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What's Wrong With Being Single: Lowered Relational Value Bias Toward Single People, Darian Farrell Jan 2018

What's Wrong With Being Single: Lowered Relational Value Bias Toward Single People, Darian Farrell

Master's Theses

This study examined the perceived relational value of single individuals (compared to that of coupled individuals). I hypothesized that, participants would be more likely to make the conjunction fallacy in the single condition vs. the coupled condition, when asked whether or not it was more likely that the target person from the condition was a single teacher vs. teacher. The data supported my hypothesis: participants in the single condition were significantly more likely to make the conjunction fallacy than participants in the coupled condition. My study also tested whether or not the need to belong acted as a moderator for ...


Assessing English Language Learners' Motivation To Participate In Classroom Discussion, Holly Griskell Jan 2018

Assessing English Language Learners' Motivation To Participate In Classroom Discussion, Holly Griskell

Master's Theses

This study assesses sixth-grade Spanish-speaking English Language Learners' (ELLs'; m age = 12.15 years old) participation and motivation to participate in classroom discussion through developing a 20-item measure, the Motivation for Classroom Discussion Questionnaire (MCD-Q) (Study 1 n = 258). We examined the relation between ELLs' bi-literacy and MCD-Q scores as well as amount of talk during discussion, measured by audio-recordings of their English Language Arts class (Study 2 n = 149). Study 1 findings indicated that the MCD-Q items cohered into five motivational constructs (value, language-efficacy, extrinsic motivation, social motivation, and interest). Study 2 findings showed the MCD-Q's predictive validity ...


The Loyola Experience: Increasing Belonging And Retention Among Underrepresented Students, Michelle Seli Aku Adzido Jan 2018

The Loyola Experience: Increasing Belonging And Retention Among Underrepresented Students, Michelle Seli Aku Adzido

Master's Theses

Retaining underrepresented (e.g. first-generation and ethnic minority) students remains a challenge within higher education. Fostering a sense of belonging on campus is key to successfully retaining and increasing academic performance among underrepresented students. Peer-to-peer and faculty mentoring provides opportunities to form social bonds and potentially increase belonging. Mentoring may also connect students from underrepresented backgrounds with campus resources, thus contributing to their knowledge and utilization of campus resources, or self-advocacy. I recruited 95 racial minority and first-generation participants. They reported self-advocacy, belonging, grade point average (GPA), and retention intentions. I test whether participation in a mentoring program (versus control ...


Effects Of Affiliative Motivation And Confrontation Style On Anti-Black Attitudes And Social Consequences, Jamie Patrianakos Jan 2018

Effects Of Affiliative Motivation And Confrontation Style On Anti-Black Attitudes And Social Consequences, Jamie Patrianakos

Master's Theses

Anti-Black racism occurs on a daily basis and comes with both physical and psychological costs to its targets. One effective way to reduce discrimination is through confrontation, which could come in the form of a hostile accusation of racism (hot confrontation) or a polite emphasis on egalitarian values (cold confrontation). However, confronting often has social costs that may include damaging the relationship between the confronter and the perpetrator. This research determined whether social relationships can reduce anti-Black bias while also serving as a buffer against the social consequences of confronting. Participants (n = 168) were randomly assigned to a 2(affiliative ...


A Sociofunctional Approach To Understanding Transphobia, Linas Mitchell Jan 2018

A Sociofunctional Approach To Understanding Transphobia, Linas Mitchell

Master's Theses

Despite widespread evidence of anti-transgender prejudice and discrimination, research has yet to determine the nature of prejudice against transgender people. This study used the sociofunctional threat approach (Cottrell & Neuberg, 2005) to examine threat perceptions (contamination threats, obstacle threats, physical safety threats, and threats to reciprocity relations) and emotional reactions (disgust, anger, fear, pity) to transgender (transgender women, transgender men, and nonbinary people) and cisgender (cisgender women, cisgender men, and bisexual people) targets. Results from an online survey suggest that transgender targets evoke higher threat perceptions and negative emotions than cisgender targets; additionally, this tended to be the case for male participants more often than female participants. These results provide more details on the negative associations that underlie transphobia, providing stepping stones for focusing future interventions.


