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A Comparison Of Reading And Listening Performances Of Braille And Print Readers, Betty P. Zook Dec 1981

A Comparison Of Reading And Listening Performances Of Braille And Print Readers, Betty P. Zook

Master's Theses

Blind and sighted subjects were tested on their capability to retain information after both reading and listening to specially prepared printed and taped materials. The sample consisted of graduate students and professional individuals. It was found that, on the average, subjects retained more after reading than listening. This effect was more pronounced in the braille reading subjects. As the level of complexity of the material increased, the difference in the points earned between the two modalities, reading and listening, increased significantly. A behavioral analysis suggested some reasons for this difference. It was suggested that further research into reading and listening ...


Effect Of Informational Posting And Employee Inspection On Safety Hazard Reduction In A Retail Drug Store, Craig A. Berger Dec 1981

Effect Of Informational Posting And Employee Inspection On Safety Hazard Reduction In A Retail Drug Store, Craig A. Berger

Master's Theses

Undesired safety conditions were operationally defined for a large retail drug store. The recording of unsafe conditions were conducted for two different employee shifts for ten weeks. A multiple baseline design (ABC-ACB) was used in which three conditions were introduced: (a) baseline, (b) public posting of a safety performance chart, and (c) individual employee inspections. Results indicated that the frequency of safety hazards declined 23% from baseline for the public post-condition and declined 44% for the employee inspection condition (averaged across both shifts). An advanced analysis of variance indicated significant mean differences (p < .01) between baseline and employee inspection for both shifts. An additional measure was taken correlating photograph ratings by employees on a safety dimension and an attractiveness dimension. The coefficient of correlation was statistically significant (r = .76; p <.05). The results indicate that a training program involving employee inspections may be an effective way of reducing undesirable safety conditions.


Effects Of Informational Data Upon Attendance In An Industrial Setting, Karen T. Suarez Dec 1981

Effects Of Informational Data Upon Attendance In An Industrial Setting, Karen T. Suarez

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of informational data on employee attendance in an industrial setting. It was believed that knowledge of attendance rates would encourage employees to improve their attendance. An average of 50 male employees ranging from 22 to 55 years of age were included in the study. The procedure involved the implementation of publicly posted graphs which displayed attendance rates for the total department and each shift according to an ABA reversal design. Attendance rates were calculated and graphs updated each week by the department's superintendent. In addition, a brief questionnaire was ...


Improving On-The-Job Performance Of Restaurant Employees Through Behavior Modification Techniques, Patricia A. Kershek Dec 1981

Improving On-The-Job Performance Of Restaurant Employees Through Behavior Modification Techniques, Patricia A. Kershek

Master's Theses

Behavior modification techniques were used to improve the performance of individual employees in a restaurant setting. Desired performance was defined in operational terms. Contingent upon observations of desired behavior, procedures involving praise, performance charts, and bonuses were implemented according to an ABCB design. After applying both praise and performance charts, bonuses were added so that all three techniques were in operation. Then, bonuses were discontinued. Results indicated that while employee performance (quality of performance and time spent on the job) improved when praise and performance charts were applied, the addition of a bonus led to even further improvement. Hence, bonuses ...


The Effects Of Music On The Duration Of Time Spent In A Store By A Customer, Danita J. Mussatto Dec 1981

The Effects Of Music On The Duration Of Time Spent In A Store By A Customer, Danita J. Mussatto

Master's Theses

The present study was compared the effects of employing music and withholding music in a retail setting. Over a three week experimental period, the duration of time customers spent in a store was recorded. The music system was first employed (Phase I), next the customers were subject to an environment void of music (Phase II), and then the music system was reimplemented (Phase III). During Phase II customers spent significantly less time in the store than in Phase I or Phase III. Another store, employing music continually, was used to control extraneous sources of variability. The results provide empirical verification ...


Prompts And Feedback As A Means Of Increasing A Customer Service Behavior In A Family Restaurant, David B. Lennox Dec 1981

Prompts And Feedback As A Means Of Increasing A Customer Service Behavior In A Family Restaurant, David B. Lennox

Master's Theses

Although waiters and waitresses traditionally receive a gratuity based upon quality of service from customers, it may be difficult for them to interpret the amount of the gratuity as an indicator of good service or bad service. This ambiguity could be a result of different amounts of customer checks or faulty comparisons of total dollar amounts (total for the working shift) without taking into consideration the total dollar amount of the customer checks or the number of customers served. This study was conducted to provide accurate information for waitresses regarding gratuity percentage received from customers while monitoring its effects on ...


