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The Quiet Classroom Game With An Indiscriminable Contingency In A High School, Stefanie Schrieber Oct 2019

The Quiet Classroom Game With An Indiscriminable Contingency In A High School, Stefanie Schrieber

Master's Theses

The Quiet Classroom Game (QCG) is an interdependent group contingency utilized to decrease classroom noise levels, increase student engagement, and decrease disruptive behaviors in the classroom setting. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of the QCG in three high school classrooms in the Southeastern United States. Classrooms were recruited based on teacher reports of excessive noise and high rates of disruptive behavior. A multiple baseline design with two intervention phases was utilized to examine the effects of the intervention. The first phase was the QCG alone, and the second phase was the QCG with an ...


Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber Oct 2019

Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber

Master's Theses

Previous research suggests that the processing of affordances may require more perceptually relevant information than words can provide (Surber et al., 2018; Chainay & Humphreys, 2002). The present study investigates this hypothesis with the shoebox task used in Bowers and Turner (2003). A list of 81 object nouns (targets) and associated features (primes: affordance, semantic, and non-associates) was compiled from the McRae, Cree, Seidenberg, and McNorgan (2005) norms. Affordances denote possibilities for action in relation to the object (e.g. chair – sit), whereas semantic features indicate definitional characteristics (e.g. chair – has legs). Affordances and semantic features served as primes in ...


Emotion Reactivity, Emotion Dysregulation, And Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among At-Risk Adolescents: A Multiple Mediation Analysis, Paula N. Floyd Jul 2019

Emotion Reactivity, Emotion Dysregulation, And Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among At-Risk Adolescents: A Multiple Mediation Analysis, Paula N. Floyd

Master's Theses

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is defined as deliberate self-inflicted damage to bodily tissue without the intent to die. NSSI has been identified as a major health concern, as it is related to both poor psychosocial outcomes and increased suicide risk. NSSI is especially important to understand among adolescents, as age of onset is typically during adolescence and prevalence rates are highest among this age group. One of the most well-established correlates of NSSI is emotion dysregulation. While many studies have examined emotion dysregulation and its subcomponents in relation to self-injury, there has been far less work devoted to factors that may ...


Discrepant Self-Perceptions As Predictors Of Rule Violating Behavior Among Juvenile Offenders, Kimberly Barajas Jul 2019

Discrepant Self-Perceptions As Predictors Of Rule Violating Behavior Among Juvenile Offenders, Kimberly Barajas

Master's Theses

Numerous studies have examined discrepancies between youths’ self-perceptions and others’ ratings across different domains of competence (i.e. academic, behavior, social) (e.g., Jia, Jiang, & Mikami, 2016; Kistner, 2006; Owens et al., 2007) and it is well-established that discrepant self-perceptions are risk factors for maladaptive outcomes (e.g., aggression, depression) in children and adolescents (David & Kistner, 2000; Jia et al., 2016; Kistner et al., 2006). Only one study has examined discrepant self-perceptions (e.g., perceptual bias) in a sample of male juvenile offenders (JOs) (Smith, Lynch, Stephens, & Kistner, 2015). This study sought to extend the literature examining discrepant self-perceptions within juvenile offenders in two important ways: first, by examining whether two separate facets of discrepant self-perceptions (i.e., perceptual bias and inaccurate self-perceptions) in the behavioral domain were predictive of JOs’ rule violations following their incarceration; second, by examining if race moderated the relationship between discrepant self-perceptions and rule violating behaviors. A series ...


Vocal Response Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) To A Novel Stimulus, Lindsey Johnson Jul 2019

Vocal Response Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) To A Novel Stimulus, Lindsey Johnson

Master's Theses

Bottlenose dolphins utilize acoustic signals as their primary mode of communication. Although some aspects of dolphin vocal behavior are well understood, less is known about vocalizations in different behavioral contexts and how these vocal behaviors may indicate habituation and sensitization. The focus of this study was to investigate how bottlenose dolphins respond vocally to a novel stimulus. Archival data from three populations of bottlenose dolphins (N = 20) living in a human-care facility were exposed to a novel apparatus (a mirror) for 10 trials, each lasting 20 minutes. Five of the trials presented the mirror covered with an opaque cloth whereas ...


