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Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Harmony I. Risca Aug 2018

Contribution Of Monoaminergic Mechanisms To The Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (Mdpv) In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Harmony I. Risca

Master's Theses

3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular synthetic cathinone reported to have a high abuse potential and comparable pharmacological actions to those of cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate a variety of monoaminergic agents for substitution, potentiation, or antagonism in rats trained to discriminate MDPV. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.5 mg/kg MDPV and a variety of monoaminergic drugs were tested for substitution and/or potentiation of the MDPV cue. In separate experiments, stimulus antagonism tests were conducted with selected dopamine antagonists or serotonin antagonists in rats trained to discriminate 1 mg/kg MDPV ...


The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Jonathan M. Hochmuth Aug 2018

The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Jonathan M. Hochmuth

Master's Theses

The gateway in-street sign treatment has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for increasing driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. In the present study, wide and narrow gateway widths were compared at two sites to determine if there was a differential effect on driver yielding behavior. Then, the relationship between width and yielding was refined with a parametric analysis at one of these sites. Gateway width was varied in two-foot intervals from 12ft to 18ft. The results indicated an inverse relationship between gateway width and driver yielding behavior. There are likely two variables related to this effect. First, because drivers ...


Don’T Worry Be Happy: Analysis Of Happiness As An Economic Measurement, Kofi Boadu May 2018

Don’T Worry Be Happy: Analysis Of Happiness As An Economic Measurement, Kofi Boadu

Master's Theses

Everyone wants to be happy. Happiness however never seems to be a national goal. A possible answer is that happiness is subjective and on its own may not be reflective of the economic status of a country. Therefore, should people’s happiness should be treated equally with other traditional economic measurements? This cross-country level study looks at the relationship between happiness and traditional economic measurements; mainly GDP per capita. Questions concerning whether GDP per capita indeed captures the overall well-being of a citizen and happiness’ eligibility as an economic measurement are addressed. Findings confirm that happiness and GDP per capita ...


Comparing The Relative Effectiveness Of Function-Based Antecedent And Reinforcement Interventions For Increasing Preschoolers’ Appropriate Behavior, Ashley Murphy May 2018

Comparing The Relative Effectiveness Of Function-Based Antecedent And Reinforcement Interventions For Increasing Preschoolers’ Appropriate Behavior, Ashley Murphy

Master's Theses

The current study extended current literature regarding using brief functional analysis methodologies to inform function-based intervention for increasing preschool students’ academically engaged behavior. Teachers were prompted through brief functional analysis procedures by the researcher. Brief functional analysis results informed two function-based interventions: an antecedent intervention - pre-session non-contingent reinforcement, and a reinforcement intervention – differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. The two interventions were compared according to effectiveness on increasing preschool students’ academically engaged behavior and social validity ratings from teachers. Results indicated for all three participants the reinforcement intervention was not only more effective, but also received higher social validity ratings.


Improving Interview Skills In College Students Using Behavioral Skills And In Situ Training, Laura-Katherine Barker May 2018

Improving Interview Skills In College Students Using Behavioral Skills And In Situ Training, Laura-Katherine Barker

Master's Theses

Successful interviewing skills help maximize the probability that a job candidate will make a positive impression upon a prospective employer. An area of continued concern related to potential employee readiness involves performance in interviews. Questions remain regarding the effectiveness of higher educational systems to develop the variety of efficient skills necessary for students to showcase the full array of their qualifications within an interview. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is a behavior analytic training package that has been shown to increase appropriate interview skills. In situ training (IST), also known as in-the-moment-training, has been offered as a method to improve the ...


Behavioral Skills Training To Teach Correct Heading Skills To Youth Soccer Players, Laura Quintero May 2018

Behavioral Skills Training To Teach Correct Heading Skills To Youth Soccer Players, Laura Quintero

Master's Theses

Recently, concerns regarding sport-related concussions have increased within the research literature, the media, and popular culture. It is unknown to what degree purposefully striking the ball with one’s head (i.e. heading) contributes to concussions within youth soccer. There is currently limited research on an effective teaching method to improve heading technique. Due to the numerous applications of Behavioral Skills Training (BST) to teach a wide variety of behaviors, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of BST to teach correct heading techniques to youth soccer players. A task analysis was produced to score each ...