Intersectional Stereotypes Of Race, Gender, And Facial Structure And Evaluative Judgments Of Leadership Ability And Workplace Fit, Avery Nichole Waklatsi Jan 2017

Intersectional Stereotypes Of Race, Gender, And Facial Structure And Evaluative Judgments Of Leadership Ability And Workplace Fit, Avery Nichole Waklatsi

Master's Theses

Though the labor market is highly competitive and diverse, minority groups only hold 26.7%, of board positions, in companies on the Fortune 500 list (Alliance for Board Diversity Census, 2013). When tasked with hiring managers whom are presented with equivalent job qualifications, evaluators may rely on their subjective impressions in making an employment decision. The evaluator's subjective impressions may be informed by stereotypes of the groups to which applicants belong. The current study tests how stereotypes pertaining to race, gender, and facial structure inform evaluator judgments of managerial applicants' leadership ability and workplace fit. Leadership ability and workplace ...


Developmental Assets And Outcomes: An Analysis Of Male Serious Juvenile Offenders To Promote Evidence Based Approaches For Rehabilitation, Danielle Jordan Nesi Jan 2017

Developmental Assets And Outcomes: An Analysis Of Male Serious Juvenile Offenders To Promote Evidence Based Approaches For Rehabilitation, Danielle Jordan Nesi

Master's Theses

Positive youth development is an approach that seeks to enhance and promote young people's developmental progress. Although there has been a shift toward asset building in rehabilitation of delinquent youth, research on positive youth development has historically focused on children at risk of adverse outcomes, rather than those who are already engaged in criminal behavior. Without knowledge about the distribution of assets among delinquent youth and the relations of these assets to outcomes later in life, it is unclear if interventions based on research of developmental assets among at-risk youth are appropriate for justice-involved youth. The 40 Developmental Assets ...


Depressive Symptoms, Neuropsychological Functioning, And Self-Management In Youth With Spina Bifida: Direct, Mediating, And Reciprocal Pathways, Alexa Stern Jan 2017

Depressive Symptoms, Neuropsychological Functioning, And Self-Management In Youth With Spina Bifida: Direct, Mediating, And Reciprocal Pathways, Alexa Stern

Master's Theses

Although successful self-management of health care responsibilities is critical to meeting the developmental demands associated with the transition to adulthood in youth with spina bifida (SB), research on individual factors impacting self-management in this population is sparse. Given the increased risk for cognitive deficits and development of depressive symptoms in this population, this study utilized a longitudinal, multi-method, multi-informant design to examine two pathways through which depressive symptoms and neuropsychological dysfunction may be associated with medical autonomy and adherence in youth with SB.

Bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that teacher-reported depressive symptoms significantly mediated the respective relationships between attention and working ...


The Impact Of Chronic Stress On Childhood Obesity And The Protective Effects Of Parental Warmth, Laura M. L. Distel Jan 2017

The Impact Of Chronic Stress On Childhood Obesity And The Protective Effects Of Parental Warmth, Laura M. L. Distel

Master's Theses

Mexican American children have the highest rates of obesity in the U.S. Mexican American children may experience chronic stress, which has been linked to child obesity. Hair cortisol accumulation has been implicated as a mechanism for this association. Highly sensitive parenting may buffer the harmful effects of chronic stress and hair cortisol on obesity. Thus, the aims of this project were to 1) identify the direct and indirect effects of chronic stress and hair cortisol on children's zBMI and 2) examine the protective effects of parental warmth. This study examined hair cortisol levels, zBMI and chronic stress of ...


Coping With Exposure To Community Violence: Assessing The Role Of Avoidance In Reducing Delinquency And Aggression In Low-Income Urban Adolescents, Cara Marie Diclemente Jan 2017

Coping With Exposure To Community Violence: Assessing The Role Of Avoidance In Reducing Delinquency And Aggression In Low-Income Urban Adolescents, Cara Marie Diclemente

Master's Theses

Exposure to community violence has disabling effects on the mental health of youth in the US, with high rates of exposure for African American adolescents from underserved, urban communities. Past literature suggests that avoidant coping, specifically behavioral avoidance, may be most useful for youth exposed to uncontrollable stress. The current study assessed the utility of coping strategies in reducing aggression and delinquency in 267 sixth through eighth grade African American youth. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure of coping: cognitive approach, behavioral approach, and avoidance. Next, moderated moderation findings showed that for boys, avoidance and approach strategies increased ...