Multiple Species Of Distinctiveness In Memory: Separating Task Distinctiveness From Statistical Distinctiveness, Matthew Robert Gretz Jul 2019

Multiple Species Of Distinctiveness In Memory: Separating Task Distinctiveness From Statistical Distinctiveness, Matthew Robert Gretz

Master's Theses

Distinctiveness refers to the memorial benefit of processing unique or item-specific features of a memory set relative to a non-distinctive control. Traditional distinctiveness effects are accounted for based on qualitative differences in how distinctive items are encoded at the time of study. This thesis project aims to evaluate whether a different species of distinctiveness—statistical distinctiveness—may provide a separate contribution to memory beyond traditional encoding-based processes. Statistical distinctiveness refers to the relative frequency with which a specific memory item or set is processed. The current study evaluated statistical distinctiveness through a series of mixed groups in which DRM lists ...


Are Menstrual Cycles A Biological Determinant Of Well-Being Amongst Sierra Leonean Schoolchildren?, Ashwini Shridhar May 2019

Are Menstrual Cycles A Biological Determinant Of Well-Being Amongst Sierra Leonean Schoolchildren?, Ashwini Shridhar

Master's Theses

The influence of hormones and biology on behavior is a topic that is rife with controversy, especially when it comes to sexual hormones. There is even more murkiness when it comes to the topic of menstruation and knowledge about women’s menstrual cycles. Recent research on this topic have seen a link between the hormonal fluctuations during menstrual cycles and various behavioral implications on competition, cooperation, and risk behavior. This study tries to expand existing knowledge by examining whether there is a link between hormonal fluctuations during menstrual cycles and risk preferential behavior using economic experiments in the largely understudied ...


The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid May 2019

The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid

Master's Theses

Cleft Lip/Palate, a congenital orofacial anomaly, carries an incidence rate of approximately 1 in every 1000 births. In addition to the stigma associated with the condition, the varying levels of cleft severity might result in lower life outcomes which could include lower cognitive ability, physical and psychological well-being, social and behavioral outcomes of adolescents. This paper focuses on the social integration element of life outcomes, which is composed of the social inclusion and prosocial behavior of the adolescent. Despite the affordability of restorative surgeries, patients in rural areas of Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) such as India face accessibility ...


First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith May 2019

First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith

Master's Theses

Cetacean development is important for general comparative understanding and the implementation of informed husbandry policies. Due to the inaccessibility of many of these species in the wild, researchers can study managed care populations to better understand basic developmental patterns of cetaceans, as well as to improve husbandry policies for facility animals. However, no previous studies have attempted to observe the behavioral development of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens). Eight beluga whale calves and four Pacific white-sided dolphin calves were observed for the first 30 days of life to determine the developmental trajectory of several typically monitored behaviors. The first occurrence ...


Addressing Barriers To Preventative Health Care For Transgender Populations: A Systems Approach To Improving Access To Gynecological Care, Meghan N. Flynn May 2019

Addressing Barriers To Preventative Health Care For Transgender Populations: A Systems Approach To Improving Access To Gynecological Care, Meghan N. Flynn

Master's Theses

The current study addresses the lack of research exploring the individual and systemic barriers to accessing gynecological care for transgender populations. An integrated mixed-methods needs assessment was designed to explore the individual and systemic barriers to gynecological health care for transgender and gender diverse populations. Participants of the study included established community providers known to serve the transgender community through advocacy or research efforts, as well as clinical psychologists and medical professionals working in gynecological settings. The study includes a brief quantitative survey, which measured “Perceptions of Inclusivity Importance” among key stakeholders. Following the survey, participants were invited to engage ...