The Conundrum Of Causal Reasoning In Elephants, Beri Brown May 2018

The Conundrum Of Causal Reasoning In Elephants, Beri Brown

Master's Theses

Causal reasoning is marked by the ability to mentally reconstruct the missing part of a sequence in order to reproduce an outcome. While research on causal reasoning has been done with children, the results of the studies have been inconsistent. A standardized paradigm for comparative causal reasoning studies does not exist. Nissani (2006) investigated causal reasoning in a tool-use task with elephants and concluded that elephants were not capable of causal reasoning. The current study, a modified replication, yielded results that were not congruent with Nissani’s (2006) manuscript. Additionally, it was very unlikely that the Nissani (2006) study truly ...


A Meat Paradox: Media's Role In Mitigating The Omnivore's Dilemma, Karyn Lewis May 2018

A Meat Paradox: Media's Role In Mitigating The Omnivore's Dilemma, Karyn Lewis

Master's Theses

The purpose of this research is to identify and understand media’s role in meat consumption and a disassociation of meat and its animal of origin. This study questions consumer behavior based on media portrayals of meat products as well as how consumers perceive these portrayals, meat consumption patterns based on media and family influence, and the types and levels of satisfaction (ex: self-esteem or masculinity) consumers receive from meat products.

A quantitative research approach was proposed for this study. The primary research method was a survey among students, faculty and staff at The University of Southern Mississippi. A total ...


Attitude Heuristics Of Mental Illness Proneness And Sexual Orientation, Summer Mcdonald May 2018

Attitude Heuristics Of Mental Illness Proneness And Sexual Orientation, Summer Mcdonald

Master's Theses

Every person unconsciously uses attitude heuristics to categorize individuals as either “good” or “bad.” The current study examines the question of whether or not age and gender play a role in the perceptions of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals being more prone to mental illness because of their sexual orientation based on the observer’s attitude heuristics. The participants for this study will be 200 anonymous online individuals from across the United States. Participants will complete a survey designed to measure their attitudes toward sexual orientation, mental illness, simple core beliefs/values, and attitude heuristics based on generalized standards ...


The Moderating Role Of Pbs In The Relationship Between Positive Expectancies And Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences, Kray Scully May 2018

The Moderating Role Of Pbs In The Relationship Between Positive Expectancies And Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences, Kray Scully

Master's Theses

Hazardous drinking college students have become an increasingly focused upon group within alcohol research, especially considering the extent of negative consequences they experience. Recently, increased positive expectancies has been identified as an influential contributor to increased hazardous drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. However, more comprehensive evaluation of the domains of positive expectancies (e.g., sociability, tension reduction, sexual enhancement, liquid courage) is warranted to ascertain which types are more salient in predicting hazardous drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, research has yet to explore how protective behavioral strategies (PBS) affect the strength of the associations between specific positive expectancies and ...


The Role Of Emotion Regulation In The Relationship Between Trait Anger And Relational Aggression, Skylar Hicks May 2018

The Role Of Emotion Regulation In The Relationship Between Trait Anger And Relational Aggression, Skylar Hicks

Master's Theses

Relational aggression (RA) has been linked to a number of serious problems for all age ranges, especially in young children, adolescents, and emerging adults. Elevated trait anger appears to be positively related to both peer and romantic RA, and there is some evidence that difficulties with emotion regulation are positively associated with RA as well. The present study investigated the role of emotion regulation as a potential moderator of the relationship between trait anger and RA in a college student sample (N = 307) while taking general negative affect into account. As expected, trait anger was a positive predictor of peer ...


Natural Disasters And Attachment Quality: The Mediating Role Of Coping, Alexandra Teller Mar 2018

Natural Disasters And Attachment Quality: The Mediating Role Of Coping, Alexandra Teller

Master's Theses

Research shows a strong relationship between children’s exposure to a natural disaster, parental distress, and development of mental health problems. It is theorized that trauma-related parental distress is associated with maladaptive parenting behaviors, which negatively impact the psychological development of children. The long-term impact of trauma exposure from a natural disaster on parent-child relationship quality and mental health outcomes for emerging adults has only been minimally investigated. The use of adaptive coping strategies has been found to be helpful for preventing mental health problems, while maladaptive coping has been associated with the development of psychopathology. The present study examined ...


What's Wrong With Being Single: Lowered Relational Value Bias Toward Single People, Darian Farrell Jan 2018

What's Wrong With Being Single: Lowered Relational Value Bias Toward Single People, Darian Farrell

Master's Theses

This study examined the perceived relational value of single individuals (compared to that of coupled individuals). I hypothesized that, participants would be more likely to make the conjunction fallacy in the single condition vs. the coupled condition, when asked whether or not it was more likely that the target person from the condition was a single teacher vs. teacher. The data supported my hypothesis: participants in the single condition were significantly more likely to make the conjunction fallacy than participants in the coupled condition. My study also tested whether or not the need to belong acted as a moderator for ...


