Changes In Cognitive Load Associated With Automaticity And Transfer, Joanna Verden Jan 2018

Using Physiological Measures To Measure Changes In Cognitive Load Associated With Automaticity And Transfer, Joanna Verden

Theses : Honours

This study investigated the ability of two physiological measures, galvanic skin response and heat flux, to reflect changes in cognitive load using a variation of the dot counting task developed by Lassaline and Logan (1993). Concurrently, the robustness of the dual processing theory of automaticity was evaluated via disruption. The utilised task was designed to create a shift from controlled to automatic processing via practice, followed by a return to controlled processing via the introduction of a 6-digit memory recognition task designed to increase working-memory load and disrupt automaticity. As reaction time has previously been demonstrated to be a reliable ...


The Classification Of The Finger Frames Method In Violin Playing, Brittany Williams Jan 2017

The Classification Of The Finger Frames Method In Violin Playing, Brittany Williams

Theses : Honours

From the first stage of learning new repertoire, string pedagogy aims to present violinists with effective strategies to achieve accurate intonation in performance. The search for new teaching and learning strategies, whilst running the risk of being seen as unconventional compared to more tried and tested methods (i.e. Suzuki), can on the other hand provide the tutor with new tools for enhancing their teaching practice. Western Australian violinist Fleur Challen has developed a method titled Finger Frames; a learning strategy that uses a colour coding system to prepare a violinist for changes in left hand position, reducing the cognitive ...


The Role Of Awareness Of Repetition During The Development Of Automaticity, Emma Shadbolt Jan 2015

The Role Of Awareness Of Repetition During The Development Of Automaticity, Emma Shadbolt

Theses : Honours

Investigation into the influence of contextual information on performance of an automatic task has found inconsistent results. The majority of studies have investigated whether changing the context of a simple cognitive task can inhibit an automatic response, but do not review whether context can help the development of automatic responding. The current study examined whether bringing awareness to the context of a simple numerosity task could aid the development of automaticity. It also examined whether participants were aware of when automaticity developed for them via a post-test interview. The numerosity task used in this study was a simple counting task ...


Early Maladaptive Schemas In An Australian Adult Alcohol Dependent Clinical Sample: Differences Between Men And Women, Diana Lanie Janson Jan 2015

Early Maladaptive Schemas In An Australian Adult Alcohol Dependent Clinical Sample: Differences Between Men And Women, Diana Lanie Janson

Theses : Honours

Recent literature suggests that there are widespread differences between men and women’s Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and that EMSs are highly prevalent in alcohol dependent populations. The present study examined differences between men and women’s EMSs in an Australian clinical sample who had sought treatment specifically for alcohol dependence. A total of 111 men and 114 women completed the Young Schema Questionnaire – Long Form (YSQ-L3) between 2012 and 2015 in order to assess them on 18 EMSs. Despite previous findings suggesting that women report higher levels on a number of EMSs the present study found that women only ...


Eye Movement Patterns As An Indicator Of Task Automaticity, Olga Clarke Jan 2015

Eye Movement Patterns As An Indicator Of Task Automaticity, Olga Clarke

Theses : Honours

Automaticity is a vital aspect of daily living, as it allows for tasks to be completed quickly and with the fraction of the cognitive load required for tasks that cannot be completed automatically. Task automaticity is commonly measured with reaction time, which is considered to be an indirect measure of behaviour. As more direct measures are becoming available, there is an opportunity to assess task automaticity in greater detail. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether eye movements change as participants reach task automaticity. The study involved 16 participants who were asked to complete the dot counting ...


Construct Validity Of The Developmental Test Of Visual-Perception Third Edition (Dtvp-3) In Western Australian Primary School Children, Kirsten Clarke Jan 2015

Construct Validity Of The Developmental Test Of Visual-Perception Third Edition (Dtvp-3) In Western Australian Primary School Children, Kirsten Clarke

Theses : Honours

Visual perception is the ability to identify, organise, make meaning of and provide sense to what is seen in the world in which we live. Visual perceptual skills continuously develop in primary school children as seen in academic performance. If visual perceptual difficulties are unaddressed, the cumulative academic result can be detrimental throughout life. Thus, visual perceptual difficulties must be identified using tests that possess sound measurement properties to allow for early intervention. The purpose of the research was to determine the construct validity of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception Third Edition (DTVP-3). The DTVP-3 was designed and standardised ...


