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Family Environment Variables And Adjustment Outcomes In Appalachian Youth: The Moderating Role Of Participation In Extracurricular Activities, Rebecca Lee Shorter Dec 2016

Family Environment Variables And Adjustment Outcomes In Appalachian Youth: The Moderating Role Of Participation In Extracurricular Activities, Rebecca Lee Shorter

Masters Theses

Objective: Poor family functioning and parenting practices are often linked to poor adjustment outcomes for children and adolescents. We examined the association between relational and contextual family environment variables and adjustment outcomes in an understudied sample of rural Appalachian youth. Also examined was whether extracurricular involvement moderated the relationship between these variables. Method: Participants were 367 adolescents from multiple high schools (grades 9-12) in an Appalachian region of rural East Tennessee. Self-report measures were used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems, family relationships, extracurricular activity, and health risk behaviors; truancy data was collected from academic records. Results: As expected, family ...


Intra-Individual And Cross-Partner Associations Between The Five Facets Of Mindfulness And Relationship Satisfaction, Katherine Allison Lenger Dec 2016

Intra-Individual And Cross-Partner Associations Between The Five Facets Of Mindfulness And Relationship Satisfaction, Katherine Allison Lenger

Masters Theses

Research has established that mindfulness may be useful to individual and dyadic wellbeing among both early-stage and long-term relationships. Nonetheless, it remains unclear which mechanisms of mindfulness are most relevant to relationship satisfaction among long-term married couples. Furthermore, although previous research suggests that an individual’s total mindfulness is not related to his or her partner’s relationship satisfaction, we have yet to determine whether any specific facets of mindfulness may evidence a significant cross-partner association with relationship satisfaction. The present study seeks to address these gaps in the literature using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Data were collected ...


Testing A Model Based Approach To Selective And Flexible Attention, Anastasia Nicole Kerr-German Dec 2016

Testing A Model Based Approach To Selective And Flexible Attention, Anastasia Nicole Kerr-German

Masters Theses

A recent neural-process approach using dynamic field theory (DFT), put forth by Buss and Spencer (2014), demonstrated how a simple dimensional attention mechanism can explain the behavioral and neural data associated with the development of flexible attention and performance in the Dimensional Change Card Sorting task (DCCS). Taking a dynamical systems approach to the development of attention in executive functioning is critical as it allows us to further probe the underlying processes and mechanisms that give rise to later life success.

The goal of the current proposal is to generalize DFT in order to explain the development of selective attention ...


Functions Of Aggression And Peer Victimization In Elementary School Children: The Mediating Role Of Social Preference, Samantha Manring Aug 2016

Functions Of Aggression And Peer Victimization In Elementary School Children: The Mediating Role Of Social Preference, Samantha Manring

Masters Theses

This study examined the longitudinal associations among functions of aggression, social preference, and peer victimization. Participants were 492 children (249 girls, 227 boys) in grades 2-5. Proactive and reactive aggression was assessed via a self-report measure and indices of social preference and peer victimization were assessed via a peer nomination inventory. Data was collected during the fall and spring of two academic years. Results suggest that the relation between aggression, social preference, and peer victimization varied by the function of aggression and gender. For girls, reactive aggression was a significant negative predictor of social preference. Findings also revealed social preference ...


Music Student Satisfaction: The Relationship Between Learning Style Preferences And Major Satisfaction, Cora Marie Powers Aug 2016

Music Student Satisfaction: The Relationship Between Learning Style Preferences And Major Satisfaction, Cora Marie Powers

Masters Theses

Based on Holland’s (1997) theory of person-environment fit, the primary purpose of this study was to examine learning style preferences of college music students utilizing the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and VARK Learning Styles Inventory (Kolb, 1976, 1984 ; Fleming & Mills, 1992). These preferences were also explored relative to music students’satisfaction with their major. A tendency to prefer the Aural, Kinesthetic, and Active Experimentation learning styles was observed in the 134 music majors sampled. Among the music students sampled, those who most prefer the Active Experimentation learning style are most satisfied with their major. Some differences in learning style ...


Using Systematic Instruction To Teach Science To Students With Severe Disabilities, Anna E. Greene May 2016

Using Systematic Instruction To Teach Science To Students With Severe Disabilities, Anna E. Greene

Masters Theses

Science content is still a commonly over-looked academic content area for students with severe disabilities despite recent research. The purpose of this study was to show that students with severe disabilities can learn science content in a whole group setting when taught using applied behavior analytic principles, such as prompting and fading techniques. Four elementary-aged students with severe disabilities between 1st and 5th grade were taught science content using group lessons and effects were measured by a multiple baseline design across units. Participants were taught content from three different units: Energy, weather, and plants; the science content selected ...