Impact Of Visitation With Incarcerated Fathers On Behavioral Adjustment Among Children In The Foster Care System, Lauren Ashley Hindt Jan 2017

Impact Of Visitation With Incarcerated Fathers On Behavioral Adjustment Among Children In The Foster Care System, Lauren Ashley Hindt

Master's Theses

This study sought to examine whether in-person visitation with incarcerated fathers related to less behavioral problems among children in foster care. The sample consisted of 282 youth (M = 10.18, SD = 2.36 years). Data were collected from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling revealed paternal incarceration was associated with increased externalizing slope trajectories (ß1515 = .18, p = .025), but not internalizing. African American youth had lower externalizing slope trajectories compared to the remainder of the sample (ß20 = -.14, p = .032). The association between paternal incarceration and externalizing was attenuated among youth who visited fathers ...


Fear Of Missing Out: A Moderated Mediation Approach To Social Media Use, Brynn M. Huguenel Jan 2017

Fear Of Missing Out: A Moderated Mediation Approach To Social Media Use, Brynn M. Huguenel

Master's Theses

This study explores whether fear of missing out (FOMO) mediates the relation between social networking site (SNS) use and negative mental health outcomes, with moderators of Facebook activities and individual-level characteristics included. Short-term longitudinal data was collected from undergraduate students (N=296). Mediation analyses indicated that intensity of Facebook use did not predict anxiety or depression, as mediated by FOMO. Further, Facebook activities did not moderate the relation between intensity of Facebook use and FOMO, and social comparison and social connectedness did not moderate the relations between FOMO and negative mental health outcomes. Post-hoc analyses showed that social connectedness moderated ...


Perceived Partner Sexism And Stigma Consciousness: How 'Prince Charming' Undermines Relationship Satisfaction, Danielle Lauren Kellogg Jan 2017

Perceived Partner Sexism And Stigma Consciousness: How 'Prince Charming' Undermines Relationship Satisfaction, Danielle Lauren Kellogg

Master's Theses

Perceived discrimination (outside of the relationship) relates to negative relationship outcomes, moderated by stigma consciousness (DeHart, 2017). Women who report higher (versus lower) levels of perceived partner benevolent sexism (i.e., perceptions of one's partner's endorsement of sexist attitudes) experience more negative relationship outcomes as well (Hammond & Overall, 2013; Hammond & Overall, 2014; Hammond & Overall, 2015). In addition, relationship partners adopt more traditional gender roles after becoming parents, which fosters benevolent sexism (Trillingsgaard, Baucom, & Heyman, 2014). In this study, married or cohabiting women with children were randomly assigned to either a sexism manipulation or control condition, prior to completing relationship outcome measures. We ...


Psychological Predictors Of Community Violence Exposure In Ethnic Minority Male Adolescents, Amanda Burnside Jan 2016

Psychological Predictors Of Community Violence Exposure In Ethnic Minority Male Adolescents, Amanda Burnside

Master's Theses

Urban, minority males are disproportionately impacted by community violence exposure (ECV). However, person-based analyses have demonstrated variability in rates of ECV, suggesting that demographic risk factors do not always result in increased ECV, and it may be important to examine the utility of psychological factors in this relationship. Research suggests that depressive symptoms may actually exacerbate the risk of ECV. The current study examines the effect of internalizing symptoms on future ECV. Data were derived from a larger longitudinal study of adolescents who had committed a criminal offense. This subset of 184 participants ranged in age from 14-18. Results indicated ...