Exploring The Moderating Effects Of Aggression On The Relationship Between Negative Urgency And Suicidal Desire, Rachel L. Martin Apr 2019

Exploring The Moderating Effects Of Aggression On The Relationship Between Negative Urgency And Suicidal Desire, Rachel L. Martin

Master's Theses

Suicide is a health concern with 44,965 deaths in 2016. Typical assessment of risk factors relies on self-report, which can be susceptible to underreporting. As such, non-face valid measures and innovative assessment approaches such as implicit association tests may help identify risk factors by eliminating conscious underreporting. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior is an empirically supported theory hypothesizing why individuals die by suicide. The theory comprises three elements: thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and capability for suicide. Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness have been found to be non-face valid measures and less susceptible to conscious underreporting. Objective measures, such ...


Organized Chaos: Daily Routines As A Potential Mechanism Linking Household Chaos And Child Behavior Problems, Kristy Larsen Apr 2019

Organized Chaos: Daily Routines As A Potential Mechanism Linking Household Chaos And Child Behavior Problems, Kristy Larsen

Master's Theses

Children living in chaotic households exhibit more externalizing behaviors. Child externalizing behavior, exhibited as early as the toddler and preschool years, is a risk factor for later maladjustment. Understanding the mechanisms linking household chaos to early externalizing behaviors is important since those mechanisms could be targeted as a point of intervention. The primary aim of this study was to examine daily routines as a potential mediator of the relation between household chaos and both child externalizing behavior and bedtime resistant behavior. A secondary aim was to examine different levels of routines (family routines, general daily child routines, and specific bedtime ...


A Comparison Of Social Learning In Domestic Canines, Beatrice Chenkin Apr 2019

A Comparison Of Social Learning In Domestic Canines, Beatrice Chenkin

Master's Theses

Domestic canines (Canis familiaris) provide a unique insight into the processes by which species can grow to cooperate efficiently with humans. Few studies have compared whether their behavior is more affected by humans or other canines. This study uses a two-action feeder (an apparatus that can be opened in one of two ways) to look into the methods of social learning they use and compares how they learn from humans vs. other canines. Sixty-four dogs from the Humane Society of varying backgrounds, ages, sexes, and reproductive statuses were tested on their ability to open the two-action feeder and the amount ...


Recipient Rights Guidelines: Assessment Of Practical Interpretation, Patrick Wieszciecinski Apr 2019

Recipient Rights Guidelines: Assessment Of Practical Interpretation, Patrick Wieszciecinski

Master's Theses

Although the State of Michigan has passed legislation to ensure that the rights of mental health service recipients are protected, there has been no published research evaluating the accuracy and consistency with which these guidelines are applied in real world cases. Quite obviously, even well intentioned policy may fall short of its intended goal if it is not implemented consistently and with fidelity. The State of Michigan trains Recipient Rights Officers (RROs) who in turn provide training and oversight for local mental health service agencies (Community Mental Health Agencies and PIHPs) who are charged with educating practitioners and other service ...


A Descriptive Analysis Of Restrictive And Intrusive Procedures In Behavior Support Plans, Kelsey Webster Apr 2019

A Descriptive Analysis Of Restrictive And Intrusive Procedures In Behavior Support Plans, Kelsey Webster

Master's Theses

Restrictive and intrusive procedures are used in the course of effective treatment to protect the safety of clients and others. Nonetheless, behavior analysts have an ethical obligation to implement the least restrictive procedures possible that are still deemed effective. However, when fading procedures for restrictions and intrusions are not a mandatory component of behavior support plans, these procedures may be in place longer than necessary. Extended utilization of restrictive and intrusive procedures could be viewed as limiting the client’s rights, especially if less restrictive procedures would also produce successful outcomes. One reason that these procedures are overused may be ...