Voice Pitch Influences On Teaching Evaluations And Student Learning, Thomas Augustin Jan 2018

Voice Pitch Influences On Teaching Evaluations And Student Learning, Thomas Augustin

Master's Theses

Prior research in the realm of marketing and voting behaviors have indicated how voice pitch can have an impact on consumers’ and voters’ perception of personality characteristics. With the rise of online lectures, this study examined the impact of voice pitch, gender of a professor, and the subject taught on professor evaluation and student learning. The study simulated an online lecture where participants listened to a prerecorded lesson of Generalized Anxiety Disorder or Standard Deviation. This study looked to see if different voice pitch (high pitch, low pitch) of opposing genders (male, female) would have an effect on a student ...


The Psychopath's Worldview: How Psychopathy Affects Attitudes Towards Others, Arianne Fisher Jan 2018

The Psychopath's Worldview: How Psychopathy Affects Attitudes Towards Others, Arianne Fisher

Master's Theses

Psychopathy has been related to overall negative perceptions of others in past research, but the reason for these negative attitudes is unclear. The current study investigated the relationship between psychopathy and attitudes toward others and attempted to explain these negative attitudes by testing empathy and early maladaptive schemas as mediators and social dominance orientation as a moderator for this relationship. There were 191 participants in the current study; participants first read a short story and took a scale assessing attitudes toward the characters; then, they completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the SDO7, the Young Schema Questionnaire-SF, and the Levenson Self-Report ...


Mobile Mindfulness: There's An App For That!, Katelyn J. Haschke Jan 2018

Mobile Mindfulness: There's An App For That!, Katelyn J. Haschke

Master's Theses

Previous research indicates that practicing mindfulness-based strategies over an extended period of time may positively impact individuals’ well-being, such as improved mood and cognitive performance (Chambers, Lo, & Allen, 2008; Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Kabat-Zinn, 2003; Mrazek, Franklin, Phillips, Baird, & Schooler, 2013). This research also indicates there may be immediate benefits to practicing mindfulness strategies; however, a majority of the existing literature on this topic has focused primarily on extended mindfulness-practices over several weeks with an in-person guide or trained researcher. The purpose of the current study was two-fold. First, how practicing one of two mindfulness-based strategies for a short period of time (e.g., less than two minutes per day over a one week period) influenced several psychological variables ...


Assessing English Language Learners' Motivation To Participate In Classroom Discussion, Holly Griskell Jan 2018

Assessing English Language Learners' Motivation To Participate In Classroom Discussion, Holly Griskell

Master's Theses

This study assesses sixth-grade Spanish-speaking English Language Learners' (ELLs'; m age = 12.15 years old) participation and motivation to participate in classroom discussion through developing a 20-item measure, the Motivation for Classroom Discussion Questionnaire (MCD-Q) (Study 1 n = 258). We examined the relation between ELLs' bi-literacy and MCD-Q scores as well as amount of talk during discussion, measured by audio-recordings of their English Language Arts class (Study 2 n = 149). Study 1 findings indicated that the MCD-Q items cohered into five motivational constructs (value, language-efficacy, extrinsic motivation, social motivation, and interest). Study 2 findings showed the MCD-Q's predictive validity ...


The Loyola Experience: Increasing Belonging And Retention Among Underrepresented Students, Michelle Seli Aku Adzido Jan 2018

The Loyola Experience: Increasing Belonging And Retention Among Underrepresented Students, Michelle Seli Aku Adzido

Master's Theses

Retaining underrepresented (e.g. first-generation and ethnic minority) students remains a challenge within higher education. Fostering a sense of belonging on campus is key to successfully retaining and increasing academic performance among underrepresented students. Peer-to-peer and faculty mentoring provides opportunities to form social bonds and potentially increase belonging. Mentoring may also connect students from underrepresented backgrounds with campus resources, thus contributing to their knowledge and utilization of campus resources, or self-advocacy. I recruited 95 racial minority and first-generation participants. They reported self-advocacy, belonging, grade point average (GPA), and retention intentions. I test whether participation in a mentoring program (versus control ...