Matching-To-Sample In The Pigeon: An Analysis Of The Effects Of Correction And Noncorrection Procedures, Deborah Lou Grossett Dec 1981

Matching-To-Sample In The Pigeon: An Analysis Of The Effects Of Correction And Noncorrection Procedures, Deborah Lou Grossett

Master's Theses

Contradictory results concerning the effect that presence or absence of a correction procedure has on matching-to-sample were obtained by past studies (Carter and Werner, 1978; Thomas, 1979). Carter and Werner (1978) reported that exposure to a correction procedure resulted in an increase in accuracy, while Thomas (1979) found no difference between the noncorrection and correction procedures. The present study showed that exposure to a correction procedure resulted in an increase in accuracy in comparison to a noncorrection procedure during acquisition, but not during maintenance.

Past studies (Holt and Shafer, 1973; Thomas, 1979), using a correction procedure, showed that presence of ...


The Perceived Utility Of The Job Model As A Planning Document For Faculty Members, Victoria Kai-Cacho Dec 1981

The Perceived Utility Of The Job Model As A Planning Document For Faculty Members, Victoria Kai-Cacho

Master's Theses

A job model for faculty activity plans was developed based on an interview and a questionnaire response from 14 Western Michigan University professors. Perceived accuracy and usefulness of the job model were measured by a questionnaire designed by the investigator. Responses were analyzed by computing the mean ratings of each item included in the questionnaire. The job model was perceived as an accurate and useful instrument for faculty activity plans, self-development and faculty evaluation. However, methodological limitations suggest that further empirical research with a large sample and participation of administrative officers and students, in addition to faculty members, will be ...


Recognition And Recall Memory As A Function Of Intentional And Incidental Learning Of An Eyewitness Account, Jill L. Ricke Nov 1981

Recognition And Recall Memory As A Function Of Intentional And Incidental Learning Of An Eyewitness Account, Jill L. Ricke

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between recognition and recall memory as a function of intentional and incidental learning of a eyewitness event. A total of 188 college students participated in the experiment with 47 students in each of four conditions. The two learning conditions were produced by giving either intentional or incidental learning instructions while the two memory conditions, either recognition or recall, were defined on the basis of one of two forms of the retention questionnaire. All subjects viewed two groups of slides; the first group depicted a wallet of paired-associate nonsense syllables. The ...


Subject Bias In Managerial Evaluation, Don Marie Persing Sep 1981

Subject Bias In Managerial Evaluation, Don Marie Persing

Master's Theses

The following research considered the influence of the sex of the manager being evaluated, the age, managerial level, educational level and sex of the subject upon the evaluation of management behavior. A five-page questionnaire presenting four examples of managerial behavior for evaluation was administered to 45 male and 133 female managers of a large corporation. Although it was hypothesized that the independent variables would account for the variance in the scores, the multivariate analyses of variance indicated that the research did not produce significant results. Results were discussed in terms of managerial training and implications for future research.


The Effects Of Performance Appraisal On Staff Performance, Steven S. Armstrong Aug 1981

The Effects Of Performance Appraisal On Staff Performance, Steven S. Armstrong

Master's Theses

Performance appraisals are increasing in numbers, but their effectiveness has little empirical validation. A major objective of the present study was to examine the effects of performance appraisals on the actual performance of supervisees. In addition, it assessed the effect of qualitative, rather than quantitative statements by supervisors. Five staff members participated in this study while working as teaching assistants. Ten dependent variables were observed and recorded per individual, after which the experimenter reviewed the baseline data and targeted six dependent variables for change, based on their low frequencies. The independent variable consisted of a performance appraisal which was a ...


The Effects Of Written Instructions And Videotape Modeling On The Quality Of Performance Feedback Provided For Subordinates, Ileana Habsburg-Snyder Aug 1981

The Effects Of Written Instructions And Videotape Modeling On The Quality Of Performance Feedback Provided For Subordinates, Ileana Habsburg-Snyder

Master's Theses

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of instructions and modeling in training supervisors to provide performance feedback to their subordinates. Four part-time supervisors served as subjects. An across subjects multiple-baseline design was used which employed a baseline phase, an instructions phase and a modeling phase. Data were collected on the percentage of component behaviors performed during roleplay test sessions and actual performance reviews. Modeling and instructions were found to be equally effective in training, however, a sequential presentation of both methods increased performance substantially. The effects of transfer of training were also examined. The results suggest that ...