A Dissonance Intervention To Reduce Implicit Prejudice Against Arab Muslims, Cheryl Alyssa Welch May 2016

A Dissonance Intervention To Reduce Implicit Prejudice Against Arab Muslims, Cheryl Alyssa Welch

Masters Theses

With constant media coverage of hostility in the Middle East, and given recent acts of domestic terrorism such as the attacks of September 11, 2001, it is reasonable to assume that prejudice against the Arab-Muslim population has been increasing in the United States (Moore, 2002). There are many active campaigns advocating for both acceptance and the reduction of various types of prejudice and discrimination in our society. However, the question is if these campaigns are actually successful in their goals. The current study sought to fill this gap by assessing a social intervention on its effectiveness in reducing prejudice towards ...


The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation And Chronic Voluntary Alcohol Consumption On Δfos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder May 2016

The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation And Chronic Voluntary Alcohol Consumption On Δfos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder

Masters Theses

The present study explores the relation between sleep restriction and alcohol use and the neural substrates that result from chronic behaviors. Accumulation of the transcription factors ΔFosB is suggested as a possible outcome of chronic behaviors, such as addiction. Sleep is discussed as possible mediating factor in the relationship between ΔFosB and chronic alcohol consumption. There were four experimental groups in this study: Control (C), Sleep Deprivation only (SD), Alcohol Exposure only (AO), and both sleep deprivation and alcohol exposure (B). Levels of ΔFosB accumulation in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) revealed a significant main effect of sleep deprivation, but no ...


Generalization Of Joint Attention: Using Parent Child Interaction Therapy To Program Social Skills In Children With Developmental Disorders, Thomas E. Rigg May 2016

Generalization Of Joint Attention: Using Parent Child Interaction Therapy To Program Social Skills In Children With Developmental Disorders, Thomas E. Rigg

Masters Theses

Generalization of social behaviors is a vital component of human behavior. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder often show symptomology that includes impairment in social behavior and failure to generalize behavior on the whole. Initiation of joint attention is a social behavior that can be understood as a behavior cusp and worthy of intervention to promote development. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy has been studied in recent years for its efficacy in treating some dimensions of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children and adolescence. The current study sought to explore the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in promoting the generalization of initiation of joint ...


Interteaching: Types Of Prep Guide Questions And Their Effect On Student Quiz Performance, Verena S. Bethke May 2016

Interteaching: Types Of Prep Guide Questions And Their Effect On Student Quiz Performance, Verena S. Bethke

Masters Theses

Although previous research indicates that interteaching is an effective alternative to more traditional teaching approaches, not many component analyses of the method exist. For example, although researchers have shown that the prep guide component contributes to the effectiveness of interteaching, no research has directly examined how the content of the prep guides affects learning. The current lab-based study investigated whether having prep guides consisting of lower-level or higher-level questions impacted students’ subsequent quiz performance. We found no significant differences in quiz performance between the two conditions, but several extraneous factors may have impacted the results.


The Effects Of Virtual Coaching On Olympic Lift Performance, Julia M. Santos May 2016

The Effects Of Virtual Coaching On Olympic Lift Performance, Julia M. Santos

Masters Theses

Coaching in many forms, the most prevalent being in vivo coaching, helps to improve the performance of athletes across sports and exercise. The most natural next step in coaching is coaching through technology as opposed to in person; also known as virtual coaching. The present study examined the relative utility of two forms of virtual coaching on improving Olympic lift performance; video modeling and video feedback. A multiple baseline design across participants was used where one group of participants received the video modeling intervention first, then video feedback, then both, while the second group received the video feedback intervention first ...


Inter-Professional Collaboration: The Impact Of Serial Versus Merged Treatment On The Behavior Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Robyn Starry May 2016

Inter-Professional Collaboration: The Impact Of Serial Versus Merged Treatment On The Behavior Of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Robyn Starry

Masters Theses

Interdisciplinary collaboration is an innovative, resourceful approach to healthcare intended to positively affect patient outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of the serial exposure to three treatments, Applied Behavior Analysis, Speech Language Pathology, and Occupational Therapy, in comparison with an exposure to a merge of these treatments on child outcomes. During the serial treatment phases of intervention, three licensed professionals implemented core techniques from their respective disciplines. During merged treatment phases, a graduate clinician combined and implemented techniques from all three fields: differential attention, request sequences, sensory exposure, verbal/tactile cueing for postural alignment ...