Summertime Sleep And Bmi In Urban Minority Girls: Relations To Physical Activity And Executive Functions, Carolyn Rose Bates Jan 2016

Summertime Sleep And Bmi In Urban Minority Girls: Relations To Physical Activity And Executive Functions, Carolyn Rose Bates

Master's Theses

Urban minority youth, particularly females, are at high risk for increased weight gain during the summertime months, and may also experience insufficient sleep at this time. Few studies have objectively measured summertime sleep in this population or related sleep to weight gain during this season. The current study draws on a sample of 66 urban minority girls aged 10-to-14 who participated in a community-based summer day camp program promoting physical activity (PA). The study objectively characterizes sleep in this sample, both in unstructured and structured contexts. Additionally, the study examines potential pathways underlying summertime relations between sleep and weight, including ...


Becoming Adults: Trajectories Of Adult Identity Development Among Undergraduate Students With Implications For Mental Health, Jenna Shapiro Jan 2016

Becoming Adults: Trajectories Of Adult Identity Development Among Undergraduate Students With Implications For Mental Health, Jenna Shapiro

Master's Theses

One of the defining developmental processes that occur during the unique stage of emerging adulthood is the emergence of adult identity, or the subjective sense of adulthood. Adult identity has been hypothesized to grow gradually, linearly, and at different rates for subgroups of individuals over the course of this stage (Arnett, 2006; Côté, 2006). Differences have also been suggested to predict wellbeing and distress (Côté, 2006; Kroger, 1996; Kroger, Martinussen, & Marcia, 2010). The goals of the current study were to examine heterogeneity in adult identity development over four years in college and to examine differences in self-esteem and negative emotional ...


Examining The Effects Of Coping Strategies Specific To Community Violence Exposure Among African American Adolescents, Suzanna So Jan 2016

Examining The Effects Of Coping Strategies Specific To Community Violence Exposure Among African American Adolescents, Suzanna So

Master's Theses

Variability in exposure to community violence (ECV) and aggressive behaviors in African American youth from urban communities can be attributed to general coping, but these studies have been inconclusive. Recent qualitative research identified four types of coping that are specific to ECV; however, quantitative research is needed to understand the adaptiveness of these strategies. The current study examined the factor structure of a measure for ECV-specific coping strategies. The current study also assessed how ECV-specific coping was associated with ECV and externalizing behaviors. Data from the current study were derived from an archival dataset comprised of 594 African American adolescents ...


Risk And Resilience Factors Among Low-Income Latino Adolescents: The Impact On Daily Ratings Of Mood, Stephanie Andrea Torres Jan 2016

Risk And Resilience Factors Among Low-Income Latino Adolescents: The Impact On Daily Ratings Of Mood, Stephanie Andrea Torres

Master's Theses

Given that Latino adolescents endorse more negative mood when compared to their counterparts of other backgrounds (CDC, 2012), it is especially advantageous to evaluate the impact of risk and resilience factors on mood among this population. The current study uses daily diary methodology to examine the impact that daily economic stress, daily family stress, familism, and ethnic identity commitment and exploration have on daily ratings of mood among 58 (M =13.31, 47% female) low-income Latino adolescents. Results show that daily family stress was strongly linked to daily mood while familism emerged as a salient resilience factor. Contrary to predictions ...


Parenting-Related Stress, Parental Distress, And Youth Health-Related Quality Of Life In Families Of Youth With Spina Bifida: Parenting Behaviors As Mediators, Colleen F. Bechtel Jan 2016

Parenting-Related Stress, Parental Distress, And Youth Health-Related Quality Of Life In Families Of Youth With Spina Bifida: Parenting Behaviors As Mediators, Colleen F. Bechtel

Master's Theses

Research has shown that youth with spina bifida (SB) have poorer psychosocial outcomes, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL), compared to typically developing youth. Demographic and illness-severity factors that may affect HRQOL have been identified, but modifiable factors affecting HRQOL have not yet been identified in this population. Potential modifiable factors include parent factors. In fact, in other pediatric populations, parent factors have been found to impact HRQOL above and beyond illness-severity. This impact may be especially salient for youth with SB, as these youth are more socially isolated and depend on parents for both medical and non-medical caregiving needs ...