The Effect Of Active-Participation With Feedback In A Videotape, Discrimination-Training Program, Stephen M. Brewer Aug 1981

The Effect Of Active-Participation With Feedback In A Videotape, Discrimination-Training Program, Stephen M. Brewer

Master's Theses

With the use of a multiple-baseline design, the present experiment examined the effect of three training conditions on the acquisition of tutoring techniques in four volunteer college students. The three training conditions were: (1) Guidelines, subjects read and were tested over a manuscript; (2) Passive-Participation Without Feedback, subjects viewed 15 vignettes of a model's correct and incorrect use of tutoring techniques without receiving feedback on the model's behavior; and (3) Active-Participation With Feedback, subjects actively scored and received feedback on the same videotaped model's use of tutoring techniques. Subjects participated in one of the training conditions once ...


Response Latency: A Function Of Within-Session Differences In Intertrial Interval, Training History, Cue Condition, And Ratio Requirement, James Bryant Nuzzo Aug 1981

Response Latency: A Function Of Within-Session Differences In Intertrial Interval, Training History, Cue Condition, And Ratio Requirement, James Bryant Nuzzo

Master's Theses

Skinner has suggested that latency does not vary in an orderly manner and short latencies result from the development of effective waiting behavior not specified by the experimental contingencies. Recent experimentation has found latency to vary as a function of a within-session difference in parameters of reinforcement correlated with two components of a discrete-trial multiple schedule. Also found was the attenuation of within-session differences in latencies with the change in intertrial interval (ITI) from 5 seconds to 20 seconds. This suggests that the ITI may be variable which controls latency. This study investigated the effect on latency of within-session differences ...


A Functional Analysis Of Response Contingent Full Physical Guidance, Richard J. Jackle Aug 1981

A Functional Analysis Of Response Contingent Full Physical Guidance, Richard J. Jackle

Master's Theses

Two experiments were conducted in this study of effects of full physical guidance (folding the subjects' hands) that was made contingent on a mechanically defined leg movement response. Two severely mentally impaired adolescents served as subjects. Experiment I compared the effects of baseline and contingent full physical guidance procedures upon the leg movement response. Experiment I I compared the effects of several procedures incorporating full physical guidance to ones which developed operant baselines of leg movement responses. The results Indicated that full physical guidance functioned as an evocative stimulus for Subject 1 and as mild reinforcement for Subject 2.


An Analysis Of The Behavioral Consequences Of An Attendance Bonus Program, David William Smith Aug 1981

An Analysis Of The Behavioral Consequences Of An Attendance Bonus Program, David William Smith

Master's Theses

Absenteeism is one of the most expensive and complex problems faced by management. Previous efforts to ameliorate attendance problems have focused on demographical analysis of absent workers, providing information of little value in designing remedial programs. The current project is an analysis of an Attendance Bonus Program in terms of contingencies of reinforcement. Six hundred union employees of a manufacturing plant served as subjects, with two comparison plants of 100 and 600 employees as comparative populations. Analysis of the prevailing contingencies identified a number of deficiencies. Attendance reinforcement aspects were appropriate, but a response criterion needs to be established. The ...


Choice As A Dependent Measure In Autoshaping: Sensitivity To Frequency And Duration Of Food Presentation, Mitchell Jon Picker Aug 1981

Choice As A Dependent Measure In Autoshaping: Sensitivity To Frequency And Duration Of Food Presentation, Mitchell Jon Picker

Master's Theses

Previous investigations have shown that rate, latency, and percentage of trials with at least one response are somewhat insensitive measures of the strength of autoshaped responding. In two experiments, nine pigeons were exposed to an autoshaping procedure in which the successive presentation of three stimuli were followed by food on either 100%, 50%, or 0% of the trials. Choice testing involved the simultaneous presentation of the three stimuli. In Experiment I, all pigeons consistently directed their initial choice responses and the majority of subsequent responses to the stimulus always followed by food. In Experiment II, rate, latency, and percentage of ...