Accidental Opioid Overdose Fatalities In Western Australia, 2008-2012: A Case For More Targeted Intervention, Natalie J. Castalanelli Jan 2015

Accidental Opioid Overdose Fatalities In Western Australia, 2008-2012: A Case For More Targeted Intervention, Natalie J. Castalanelli

Theses : Honours

While there are current opioid overdose prevention strategies in Western Australia, these strategies are targeted at illicit opioid users and rely on bystander presence to intervene. The aim of the current study was to identify disparities between current overdose prevention strategies and the actual circumstances surrounding opioid related fatalities, to inform the development of best-practice opioid overdose prevention strategies for Western Australia. To do this, coronial files were drawn from the National Coronial Information System for accidental illicit opioid related fatalities (N = 329) and accidental prescription opioid related fatalities (N = 126) for the years 2008 to 2012. Each group was ...


The Lived Experience Of Mothering For Women With Multiple Sclerosis, Astrid Marilene Plumb-Parlevliet Jan 2015

The Lived Experience Of Mothering For Women With Multiple Sclerosis, Astrid Marilene Plumb-Parlevliet

Theses : Honours

The lived experience of mothers with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have young children was explored. Using purposive sampling, 10 mothers with MS each participated in an in-depth semi-structured interview. The participants varied in demographics and had varying symptoms of MS. Interpretative phenomenological analysis identified four major themes. These themes are: changing life perspective; balancing life with MS; having children; and peer contact. The participants went through a period of avoidance before accepting life with MS and changing their life perspective. Adequately balancing life with MS, by conserving energy and having support networks, was essential to maintaining their well-being. The partners ...


Being Trans: An Interpretative Phenomenological Study Of Young Adults, Gemma Lee Taylor Jan 2015

Being Trans: An Interpretative Phenomenological Study Of Young Adults, Gemma Lee Taylor

Theses : Honours

Social structures assume a binary classification of gender whereby people are expected to accept the female or male gender expectations and gender roles commonly associated with their biological sex. However, gender identity and gender expression are personal experiences which do not necessarily align with the sex assigned to a person at birth. Young adults who identify as trans resist the predictable relationships and boundaries of sex and gender by embracing diverse gender identities and expressions. Research acknowledging more favourable life experiences of trans youth is limited, despite the importance of a sound knowledge base necessary to provide a positive and ...


The Feasibility Of Implementing A Novel Electrical Stimulation Device In The Self-Management Of Hand Burn Pain, Katrina Liddiard Jan 2015

The Feasibility Of Implementing A Novel Electrical Stimulation Device In The Self-Management Of Hand Burn Pain, Katrina Liddiard

Theses : Honours

Burns are widely acknowledged as one of the most painful injuries experienced, and poorly controlled pain following burn injury has been linked to reduced psychological adjustment, lower quality of life, and increased risk of developing a chronic pain state. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has been used for pain relief in a range of medical conditions, and may have the potential to reduce pain and analgesic consumption for burns patients. The burn care environment presents unique challenges to the introduction of new interventions, and the feasibility of introducing a novel form of electrical stimulation into this environment has not been tested ...


Parkinson's Diagnosis From The Caregiver's Perspective, Helen Maree Bradley Jan 2014

Parkinson's Diagnosis From The Caregiver's Perspective, Helen Maree Bradley

Theses : Honours

Parkinson’s disease (Parkinson’s) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The irreversible and accumulating disability experienced means that people with Parkinson’s progressively lose their autonomy, eventually requiring complete care. Consequently, Parkinson’s significantly impacts sufferers and the people who care for them. Informal care, predominantly provided by female spouses becomes exceptionally demanding over time, and caregivers experience significant morbidity. Stress manifests across all stages of the caregiving trajectory, with diagnosis reported as a particularly stressful period for caregivers; however, few attempts have been made to understand what makes it stressful. The current study explored female spousal caregivers’ subjective experience ...