Context Effects Of False Remember Responses In Older And Younger Adults, Casey M. Williamson May 2016

Context Effects Of False Remember Responses In Older And Younger Adults, Casey M. Williamson

Masters Theses

Although different theories attempt to explain the underlying mechanism of false remembers, none have been able to adequately describe this process. The current study aims to determine if a specific contextual detail (i.e., font color) can be tied to false remembers (i.e., false memory that contains contextual or perceptual details), and if there are age differences in this ability. Using the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) and the contextual detail of font color, this study investigated if older and younger adults can tie a specific color to studied items and critical lures (non-presented semantic associates). No differences in the ability to tie the color back to studied items and critical lures were found between older and younger adults; however, both groups had performances that were at or near chance. It was found that older adults used remember responses (i.e., a specific detailed memory) more frequently than ...


Effect Of Distance Caregiver Coaching On Functional Skills Of A Child With Traumatic Brain Injury, Michelle R. Witt May 2016

Effect Of Distance Caregiver Coaching On Functional Skills Of A Child With Traumatic Brain Injury, Michelle R. Witt

Masters Theses

Brain injury is a major public health concern affecting nearly 5 million Americans annually with a cost exceeding $60 billion in the United States. Acquired and traumatic brain injuries cause physical, cognitive and social deficits resulting in behavioral, affective, cognitive, and physical changes. Though the biomechanical injury may be the initial source of the behavioral changes, environmental factors frequently contribute to maintaining maladaptive behaviors. Behavioral and affective changes in the person with a brain injury are frequently cited as the most distressing issues for caregivers, and their need for education and training is well documented. Interactions between caregivers and persons ...


An Examination Of The Psychometric Properties Of And Validity Evidence For The Alliant Intercultural Competency Scale, Elizabeth L. Smith May 2016

An Examination Of The Psychometric Properties Of And Validity Evidence For The Alliant Intercultural Competency Scale, Elizabeth L. Smith

Masters Theses

The alliant intercultural competency scale was developed by Henderson et al. (2015) to measure intercultural competence in students in higher education. Henderson et al. outlined five domains representative of an interculturally competent professional: knowledge, communication, attitudes, professional practice, and negotiated space. In the current study, the AICS was revised (AICS-R) and then evaluated using Benson’s (1998) framework for construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis results suggested a five-factor model strongly aligned with the five aforementioned domains; this provides support for the internal structure of the AICS-R. Scores from the AICS-R were correlated with external measures, and group differences in scores ...


The Effect Of Technology On Work-Life Balance: Women In Higher Education, Alexandra G. Hubbard May 2016

The Effect Of Technology On Work-Life Balance: Women In Higher Education, Alexandra G. Hubbard

Masters Theses

This study aimed to contribute to the literature on women, technology, and work-life balance (WLB). By identifying both instructional and non-instructional female employees at an institution of higher education, the study facilitated a comparison between the perceived levels of WLB and technology’s impact on the balance. A mixed methods survey was sent to all female employees to identify potential commonalities or differences between the groups. Questions inquired about employees’ experiences with, and outlooks on, WLB and information and communication technologies (ICTs). For the purpose of the study, ICTs included technologies such as email, accessed through computers, cell-phones or tablets ...


Work-Family Conflict And Wellbeing Among Mothers In Higher Education, Brittany S. Bilodeau May 2016

Work-Family Conflict And Wellbeing Among Mothers In Higher Education, Brittany S. Bilodeau

Masters Theses

Numerous studies and meta analyses have been published on work-family conflict, including its antecedents and outcomes. However, the current body of literature is dominated by research that focuses on the corporate context. As a result, there is an underrepresentation of women employed in the academy. An increasing number of scholars are addressing this gap in the literature by focusing on women employed in higher education. This research serves the purpose of supporting this growing area of research. Instructional faculty members at James Madison University, who self-identified as mothers, completed a survey to assess work-family conflict, its contributing factors, and outcomes ...


The Effect Of Anchoring Vignettes On Factor Structures: Student Effort As An Example, Carolyn A. Miesen May 2016

The Effect Of Anchoring Vignettes On Factor Structures: Student Effort As An Example, Carolyn A. Miesen

Masters Theses

Anchoring vignettes are used as a methodological technique for removing differential interpretation of response categories (DIRC) from scores on subjective self-report measures (King, Murray, Slomon, & Tandon, 2004). This technique requires participants to read one or more short scenarios, or vignettes, designed to represent various levels of a construct. Vignette ratings are used as an indication of DIRC, which is a source of differential item functioning (DIF). Prior research primarily used indirect methods for evaluating vignette quality. In response, the present set of studies proposes using invariance testing as a more direct evaluation of how the use of anchoring vignettes impacts ...