Teaching Skill Generalization: Metacognitive And Mnemonic Training Of Educable Mentally Retarded Children, Leslie Z. Paige Jul 1981

Teaching Skill Generalization: Metacognitive And Mnemonic Training Of Educable Mentally Retarded Children, Leslie Z. Paige

Master's Theses

Although previous research has shown that EMR children can be trained to use mnemonic techniques, they are unable to spontaneously transfer this training to dissimilar tasks. In the present study, 18 EMR children were divided into two equal groups. The IM group was trained to use a mnemonic/meta-cognitive strategy for a PA task, and the C group received no training. After training, both groups were tested for their recall of PA (Maintenance), MA (Near Generalization), and FR (Far Generalization) items immediately after training (Immediate Test) and two weeks later (Delayed Test). The IM group recalled significantly more and studied ...


Locus Of Control, Sex, Personal Adjustment And Vascular Stress Response, Kevin Timothy Larkin May 1981

Locus Of Control, Sex, Personal Adjustment And Vascular Stress Response, Kevin Timothy Larkin

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Rotc Vs Non-Rotc Students: Demographic, Attitudes, Behavior, And Personality Differences, Mark A. Pieffer Apr 1981

Rotc Vs Non-Rotc Students: Demographic, Attitudes, Behavior, And Personality Differences, Mark A. Pieffer

Master's Theses

This study looked at similarities and differences between those students who take ROTC at the college level and those who do not. Two hundred sixteen male students at the University of Richmond who had taken the Omnibus Personality Inventory as a freshmen completed a 26-item questionnaire concerning their family economic levels, homes, and past and present school situations. One hundred of the students were past or present ROTC students, while the remainder students have never taken a ROTC course at the college level. A contingency analysis was run on the questionnaire answers and it was found that ROTC students earn ...


The Effects Of Individual Verbal Training Versus Group Verbal Training Upon Preschooler's Corresponding Snack Selection, John W. Hoedl Apr 1981

The Effects Of Individual Verbal Training Versus Group Verbal Training Upon Preschooler's Corresponding Snack Selection, John W. Hoedl

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to compare group correspondence training with individual correspondence training. Groups of individually-trained and group-trained preschoolers were observed for their selection of specific snack items (fruit). First, they were trained to say they would select fruit. Then, social reinforcers were used to attempt to reinforce correspondence. Next, tangible reinforcers were contingent upon correspondence. The Group-Trained Tangible Reinforcement Phase proved the most successful and was replicated across the other groups.


Effects Of Supervisory Feedback Skills On Performance And Job Satisfaction, Kenneth Wayne Barnes Apr 1981

Effects Of Supervisory Feedback Skills On Performance And Job Satisfaction, Kenneth Wayne Barnes

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Improving Staff Performance Through Checklists, Duane Lee Bacon Apr 1981

Improving Staff Performance Through Checklists, Duane Lee Bacon

Master's Theses

Analysis of a checklist system suggested that it may be a useful method of improving staff performance and that three features were important: task definitions, recording responses on checklists, and periodic supervisor review. A checklist system incorporating these features was developed for an administrative staff in a large instructional system. A multiple baseline design and one reversal were used with three small groups of front-line staff, whose task completion was determined by permanent products left by the tasks. The percent of tasks completed improved by 28.8% when the checklist system was in effect. This study indicates that checklists may ...


Increasing Job Performance By Training Employees How To Request Instructions And Feedback, Laverne Talley Alebiosu Apr 1981

Increasing Job Performance By Training Employees How To Request Instructions And Feedback, Laverne Talley Alebiosu

Master's Theses

This study investigated the effectiveness of a procedure to increase the job performance, defined as task completion, of four black adolescents serving as child care aides in a day care center. The trainees were taught to request instructions and feedback from their supervisor. They were also taught to self-record the number of requests for instructions and feedback and the tasks they completed. Training procedures therefore involved a method to increase task performance without any direct intervention on increasing tasks and incorporated these direct instruction techniques: Small group instruction; active responding; the model, lead, and test format; and the use of ...