A Comparison Of Alexithymia Levels Of Male Intimate Partner Abuse Perpetrators And Men From The General Community, James Strickland Jan 2014

A Comparison Of Alexithymia Levels Of Male Intimate Partner Abuse Perpetrators And Men From The General Community, James Strickland

Theses : Honours

Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is a significant social issue with diverse and complex risk factors. Recent attention, however, has been placed on the individual psychological and emotional factors associated with IPA, including deficits in the processing of emotions. The construct of alexithymia, which involves difficulties identifying and describing emotions, integrates some of these emotional deficits. Currently, no published research has examined the levels of alexithymia among Australian men who perpetrate IPA. The aim of the current study was to compare the alexithymia levels of IPA perpetrators (n = 31) with those of men from the general community (n = 34) using the ...


An Investigation Into The Psychological Impact Of Informal Aged Care: The Lived Experience Of Older Female Informal Aged Carers, Emma Stein Jan 2014

An Investigation Into The Psychological Impact Of Informal Aged Care: The Lived Experience Of Older Female Informal Aged Carers, Emma Stein

Theses : Honours

It has been estimated that 196,000 (38%) informal carers in Australia are aged over 65 years, with the majority of these carers providing care to someone in their own age group. In particular, it is women who have been providing most informal care. Recognition of this has highlighted women’s needs for psychological support in their caregiving roles. However, research into women’s experiences of this phenomenon is scarce. The present study aimed to explore the lived experiences of women in this context, asking the question “what are the perceived psychological impacts of aged care on older women who ...


Mother's Experience Of Social Media: Its Impact On Children And The Home, Abe Van Hatch Jan 2014

Mother's Experience Of Social Media: Its Impact On Children And The Home, Abe Van Hatch

Theses : Honours

With the prevalence and accessibility of social media within the last 15 years it has become possible for children to have constant access to their friends and social networks. It is relatively unknown what impact adopting social media has on children and how mothers interpret this. There are gaps in the literature investigating the pervasive effects of modern technology and what meaning mothers ascribe to their children using social media as a method of connecting with the world. The present research aims to explore this phenomenon by investigating the experiences of mothers who have children that have recently adopted social ...


Construct Validity Of The Developmental Test Of Visual-Motor Integration 6th Edition (Beery Vmi-6) In Western Australian Primary-School Children, Christine Van Vreeswijk Jan 2014

Construct Validity Of The Developmental Test Of Visual-Motor Integration 6th Edition (Beery Vmi-6) In Western Australian Primary-School Children, Christine Van Vreeswijk

Theses : Honours

AIM: The construct validity of the 6th edition of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI-6), is yet to be tested for a Western Australian population. This study aimed to use a combination of factor analysis and correlational tests to provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity of the Beery VMI-6 when administered to a Western Australian population of 6-10 year old children.

METHOD: This pilot study utilised a quantitative non-experimental exploratory design. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 91 children (aged 6-10 years old) from two schools in the northern suburbs of Perth. Administration of the Beery VMI-6 ...


Examining The Appeal And Ascribed Meanings Of Complementary And Alternative Medicine (Cam) Use By Males: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Kathryn V. Hogan Jan 2014

Examining The Appeal And Ascribed Meanings Of Complementary And Alternative Medicine (Cam) Use By Males: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Kathryn V. Hogan

Theses : Honours

Men are commonly and consistently underrepresented in global depression rates, however figure predominantly in rates for substance abuse and suicide. It has been suggested that men’s under-utilisation of mental health services accounts for the discrepancy between the genders and that hegemonic masculine stereotypes have created a barrier for males in seeking help for mood disorders. The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) has been expanding globally, with research showing in some instances of self-diagnosed depression and anxiety, CAM is being utilised more often than mainstream health care services. The present study explored the personal meanings of males who ...


Letter Reversal Assessments: A Systematic Review Of Measurement Properties, Administration Guidelines And Reversal Content And Richmond Reversal Rating: Construct Validity In Relation To Visual-Spatial Abilities, Lucinda Venter Jan 2014

Letter Reversal Assessments: A Systematic Review Of Measurement Properties, Administration Guidelines And Reversal Content And Richmond Reversal Rating: Construct Validity In Relation To Visual-Spatial Abilities, Lucinda Venter

Theses : Honours

Background: With several assessments available that purport to measure the letter reversal rates of young school-aged children, the question was raised how reliable and comparable these assessments are and to what extent each assessment addresses the concept of letter reversals? A systematic review of these assessments was performed to evaluate the measurement properties and administration guidelines, and to compare the reversal content of these assessments.