Victim Blaming And Natural Reactions To Trauma In Cases Of Sexual Assault And Natural Disaster, Ashley Nielsen Jan 2019

Victim Blaming And Natural Reactions To Trauma In Cases Of Sexual Assault And Natural Disaster, Ashley Nielsen

Master's Theses

Past research has indicated that victim blaming in cases of sexual assault is a problem in today’s society (Bieneck & Krahe, 2011). The present study examined how natural reactions to trauma influence how much blame is assigned to the victim in situations of sexual assault and natural disaster. This study included 293 college students that attended a western Kansas university, with an average age of 19.71. Participants read a short scenario depicting either a victim of sexual assault or a victim of natural disaster, with the victim responding to the traumatic event by either freezing or fainting. They were ...


Conflict Management Training In Video-Based Teams, Alexis Ward Jan 2019

Conflict Management Training In Video-Based Teams, Alexis Ward

Master's Theses

In the wake of an emerging economy that demands organizational agility, globalization and an increasing number of independent contractors, corporations have exponentially incorporated virtual teams in their organizations. However, despite their financial and geographical convenience, research has indicated that virtual teams have consistently experienced more conflict and lowered performance and satisfaction levels than that of their traditional counterparts. The present study sought to examine whether conflict management training could help video based virtual teams demonstrate more positive conflict handling techniques and less negative techniques, which would result in higher group process and group outcome satisfaction. This study did not find ...


Triple Bottom Line As A Method To Increase Business Value And Foster Positive Social And Environmental Change, Jayleene West Dec 2018

Triple Bottom Line As A Method To Increase Business Value And Foster Positive Social And Environmental Change, Jayleene West

Master's Theses

The Triple Bottom Line (TBL) business model has transformed the business world by changing the way businesses operate. By focusing on the people and the environment, businesses have grown to see substantial profit and avoid risks along the way. Companies are using the TBL to build their brand and customer loyalty by enhancing the environment and society. This paper analyzes four companies that are leaders in their industry and are founded on the TBL; Seventh Generation, New Belgium Brewing, Patagonia, and Ben & Jerry’s. Recommendations have been made by performing a literature review on the advantages and disadvantages of the ...


The Influence Of Socioeconomic Status And Subjective Social Status On The Career Development Of College Students, Dylan Richard Dec 2018

The Influence Of Socioeconomic Status And Subjective Social Status On The Career Development Of College Students, Dylan Richard

Master's Theses

Social class is often examined across social science disciplines and contains two distinct parts: socioeconomic status (SES) and subjective social status (SSS). Researchers have established that college students from various SES backgrounds experience college differently, however little research has examined how universities and those that work with college students can help aid the career development of students given their SES. Career development is a broad area of research; therefore, the current study examines a number of career development variables that are key in understanding college students’ career development, such as career adaptability, career decision-making difficulty, work values, and vocational interests ...


The Effect Of Changing Appraisals Of Current Life Success On Memories Of Love Towards Parents, Mario Herrera Dec 2018

The Effect Of Changing Appraisals Of Current Life Success On Memories Of Love Towards Parents, Mario Herrera

Master's Theses

As we experience successes and failures in life, do we bias our memories of childhood? Cognitive appraisal theory would predict that emotions are elicited based on the current appraisal of an event or person. There is some research that these current appraisals can also distort memories of emotions surrounding an event. No past research has investigated whether current appraisal of life success would affect important autobiographical memories. Here, we examine the effects on childhood memory of love felt towards parents. Due to current appraisal theory, we expected memory of love towards parents would be prone to distortion and bias. We ...


Psychopathic Personality Traits As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Social Intelligence And Relational Aggression, Savannah Merold Dec 2018

Psychopathic Personality Traits As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Social Intelligence And Relational Aggression, Savannah Merold

Master's Theses

Social intelligence has been identified as one of many predictors of relational aggression. It is likely that a certain level of social intelligence may be necessary for relationally aggressive behaviors to be effective (e.g., some ability to understand human behavior is necessary to effectively harm others through the manipulation of status, social relationships, or sense of belonging). And yet, social intelligence is unlikely to be sufficient to produce relationally aggressive behavior. Merely because someone has the requisite levels of social intelligence to use relational aggression does not mean that he or she will be motivated to do so. There ...