Stress Relative To The Onset Of Multiple Sclerosis Exacerbations, Charlene A. Horgen Apr 1981

Stress Relative To The Onset Of Multiple Sclerosis Exacerbations, Charlene A. Horgen

Master's Theses

Twelve Multiple Sclerosis (MS) participants recorded weekly on standardized forms, Life Change Units (LCU) and a Neurological Examination Checklist (NE), to determine if a relationship existed between stress and the onset of MS exacerbations. Dicotomizing the LCU values and contrasting these values with the corresponding NE scores, resulted in non-significance using a t-test. Non-significance was found when contrasting dicotomized NE scores and corresponding LCU values. No relationship was indicated when individual subject comparisons of weekly LCU-NE and LCU-NE with one week lag scores were correlated.


The Effects Of Self-Management Training On Academic Performance, Mark R. Dean Apr 1981

The Effects Of Self-Management Training On Academic Performance, Mark R. Dean

Master's Theses

Two studies evaluated the effect of a self-management training program on students' academic performance. In Experiment 1, nine students with low academic scores received an instructional package providing training in self-monitoring, self-recording, and several environmental management techniques designed to increase the duration of studying for quizzes. The students had a median quiz score of low "C" before training and a median quiz score of "B" following training. Follow-up measures indicated that the majority of students were continuing to use these self-management techniques as part of their everyday activities. In Experiment 2, three components of the self-management program were individually evaluated ...


The Effects Of Prompts And Feedback On Frequency Of Teacher Referrals Of Students To A Contract Study Center, Leslie Marie Skinner Apr 1981

The Effects Of Prompts And Feedback On Frequency Of Teacher Referrals Of Students To A Contract Study Center, Leslie Marie Skinner

Master's Theses

Daily student referrals to a contract study center by seven high school teachers were recorded for a total of 95 school days. A reversal design, consisting of various experimental conditions interspersed between repeated baseline conditions, was used to determine if the number of teacher referrals of their students could be increased. Feedback was the only technique that showed minimum experimental control for the teachers that were able to return to baseline. No clear differences were apparent in the effectiveness between the prompting and feedback conditions. The procedures resulted in an increased use of a contract study center by offering students ...


The Effects Of Total Darkness On Stimulus Control, Richard E. Schulman Apr 1981

The Effects Of Total Darkness On Stimulus Control, Richard E. Schulman

Master's Theses

This experiment examined auditory stimulus control in a totally darkened as opposed to an illuminated chamber. All subjects (pigeons) were trained to keypeck in the presence of only a dimly lit green keylight, which was faded until responding was reliably occurring in a totally darkened chamber. When behavior stabilized under a Variable Interval (VI) 30 second schedule of reinforcement in a darkened chamber, subjects were divided into two groups for discriminating training. A Multiple VI 30 second Extinction (EXT) schedule was in effect, with 1-minute components separated by 5-second time-outs. The discriminative stimulus correlated with the VI component was a ...


Self-Injurious Behavior: Evaluations Of Controlling Variables And Interventions, Scott Nelson Schrum Apr 1981

Self-Injurious Behavior: Evaluations Of Controlling Variables And Interventions, Scott Nelson Schrum

Master's Theses

A nested multi-element within a multiple baseline design was used to evaluate potential controlling variables for the self-injurious behavior (SIB) of two severely retarded seventeen-year-old boys. Both subjects had extended histories of SIB which were somewhat unresponsive to prior behavioral programming. For each subject, four variables, attention, escape from a task, sensory stimulation, and mild punishment were evaluated. Results indicated that Subject 1's SIB was controlled by the response produced stimulation. A "package" intervention which included sensory attenuation and punishment procedures was evaluated with Subject 1 and shown to significantly suppress head hitting. A controlling variable was not identified ...


Reduction Of Self-Stimulatory Behavior Through The Use Of Appropriate Toy Training And Sensory Reduction, Jacquelyn A. Rouh Apr 1981

Reduction Of Self-Stimulatory Behavior Through The Use Of Appropriate Toy Training And Sensory Reduction, Jacquelyn A. Rouh

Master's Theses

Reduction of self-stimulatory behaviors in retarded and autistic children is desirable for a variety of reasons, including prevention of self-injurious behavior and increase in appropriate leisure activities. In this study, three autistic boys who exhibited hand-clasping, chin-grazing, and finger-waving were exposed to toys and received toy training on selected groups of toys. The toys consisted of stimulating toys, selecting toys, selected to replicate the sensory effects of their self-stimulation, and non-stimulating toys, selected to replicate a modality different from their self-stimulation from 85% of intervals observed and 11.3% to 0% and 7%, respectively. The third subject required the use ...