Method: Relevant assessments and studies were identified through literature searches. For each of the assessments the measurement properties, quality of the studies that report the measurement properties, and administration guidelines were evaluated, and the content ...


The Effect Of Background Music On Emotional Processing : Evaluation Using A Dot Probe Paradigm, Haans Drieberg Jan 2013

The Effect Of Background Music On Emotional Processing : Evaluation Using A Dot Probe Paradigm, Haans Drieberg

Theses : Honours

Music plays an important role in all of the world's cultures, and background music is an ever-present phenomenon. Despite this, few studies have formally addressed whether background music influences the way people think. The aim of this study was to discover whether the presence of background music can influence cognition. Specifically, the differential effects of music rated as being positive (inducing happy emotions) and negative (inducing anxiety) on a person's allocation of attention was investigated. A dot probe task with positive and negative word pairings, matched for length and frequency was used in order to test the hypotheses ...


Recruitment Discrimination Against Middle Eastern People In Western Australia : The Case Of Accountants, Tiny Pinkerton Jan 2013

Recruitment Discrimination Against Middle Eastern People In Western Australia : The Case Of Accountants, Tiny Pinkerton

Theses : Honours

The population of all Western countries are ageing and humanitarian efforts saw increasing numbers of people from Middle Eastern origin settle in Australia. Whilst older people are encouraged to remain in paid employment longer, it is not clear whether Middle Eastern people and the older population are as readily hired as are Anglo Australians and the younger population. Pairs of fictitious, unsolicited job applications were used to test for age and racial discrimination of Middle Eastern people in the Western Australian labour market. The study employed a 2 x 2 between subjects design with race (Anglo Australian and Middle Eastern ...


The Effect Of Depressive Symptoms, Mental Distress And Empathy On Embodiment Of The Rubber Hand Illusion, David Parrick Jan 2013

The Effect Of Depressive Symptoms, Mental Distress And Empathy On Embodiment Of The Rubber Hand Illusion, David Parrick

Theses : Honours

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of depression, mental distress and empathy on the strength of the rubber hand illusion (RHI). The RHI is a perceptual illusion that is thought to occur as a result of visual capture during multimodal sensory stimulation. The RHI was induced in participants by synchronous stroking of their real hand and the visible fake hand for two minutes. Participants were then requested to complete a nine-item questionnaire on the strength of the illusion, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), which was used to screen for depressive symptoms and general mental ...


Experiences Of African Refugees Who Transition To University : A Question Of Resilience, Mark Webb Jan 2013

Experiences Of African Refugees Who Transition To University : A Question Of Resilience, Mark Webb

Theses : Honours

First year transition to university for students’ is associated with significant adjustment to tertiary education practices and environment. Universities are frequently considering ways to support and improve this transition for students inclusive of mainstream and equity target groups. African refugees are one equity group that prioritises education and are concurrently experiencing pre-migration trauma and acculturation stress. However we know little about their experiences of support in transition to university. The aim of this present study was to explore the meanings ascribed by African refugees to their experiences of social support in transitioning to university. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on a ...


Associative Stigma Among Families Of Alcohol And Other Drug Users, Olivia Marshall Jan 2013

Associative Stigma Among Families Of Alcohol And Other Drug Users, Olivia Marshall

Theses : Honours

Stigma is the devaluation of groups and individuals because of traits or behaviours that deviate from social norms. Drug use is a highly stigmatised behaviour, as it is mainly viewed as a controllable behaviour or character weakness. Stigma may occur by association and this is known as courtesy or associative stigma. A comprehensive review investigated associative stigma among families of psychoactive substance users. Searches of psychological databases located articles pertaining to associative stigma among families. Articles located indicated that associative stigma occurs toward families in other populations, such as those living with mental illness and HIV. A lack of research ...