Political Beliefs, Region Of Residence, And Openness To Firearm Means Safety Measures To Prevent Suicide, Sarah E. Butterworth Dec 2018

Political Beliefs, Region Of Residence, And Openness To Firearm Means Safety Measures To Prevent Suicide, Sarah E. Butterworth

Master's Theses

Firearms account for approximately half of all suicides in the US and are highly lethal, widely available, and popular; thus, firearms are an ideal candidate for targeted means safety interventions. However, despite their value as a suicide prevention tool, firearm means safety strategies are not widely utilized, possibly due to factors which impede openness to their use. This study examined the relationship between region, political beliefs, and openness to firearm means safety in a sample of 300 American firearm owners. Overall, firearm owners were more willing to engage in means safety for others than for themselves and to store firearms ...


Using Personality Traits To Predict Pectoral Fin Contact Initiation Role In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Riley Paige Macgregor Dec 2018

Using Personality Traits To Predict Pectoral Fin Contact Initiation Role In Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Riley Paige Macgregor

Master's Theses

Contact with the pectoral fin facilitates formation and maintenance of social relationships between dolphins (Dudzinski & Ribic, 2017). Additionally, several studies have shown that bottlenose dolphins have distinct personalities that are consistent across time and situation (e.g., Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill, & Byerly, 2012), and it has been suggested that these individual differences (i.e., personality) may influence tactile behavior exchanges. The current study therefore aimed to determine if bottlenose dolphin personality traits predict whether and how dolphins initiate contact as a rubber or rubbee during pectoral fin contact exchanges, and to identify whether the effects of personality traits predicting initiator role varied across sex and age-class. Instances of pectoral fin contacts were selected from previously recorded underwater video observations of a bottlenose dolphin group under human care at the Roatan Institute for Marine Sciences (RIMS) between 2014 and 2017. Personality assessments were conducted by experienced trainers for dolphins using rating questionnaires that reflected the personality traits from the Five-Factor Model (i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism; Goldberg, 1990). Multiple regression analyses suggested that personality traits do not fully predict initiator role; however, Conscientiousness and its interactions with sex and age may be important. Loglinear analyses showed Agreeableness affected the area of the body that was contacted when a rubbee initiated pectoral fin contact. This study demonstrates a first look at how personality influences the initiator side of pectoral fin contact exchange in bottlenose dolphins.


Pathways Of Psychopathic Traits To Aggression Through Affective Correlates, Olivia C. Preston Dec 2018

Pathways Of Psychopathic Traits To Aggression Through Affective Correlates, Olivia C. Preston

Master's Theses

This thesis project examines the roles of empathy facets and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and aggression within an undergraduate sample. The project addresses three gaps in research – how psychopathic personality traits relate to empathy facets from a recently developed measure of empathy (Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy [ACME]; Vachon & Lynam, 2016); how psychopathic traits indirectly affect aggression functions (i.e., reactive, proactive) through empathy facets; and how emotion regulation contributes to these relations, above and beyond empathy. The sample was comprised of 368 university students. Findings indicated that largely all psychopathic traits were negatively related to ...


Parental Attachment And Adult Attachment: The Moderating Role Of Dispositional Forgiveness And Gratitude, Christian Ammons Dec 2018

Parental Attachment And Adult Attachment: The Moderating Role Of Dispositional Forgiveness And Gratitude, Christian Ammons

Master's Theses

Secure parental attachment, characterized by trust, care, and autonomy granting, is associated with improved psychological functioning and adjustment to college and is often associated with adult attachment relationships. Similarly, adult attachment, a characteristic of adult relationships, has been associated with improved college adjustment. Individual differences such as dispositional forgiveness and gratitude are often associated with secure adult attachment but have not been examined in relation to parent child attachment. The current study examined dispositional forgiveness and gratitude as moderators of the relationship between parental attachment and adult attachment. A sample of 185 college students participated and as expected, parental attachment ...