Effects Of Affiliative Motivation And Confrontation Style On Anti-Black Attitudes And Social Consequences, Jamie Patrianakos Jan 2018

Effects Of Affiliative Motivation And Confrontation Style On Anti-Black Attitudes And Social Consequences, Jamie Patrianakos

Master's Theses

Anti-Black racism occurs on a daily basis and comes with both physical and psychological costs to its targets. One effective way to reduce discrimination is through confrontation, which could come in the form of a hostile accusation of racism (hot confrontation) or a polite emphasis on egalitarian values (cold confrontation). However, confronting often has social costs that may include damaging the relationship between the confronter and the perpetrator. This research determined whether social relationships can reduce anti-Black bias while also serving as a buffer against the social consequences of confronting. Participants (n = 168) were randomly assigned to a 2(affiliative ...


A Sociofunctional Approach To Understanding Transphobia, Linas Mitchell Jan 2018

A Sociofunctional Approach To Understanding Transphobia, Linas Mitchell

Master's Theses

Despite widespread evidence of anti-transgender prejudice and discrimination, research has yet to determine the nature of prejudice against transgender people. This study used the sociofunctional threat approach (Cottrell & Neuberg, 2005) to examine threat perceptions (contamination threats, obstacle threats, physical safety threats, and threats to reciprocity relations) and emotional reactions (disgust, anger, fear, pity) to transgender (transgender women, transgender men, and nonbinary people) and cisgender (cisgender women, cisgender men, and bisexual people) targets. Results from an online survey suggest that transgender targets evoke higher threat perceptions and negative emotions than cisgender targets; additionally, this tended to be the case for male participants more often than female participants. These results provide more details on the negative associations that underlie transphobia, providing stepping stones for focusing future interventions.


Life Being An International Student In The United States: Acculturation, Culture Shock, And Identity Transformation, Lai Yan Vivyan Lam Dec 2017

Life Being An International Student In The United States: Acculturation, Culture Shock, And Identity Transformation, Lai Yan Vivyan Lam

Master's Theses

The population of international students at community colleges in the United States has increased significantly over the past decade. International students play a big role in building the cultural diversity on campus by bringing over different cultures and sharing their global perspective to the local community. However, they often face challenges adapting into American culture due to cultural differences in education system, language, lifestyle, etc. By looking into the acculturation process of international students to analyze the culture shock and cultural identity changes they experienced, this paper intends to seek ways to help this group of students to ease their ...


What Do Work Value Differentiation And Profile Elevation Predict?, Jinhao Chi Dec 2017

What Do Work Value Differentiation And Profile Elevation Predict?, Jinhao Chi

Master's Theses

Using a sample of 251 college students, it was found that 1) when differentiation (D) of work values was calculated using three indices, high-low D, Iachan D, and variance D, only Iachan D positively related to indecision but high-low D and variance D did not, 2) none of the three indices of D related to career maturity, 3) work values profile elevation (PE) positively related to extraversion, openness, and negatively related to depressive symptoms and career indecision but was unrelated to career certainty and neuroticism and 4) work values PE moderated the relationship between Iachan D and career indecision. The ...


The Role Of Pain Persistence In The Association Between Negative Urgency And Suicidal Behavior, Hyejin Jin Dec 2017

The Role Of Pain Persistence In The Association Between Negative Urgency And Suicidal Behavior, Hyejin Jin

Master's Theses

Impulsivity has been identified as an important component of suicidal behavior (Mann et al., 1999) but the relationship has been shown to be indirect through painful and provocative events (PPEs; Bender, Gordon, Bresin, Joiner, 2011). Negative urgency (NU) is a subscale of impulsivity (Cyders et al., 2007) that has been associated with high engagement of PPEs such as non-suicidal self-injury because individuals high in NU are highly motivated to eliminate the aversive emotion (Anestis & Joiner, 2011). Past research found that repeated PPEs may increase the capability for suicide by changing how one responds to pain, thereby increasing their pain persistence ...


Academic Burnout In College Students: The Impact Of Personality Characteristics And Academic Term On Burnout, Daphne Norez Nov 2017

Academic Burnout In College Students: The Impact Of Personality Characteristics And Academic Term On Burnout, Daphne Norez

Master's Theses

Burnout is a condition which can affect people in a variety of settings. It is associated with reduced productivity and satisfaction; increased rates of mood disorders such as depression and anxiety and a plethora of physical problems including increased inflammation biomarkers and cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, sleep disturbances, changes in appetite, fatigue, lowered immunity, headaches, and gastrointestinal distress. Burnout has primarily been studied as an occupational hazard, but there is increasing evidence that it is a condition that can be experienced in other settings, such as school. The purpose of this study was to investigate how personality characteristics (such as ...