The Relation Between Appearance Evaluation And Disordered Eating Attitudes Throughout College: Trajectories And Moderators, Amy Heard Jan 2016

The Relation Between Appearance Evaluation And Disordered Eating Attitudes Throughout College: Trajectories And Moderators, Amy Heard

Master's Theses

The college years are a time of increased risk for body image concerns and disordered eating in both men and women. Studies have shown that body image concerns may emerge in childhood, increase throughout adolescence, and become more stable in middle adulthood, but less is known about the changes that happen during the college years that may cause these concerns to level off. One of the most common ways of assessing body image is by measuring appearance evaluation, or global satisfaction with appearance. While problematic appearance evaluation and disordered eating attitudes are often associated with one another, all individuals who ...


Measures Of Acculturation And Relations To Weight Among Mexican-Origin Youth, Dorothy L. Mcleod Jan 2016

Measures Of Acculturation And Relations To Weight Among Mexican-Origin Youth, Dorothy L. Mcleod

Master's Theses

Risk for obesity increases dramatically for Mexican-origin immigrants and their children among upon arrival in the United States. Many studies have shown that acculturative factors play a role in this process for adults, which suggests that this could also be the case for children and adolescents. The significance and directionality of this relation may differ based on many factors, including the multitude of methods currently used for the purpose of measuring acculturation. This study examines the relations between several measures of acculturation and child weight in a sample of 6 to 11 year old, Mexican-origin youth, cross-sectionally and longitudinally over ...


Cortical And Psychological Mechanisms Of Visceral Pain, Kelly L. Polnaszek Jan 2016

Cortical And Psychological Mechanisms Of Visceral Pain, Kelly L. Polnaszek

Master's Theses

Objective: Dysmenorrhea is an incapacitating type of visceral pain that affects numerous menstruating women and is defined by painful menstrual cramps and often occurs in the absence of pelvic pathology. Women with dysmenorrhea have reported higher sensitivity to experimental pain, and vulnerability to pain sensitivity may be a primary risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain for women with dysmenorrhea. Cross-organ sensitization (COS), or the theory that uterine inflammation during menstruation can contribute to chronic pelvic pain by generating neurogenic inflammation in other organs, may be a primary mechanism associated with pelvic pain in women with dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea sufferers with ...


Influence Of Metaphoric Language On Juror Decision Making, Melissa Michelle David Jan 2016

Influence Of Metaphoric Language On Juror Decision Making, Melissa Michelle David

Master's Theses

This paper examines the effects of metaphoric language on judgment, assessment and juror verdict decision making. It further examines potential interactions between the use of figurative language and defendant race on juror verdict decisions. Research has potential implications on how the recent cultural climate has changed racial biases within the realm of juror decision making.


Understanding Academic Achievement Among Low-Income, Urban, Black Adolescents: The Role Of Father Involvement, Patrick Henry Jan 2016

Understanding Academic Achievement Among Low-Income, Urban, Black Adolescents: The Role Of Father Involvement, Patrick Henry

Master's Theses

Although the Black-White test score gap has improved over time, it still persists. Furthermore, this academic risk for Black youth is compounded by the disproportionate representation of Blacks among low-income families in the U.S. Thus, the present study aims to shed light on factors related to greater academic success among adolescents in low-income, urban, Black families. Overall, this study addresses the following question. How does the presence of a biological father and positive father involvement impact the academic achievement of their adolescent children? Data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study (TCS) were analyzed in order to ...


Music And Aggression: Effects Of Lyrics And Background Music On Aggressive Behavior, Andrew Triplett Jan 2016

Music And Aggression: Effects Of Lyrics And Background Music On Aggressive Behavior, Andrew Triplett

Master's Theses

Given the ever-growing popularity of music in daily life, it is of the utmost

importance to understand how it influences affect, cognition, and behavior, especially given the violence of certain genres of music. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between music and behavior, specifically to examine how the lyrics and background music interact to influence affective hostility and aggressive behavior. Data were collected from a sample of 168 students (61% Female; MAge = 19.24, SD = 2.470) at a large, private, Midwestern university to investigate this relationship. The music was manipulated by randomly assigning the participant to ...