Fathers At Birth : Women's Experiences Of Their Partner's Presence During Childbirth, Sarah Dlugosz Jan 2013

Fathers At Birth : Women's Experiences Of Their Partner's Presence During Childbirth, Sarah Dlugosz

Theses : Honours

Childbirth is an ordeal of nature. It is an experience that elicits a range of emotions for the labouring woman; recognition of which has highlighted women’s needs for psychological support during the birth process. Research has shown that a mother’s perception of a positive birth is influenced by how supported she feels throughout her experience. In Australia it is common practice for the labouring woman’s partner to be her main support person; however research into women’s experiences of this phenomenon is scarce. This research aimed to explore the lived experiences of women in this context, asking ...


The Life Individual Resilience Scale And Cognitive Reflection Test : Predictive Utility In Special Forces Selection, Anthony Moffitt Jan 2013

The Life Individual Resilience Scale And Cognitive Reflection Test : Predictive Utility In Special Forces Selection, Anthony Moffitt

Theses : Honours

The use of psychometric testing by the military in the screening and selection of its personnel has played a significant role in test development (Aiken, 1997). Several studies have demonstrated the utility of such tests to identify and select elite Special Forces personnel specifically for their employment in complex and dangerous environments (Picano, Roland, Williams, & Rollins, 2006). Research of additional discrete personal attributes beyond traditional cognitive ability and personality traits has inspired studies into the measurement of specific aspects of performance, including perseverance, hardiness and decision-making (e.g., Beal, 2010; Temby & Drobnjak, 2010). However, the empirical evidence for these attributes is limited and additional data is required (Temby, 2011). This study investigated the utility of the Life Individual Resilience Scale (LIRS; Harms, Pooley & Cohen, 2013) and the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005) to predict candidate outcomes (pass/not pass) on a Special Forces selection course, in a sample of 82 Australian Defence Force personnel. It was hypothesised that successful candidates would score higher in resilience and in cognitive reflection based on these ...


Exploring Wellbeing In Older Male Farmers In Western Australia, Jessica L. Mckee Jan 2013

Exploring Wellbeing In Older Male Farmers In Western Australia, Jessica L. Mckee

Theses : Honours

In the context of an ageing population it has become increasingly important to identify the determinants of wellbeing in older adulthood. A review of the literature relevant to wellbeing and strengths relevant to older male farmers in Australia was conducted. This body of knowledge was identified to be sparse. Existing literature on farming primarily had a deficits focus, and only a small number of qualitative studies were specific to older male farmers. Four broad, overlapping areas representing the meaning of wellbeing were identified as potentially important: farming work; connectedness; the land; health and wellbeing. The inter-connected nature of farming life ...


Improving Memory Using N-Back Training, Paul Beavon Jan 2012

Improving Memory Using N-Back Training, Paul Beavon

Theses : Honours

Investigations into n-back training and near transfer to short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) have realised inconsistent results. A significant transfer to STM was reported using dual n-back training (Jaeggi, Buschkuehl, Jonides, & Perrig, 2008). However, the majority of studies have found no significant transfer to WM as operationalised by complex span tasks using either single or dual n-back training. The current study examined the single n-back task and near transfer to STM and WM as operationalised by the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (Mather & Woodcock-Johnson, 2001). Forty-seven participants were divided into experimental treatment (n = 26) and active control (n = 21) groups; and engaged in 20 daily, 20-minute training sessions over a 30-day period using either a single n-back task, or a combination of two general knowledge tasks respectively. STM and WM psychometric tests were administered before and after the 30-day training process. No significant difference was found between pre- and post-training STM or WM scores, indicating both constructs were unlikely near transfer mechanisms for single nback training. There ...


Retrospective Time Perception Of A Long Task: Using Music To Distinguish Between Attention-Based And Memory-Based Models, James Brooks Jan 2012

Retrospective Time Perception Of A Long Task: Using Music To Distinguish Between Attention-Based And Memory-Based Models, James Brooks

Theses : Honours

There are two main models of time perception, attention-based models, and memorybased models. The aim of this study was to determine which model best explained retrospective time perception of a long and monotonous task. The monotonous task was a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) that lasted 1390s. The monotony of the task was altered by the addition of musical stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to either a silent condition, or one of three music conditions that differed in song familiarity and performing instrument. Participants were 48 adults, primarily recruited from Edith Cowan University. The perceived duration of the task ...