Increasing Teachers' Use Of Behavior Specific Praise Via A Smart Watch, Kristi White Oct 2018

Increasing Teachers' Use Of Behavior Specific Praise Via A Smart Watch, Kristi White

Master's Theses

This study evaluated the effects of a teacher prompting procedure to increase teacher behavior specific praise using a Smart Watch. Participants included three Head Start general education teachers. An ABAB design across participants was used to examine the effects of Smart Watch-based prompts on teachers’ praise rate. The study consisted of four phases: a) baseline, b) teacher praise training and intervention, c) withdrawal from intervention, and d) intervention reinstated. Implementation of the intervention resulted in increases of average behavior specific praise rates and general praise rates for all three participants. Although, averages fail to reach criterion set by the researcher ...


Posttraumatic Stress And Hazardous Alcohol Use In College Students: The Moderating Role Of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies, Hallie R. Jordan Oct 2018

Posttraumatic Stress And Hazardous Alcohol Use In College Students: The Moderating Role Of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies, Hallie R. Jordan

Master's Theses

The present study evaluated the moderating role of alcohol protective behavioral strategy subtypes (Al-PBS; Serious Harm Reduction [SHR], Manner of Drinking [MOD], Stopping/Limiting Drinking [SLD]) and gender on the relationships between traumatic stress symptoms and both hazardous drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 915 traditional age (18 to 25 years old) college students from nine universities in the United States who reported drinking in the past. All participants reported their gender and completed measures of traumatic stress symptoms, Al-PBS use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related negative consequences through an online survey. Experiencing greater traumatic stress symptoms was associated with ...


Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor Aug 2018

Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor

Master's Theses

The ability for humans to communicate with another species has been an aspiration and well documented. One example is through training animals to make associations between a designated cue and conditioned response (Pryor, 1986). Two-way communication, however, in which both species can express wants/needs has been predominantly pursued with apes and dolphins. Studies conducted by Louis Herman demonstrated the capabilities of dolphins to comprehend complex semantic and syntactic commands in an artificial language system (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984). Researchers working with primates have used American Sign Language, a computer keyboard system with discrete lexigrams, and a portable lexigram keyboard (Gardner & Gardner, 1969; Rumbaugh, 1977; Savage-Rumbaugh, 1986). Savage-Rumbaugh decided to take a different approach to learning after one individual demonstrated the ability to use the keyboard ...


Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Haily K. Traxler Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Generalized And Specific Token Reinforcement Using A Paired Stimulus Preference Assessment And Progressive Ratio Schedules, Haily K. Traxler

Master's Theses

Skinner (1953) stated that the effects of generalized conditioned reinforcers should maintain longer than specific conditioned reinforcers because their effects are not dependent on a particular motivating operation. Tokens easily model different levels of generality because tokens can be paired with one or more back-up reinforcers. In the current study, three types of tokens were assessed that could be exchanged for either salty snacks, food and drinks offered in a small marketplace, or money on a gift card. Token preferences were assessed using a Paired Stimulus preference assessment and a progressive ratio (PR) task. The results of the preference assessment ...


A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, David W. Sottile Aug 2018

A Parametric Analysis Of Choice Under Risk, David W. Sottile

Master's Theses

Accurate assessment of risk propensity is important because risky choices underlie a broad range of behavioral problems. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is an assessment that measures propensity to engage in risky choice. While this is a useful assessment, the BART changes two variables that affect risky choice simultaneously, probability of an undesirable outcome and stake size, which cannot be separated within the context of the BART. The goal of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of key factors that are likely to risky choice (Magnitude of payoff, probability of an undesirable outcome, and stake ...