Group-Level Differences Of Moral Foundations, Jeremy Winget Jan 2016

Group-Level Differences Of Moral Foundations, Jeremy Winget

Master's Theses

Previous research has started to map the moral domain for individual actors. In particular, Haidt and colleagues (Haidt, 2007, 2008; Haidt & Graham, 2007; Haidt & Joseph, 2004) have extended the moral domain beyond the traditional notions of justice and rights concerns. From this line of research, moral foundations theory emerged, which holds moral intuitions derive from innate psychological mechanisms that co-evolved with cultural institutions and practices. However, to date, there has not been a systematic demonstration of how these moral foundations operate within intergroup settings. Janoff-Bulman and Carnes (2013) have proposed a comprehensive model of the moral landscape that includes a group component; however, this model has received some criticism (e.g., Graham, 2013). The current study examined how moral foundations operate from a group perspective. Moreover, potential outgroup moderators of moral foundations were examined. Participants were placed into one of two conditions in which they rated the extent to which various concerns were relevant when making moral judgments about their ingroup and various outgroups. Two sets of three different outgroups conforming to the various quadrants of the stereotype content model ...


The Moderating Role Of Emotion Regulation On Longitudinal Associations Between Stress And Mental Health In College Students, Evan Zahniser Jan 2016

The Moderating Role Of Emotion Regulation On Longitudinal Associations Between Stress And Mental Health In College Students, Evan Zahniser

Master's Theses

Emotion regulation is consistently linked to subsequent wellbeing, but little research has examined the moderating role of emotion regulation in associations between mental health and other relevant factors. Patterns of gender differences in emotion regulation also remain somewhat unclear. The present study targets these gaps by examining two specific emotion regulation strategies in interaction with stress and gender in predicting internalizing symptoms among college students, a population for whom emotion regulation may be particularly important given the high-stress nature of the college transition. A large sample of students (N = 1,130) provided self-report data at three time points over their ...


Examination Of Script And Non-Script Based Narrative Retellings In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Elizabeth Ann Hilvert Jan 2015

Examination Of Script And Non-Script Based Narrative Retellings In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Elizabeth Ann Hilvert

Master's Theses

This study compared the narrative abilities of 19 children with Autism Spectrum

Disorder (ASD) and 26 neurotypical children (NT), between 6 and 12 years of age, on two story retelling tasks: a script-based story and a non-script based story. The script- based story contained the structural aspects of a narrative, but also had the internal framework of a script (Hayward et al., 2007). Given the reduced cognitive and linguistic demands of the script-based story, it was expected that the script-based narrative measure would minimize narrative differences between children with and without ASD. Additionally, the relation between narrative production, theory of ...


Consumer Evaluation: Describing Construal-Level Theory And A Role Of Emotion On Human’S Thinking Processing Style, Junga Lee Jan 2015

Consumer Evaluation: Describing Construal-Level Theory And A Role Of Emotion On Human’S Thinking Processing Style, Junga Lee

Master's Theses

Based on emotion and construal level theory, this study examined the influence of emotion on consumer decision-making. Participants were induced into happy or sad moods by describing a past happy or sad life event. Then they were asked to read one of two smartphone advertisements. One advertisement emphasized only central features of smartphone, and the other one emphasized only secondary features. The dependent variables were participants’ attitudes toward the advertisements, purchase intention of the smartphone in the advertisement, and willingness to pay for the smartphone. Based on the connection between emotion and construal level, I predicted that due to their ...


Neural Correlates Of Inhibitory Function Following The Implicit Processing Of Emotional Faces, Lorri A. Kais Jan 2015

Neural Correlates Of Inhibitory Function Following The Implicit Processing Of Emotional Faces, Lorri A. Kais

Master's Theses

Emotion and cognitive function interact to play a central role in determining

human thought and behavior. Attention to emotion can facilitate or hinder cognitive

control efforts based on the given contextual demands of the task at hand. This study used

scalp electroencephalography (EEG) methods to examine the link between valence of

facial stimuli and neural changes associated with emotional face processing and

subsequent inhibitory response. 20 participants completed a gender discrimination stop-

signal task using emotional faces. Facial valence did not differentially modulate the P200

event-related potential (ERP), indicating that happy and sad faces recruit similar neural

resources in the ...