Examining Latent Change Classes: An Application Of Factor Mixture Modeling To Change Scores, Thai Q. Ong May 2016

Examining Latent Change Classes: An Application Of Factor Mixture Modeling To Change Scores, Thai Q. Ong

Masters Theses

Although change scores are used in a variety of statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance and regression), there is a lack of application of latent variable modeling methods to change scores. This thesis provides a detailed description of two latent variable modeling methods applied to change scores: factor analysis of change scores and change score factor mixture modeling. To illustrate advantages of these methods, both were applied to change score data from undergraduates. Students responded to sense of identity items during a university-wide assessment day on two occasions, once as incoming freshmen and again as second-semester sophomores. Change scores ...


Are There Bad Wins And Good Losses? Outcome Effects In Sport, Richard Erik Inglis May 2016

Are There Bad Wins And Good Losses? Outcome Effects In Sport, Richard Erik Inglis

Masters Theses

Abstract

Outcomes have been shown to distort feeling states, performance evaluations, and subsequent performances. This retrospective distortion represents an outcome bias, a phenomenon that has been studied extensively in a wide array of disciplines and domains. However, despite their importance, the effects of outcomes have received little attention in the sport corpus. In an attempt to remedy this oversight, 60 participants with basketball experience were recruited to take part in a free throw shooting competition. Participants completed two rounds of 20 free throws. Following their first round, participants were randomly assigned to either a negative outcome (lose by one shot ...


Academic Choices Matter For Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kendra Arielle Berry May 2016

Academic Choices Matter For Collegiate Student-Athletes, Kendra Arielle Berry

Masters Theses

As college athletics has grown during the last two decades, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the governing institution of college athletics in the United States, has renewed its focus on academic reform and the academic performance of student-athletes (Petr & McArdle, 2012). Athletic administrators and academic support units have started to exert a greater amount of control over student-athletes’ academic lives. However, research with general samples of college students has suggested that having some degree of autonomy is important for academic performance. This raises questions about whether increased control (and reduced autonomy) is actually in the best interest of student-athletes ...


Effects Of Bullying And Victimization On Friendship Selection, Reciprocation, And Maintenance In Elementary School Children, Marisa Lynn Whitley May 2016

Effects Of Bullying And Victimization On Friendship Selection, Reciprocation, And Maintenance In Elementary School Children, Marisa Lynn Whitley

Masters Theses

This study examined the effects of elementary school children’s bullying and victimization experiences on their friendships over time. The majority of children experience acts of aggression or bullying before the end of elementary school, and bullying and peer victimization is associated with academic, social, behavioral, and psychological difficulties. This study used social networks analysis (R SIENA 4.0) to examine whether peer reports of forms of bullying and victimization (i.e., overt and relational) affect the likelihood of friendship selection, reciprocation, and maintenance in 2nd-4th grade children. Children (N = 143) from the Midwestern region of the ...


The Modulating Role Of Motor Action Anticipation In Relation To Visual Attention To A Scene, Rebecca Faith Wiener May 2016

The Modulating Role Of Motor Action Anticipation In Relation To Visual Attention To A Scene, Rebecca Faith Wiener

Masters Theses

This study investigates how visual attention to a scene is modified when the actor has a reaching goal or not. Thirty-six 7-month-olds were recruited, with 18 in a reaching group and 18 in a non-reaching group. Infants in both groups were presented with objects out of their reaching space until they accumulated approximately six seconds of active looking as measured by an eye-tracker. For the infants in the non-reaching group, the trial ended after the six seconds. For the reaching group, the object was then moved into the infants’ reaching space where they could reach for it. We were interested ...


Alone, Together: The Influence Of Stigmatization On Cultural Relationality, Elizabeth Helen Fles May 2016

Alone, Together: The Influence Of Stigmatization On Cultural Relationality, Elizabeth Helen Fles

Masters Theses

It is no secret that great disparities in wealth and opportunities pervade our society. Psychological research pertaining to resource inequality attributes these disparities a product of social stigmatization, which is the experience of societal rejection due to the negative stereotypes associated with group membership. Social stigma is correlated with adverse effects; the current research explores the possibility that stigma can alter the extent to which others are included in one’s sense of self, also known as cultural relationality. Study 1 investigated this relationship by measuring both stigma and relationality using self-report measures and found relationality to be negatively correlated ...