The Effects Of Real-Time Visual Performance Feedback Using A Tier Approach For Increasing Behavior Specific Praise On Teachers, Elizabeth Lown Aug 2017

The Effects Of Real-Time Visual Performance Feedback Using A Tier Approach For Increasing Behavior Specific Praise On Teachers, Elizabeth Lown

Master's Theses

A number of studies have found behavior specific praise to be effective in increasing academically engaged behaviors and decreasing disruptive behaviors of students. The proposed study evaluated the effects of real-time visual performance feedback as a strategy for promoting teacher use of behavior-specific praise. An ABCBC design was utilized to determine the efficacy of real-time visual performance feedback in comparison to delayed visual performance feedback. The primary dependent variable measured was teacher use of behavior-specific praise. Additionally, student outcomes were assessed to determine the relationship between teacher use of behavior-specific praise and student behavior. The results from the study provide ...


The Effects Of Plickers As Response Cards On Academic Engagement Behavior In High School Students, Morgan G. Mccargo Jul 2017

The Effects Of Plickers As Response Cards On Academic Engagement Behavior In High School Students, Morgan G. Mccargo

Master's Theses

Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of increasing student opportunities to respond for increasing academically engaged behavior. The use of response cards has held the most efficacy in terms of increasing opportunities to respond, yet no research has been done with the addition of a technology component. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of technology-based response cards on increasing academically engaged behavior of students in three high school general education classrooms. It is hypothesized that the use of Plickers® will increase academically engaged behavior classwide and decrease disruptive behavior across students in all three classrooms.


Effects Of A Function-Based Peer Management Intervention With Middle-School Students With Adhd, Kate A. Helbig Jul 2017

Effects Of A Function-Based Peer Management Intervention With Middle-School Students With Adhd, Kate A. Helbig

Master's Theses

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impairment in functioning due to inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity, as well as difficulties in school with social rejection and academic underachievement (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a peer-mediated non-contingent reinforcement (NCR) intervention informed by functional assessment data to decrease disruptive behavior for students with a special education classification of OHI-ADHD. Participants included three student dyads in a middle school setting located in the Southeastern United States. An A/B/A/B withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention ...


Effects Of Low Dose Mixtures Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And Cocaine On Locomotor Activity And Brain Monoamine Content In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Robert J. Kohler Jun 2017

Effects Of Low Dose Mixtures Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And Cocaine On Locomotor Activity And Brain Monoamine Content In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Robert J. Kohler

Master's Theses

Synthetic cathinones, known as “bath salts” on the illicit drug market, pose a significant and growing public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of the illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV + 5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline. Locomotor activity was assessed for one hour immediately ...


Inentives And Education: Experimental Evidence From Medellin, Colombia, Theodore D. Wisinski, Alessandra Cassar May 2017

Inentives And Education: Experimental Evidence From Medellin, Colombia, Theodore D. Wisinski, Alessandra Cassar

Master's Theses

This research uses an experimental design to investigate how incentive structure influences goal achievement among disadvantaged high school students in Medellin, Colombia. Of particular interest is how treatment effects influence school performance as well as how this may vary with differing key characteristics of the participants. Medellin, Colombia, like much of South America suffers from high levels of inequality in the city proper. Improving educational outcomes in impoverished neighborhoods is essential for the growth of these neighborhoods and the greater community in which they are located. The model used in this experiment is inspired by the Family Independence Initiative (FII ...


Generating Prevalence Estimates Of Sensitive Behaviors Through List Randomization: Survey Experiment Among Indian Males, Abha Indurkar May 2017

Generating Prevalence Estimates Of Sensitive Behaviors Through List Randomization: Survey Experiment Among Indian Males, Abha Indurkar

Master's Theses

Survey respondents may under-report or misreport sensitive behaviors due to social desirability bias. List randomization is an indirect way of asking questions which allows respondents to answer sensitive questions without the surveyor knowing their actual response. This has emerged as a new technique to ask sensitive questions as it reduces respondent’s discomfort while reporting sensitive behaviors. In this study, we apply list randomization to generate prevalence estimates of sensitive behaviors and perception related to homosexuality, molestation of women and notion of partner purity in the sample of young, college educated Indian males. Our findings are consistent with the literature ...