Positive And Negative Emotion, Group Climate, And Ethnocultural Empathy In Intergroup Dialogue, Keri Frantell May 2016

Positive And Negative Emotion, Group Climate, And Ethnocultural Empathy In Intergroup Dialogue, Keri Frantell

Masters Theses

We examined shared emotional experiences of 89 participants in 24 intergroup dialogue (IGD) groups at a large, public university in the Southeastern US. These groups brought together students for sustained dialogue about gender, race and ethnicity, religion and spirituality, sexual orientation, or social class and associated forms of privilege and oppression. They were designed to develop: (a) relationships across groups, (b) critical social consciousness, and (c) capacities to promote social justice. Dialogue groups met for eight consecutive weeks. After each session, participants completed measures of group climate and positive and negative emotion during the session. In addition, they completed a ...


Isolated Words Selectively Enhance Memory For High Transitional Probability Sound Sequences, Ferhat Karaman May 2016

Isolated Words Selectively Enhance Memory For High Transitional Probability Sound Sequences, Ferhat Karaman

Masters Theses

Research over the past two decades has demonstrated that infants are equipped with remarkable computational abilities that allow them to find words in continuous speech. Infants can encode information about the transitional probability (TP) between syllables to segment words from speech when tested immediately after familiarization with an artificial (e.g., Saffran, Aslin & Newport, 1996) or natural language (Pelucchi, Hay, & Saffran, 2009). However, infants’ ability to retain the sequential statistics beyond the immediate familiarization context remains unknown. In the present study, we examine infants’ memory for statistically-defined words 10- minutes following familiarization with a naturally produced Italian corpus. Eight-month-old English-learning ...


Does Hypnosis Facilitate Primary Process Mentation? An Inquiry Into The Psychoanalytic Theories Of Hypnosis And Thinking, Gyrid Lyon May 2016

Does Hypnosis Facilitate Primary Process Mentation? An Inquiry Into The Psychoanalytic Theories Of Hypnosis And Thinking, Gyrid Lyon

Masters Theses

The distinction between primary and secondary process mentation is an important part of the psychoanalytic model of cognitive functioning. Primary processes are most characteristic of unconscious thought, loose associations, dreams, and reverie; and secondary processes predominate during the waking, conscious life of most mature adults and are characterized by logical thinking and planning. It has been theorized that one characteristic of the hypnotic state is that it facilitates an increase in primary process mentation. The present study tests this theory using a recently developed, brief, and nonverbal measure of primary process mentation: the GeoCat. Specifically, the current study tests the ...


Observing Parenting In The Context Of Maternal Borderline Personality Disorder And Adolescent Symptomatology, Rebecca Meredith Mahan May 2016

Observing Parenting In The Context Of Maternal Borderline Personality Disorder And Adolescent Symptomatology, Rebecca Meredith Mahan

Masters Theses

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and chronic disorder characterized by a distorted sense of self, fear of abandonment, and difficulties forming and maintaining relationships. Two empirically supported developmental antecedents of offspring borderline features include invalidating parenting practices and maternal BPD. Recent research found that parental psychological control is one type of invalidating parenting behavior that is related to maternal borderline symptoms. The current study observed maternal psychologically controlling behaviors among a sample of 56 adolescents ages 14-18 and their mothers, who were divided into groups of those diagnosed with BPD (n = 28) and those who did not have ...


Obesity In Society: The Importance Of Perception, Michael Darnell Oliver Ii May 2016

Obesity In Society: The Importance Of Perception, Michael Darnell Oliver Ii

Masters Theses

In the current study, I examined the role of positive and negative media images of obese individuals on attitudes and physiological responding in relation to an actual discrimination incident. Various surveys were administered and Body Mass Index (BMI), salivary Alpha Amylase (sAA), and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) or Skin Conductance (SC) were measured. Participants read a vignette in which an obese individual was discriminated against and further questions were administered to assess attributional blame. My primary hypothesis in this study was that there would be a decrease in stigma due to positive priming, specifically stigma directed at the obese population ...


The Effects Of Cognitive Rehabilitation For Improving Prospective Memory In Acquired Brain Injury, Emily M. Aiken Apr 2016

The Effects Of Cognitive Rehabilitation For Improving Prospective Memory In Acquired Brain Injury, Emily M. Aiken

Masters Theses

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) includes any damage to the brain resulting from traumatic (e.g. motor vehicle accident) or non-traumatic (e.g. stroke) incidence, that occurs after birth and is not resulting from genetic or congenital factors. Individuals with ABI report that prospective memory (PM) deficits are the most detrimental cognitive impairment following injury, persistently and negatively impacting their ability to function properly in everyday life. PM refers to the ability to remember to carry out intended tasks in the future, including the recall of both time and event regulated intentions. Using neuropsychological assessments to produce patient deficit profiles, this ...