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The Use Of An Individualized Levels System And Extinction To Increase Task Compliance And To Decrease Aggressive Behavior With A Child With Autism, Savanna A. Chojnacki Aug 2019

The Use Of An Individualized Levels System And Extinction To Increase Task Compliance And To Decrease Aggressive Behavior With A Child With Autism, Savanna A. Chojnacki

MSU Graduate Theses

In a token economy level system, as an individual progresses from one task level to the next, there is an increase in the demand of tasks and an increase in the magnitude of reinforcers earned. The motivation for the individual in level systems stems from the increasing of value of reinforcers earned at each level. In this study a level system in concordance with an extinction procedure for aggressive behaviors was employed as a behavioral intervention. In this single-subject design study, a 5-year-old boy with autism was observed across a variety of 15 minute teaching sessions, implementing synchronously, the reinforcement ...


Making A Tiger's Day: Free-Operant Assessment And Environmental Enrichment, Trista Yvonne Shrock Aug 2019

Making A Tiger's Day: Free-Operant Assessment And Environmental Enrichment, Trista Yvonne Shrock

MSU Graduate Theses

Problem behaviors occur often in captive wild animals due to stress and boredom. Environmental enrichment is one of the most successful methods to help minimize these types of behaviors in many captive wild animals. The current study investigated preferences of play items and scents for seven adult Bengal tigers in a Tiger Sanctuary using a free-operant preference assessment. Two subspecies of Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) are represented. Six of the tigers are Panthera tigris tigris and one is Panthera tigris altaica. Three phases were run on each tiger, ultimately establishing a hierarchy of preferred play items and scents for each ...


Expertise Within Working Memory And Fluid Intellgence, Addie Wikowsky Aug 2019

Expertise Within Working Memory And Fluid Intellgence, Addie Wikowsky

MSU Graduate Theses

Working memory, fluid intelligence, and expertise are all psychological concepts that have been explored in the field. Working memory, defined by Baddeley (1986), is the temporary storage of stimuli presented to a person. The relationship between working memory and fluid intelligence is a common theme among studies. Fluid intelligence is one of the components of general intelligence (g). Specifically, fluid intelligence can be described as being able to adapt thinking, even with no previous knowledge (Jaeggi, Buschkuehl, Jonides, & Perrig, 2008). Expertise is another critical factor in these studies and is the acquisition of knowledge and being able to apply that ...


Learning To Relax: The Impact Of Brief Biofeedback Training On Salivary Cortisol Reduction, Dallas N. Robinson Aug 2019

Learning To Relax: The Impact Of Brief Biofeedback Training On Salivary Cortisol Reduction, Dallas N. Robinson

MSU Graduate Theses

Chronic stress has been linked to several health related and psychological problems. There is evidence that relaxation techniques can be useful in the reduction of stress and psychological complaints. Short-term interventions like computer-based biofeedback could provide a brief and independent way to manage stress and anxiety. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the ALIVE biofeedback program (a relatively new software that allows individuals to play a game requiring proper smoothness of breathing and heart rate) on the stress response after the Trier Social Stress Test, a laboratory stress task shown to elicit changes in cortisol ...


Differences And Similarities In Male Body Image In Young, Middle-Aged, And Older Men, Amy K. Jordan Aug 2019

Differences And Similarities In Male Body Image In Young, Middle-Aged, And Older Men, Amy K. Jordan

MSU Graduate Theses

The purpose of the present study was to explore differences and similarities in multiple aspects of male body image across age groups, including body dissatisfaction, coping strategies, functional appreciation, and mood. It was first hypothesized that younger men would report greater dissatisfaction with muscularity and body fat than middle-aged and older men. The second hypothesis stated that body dissatisfaction would predict depressive symptoms. The third hypothesis predicted that age and functionality appreciation for the body would be positively correlated. Finally, researchers evaluated the relationship between body image coping strategies and age from an exploratory perspective. Participants included 344 men ages ...


Yoga To Decrease The Stress Response: Gentle Yoga Encourages Faster Decline In Salivary Cortisol Concentrations Following Participation In Tsst, Tabetha Gaile Hopke Aug 2019

Yoga To Decrease The Stress Response: Gentle Yoga Encourages Faster Decline In Salivary Cortisol Concentrations Following Participation In Tsst, Tabetha Gaile Hopke

MSU Graduate Theses

Short-term, activation of the human stress response system is beneficial as it prepares the body to deal with stressors at hand (McEwen & Stellar, 1993). If this system is overactive or chronically active however, it can negatively impact health and longevity (Cohen, Janicki-Deverts, & Miller, 2007). According to a review conducted by Ross & Thomas (2010) implementation of a yoga practice has been shown to down-regulate the stress response system. The present study aimed to expand on current research involving yoga for stress reduction by exploring whether participation in gentle yoga could decrease the stress response more quickly than naturally occurs after psychological ...


Quantitative Reasoning: Individual Differences In Heart Rate And Response Latency, Abigail L. Van Nuland May 2019

Quantitative Reasoning: Individual Differences In Heart Rate And Response Latency, Abigail L. Van Nuland

MSU Graduate Theses

Math is something that all students are required to use at some point during their academic careers. Then they must use it again in the real world. Unfortunately, many students struggle with quantitative processing. In the current study, participants answered first grade level math problems in order to assess cognitive effort when solving math problem. Participants were then assigned randomly to one of two conditions; Answer or Equation. In the Answer Condition participants were asked to solve a series of math problems, whereby they were given a math equation and then they were asked to choose an answer. In the ...


Best Predictive Factor For Knowledge Of How To Appropriately Respond To Suicidal Individuals, Sadie Elizabeth Flood May 2019

Best Predictive Factor For Knowledge Of How To Appropriately Respond To Suicidal Individuals, Sadie Elizabeth Flood

MSU Graduate Theses

Suicide is a major health crisis affecting all parts of the world. Although extensive research has been conducted on suicide and numerous suicide prevention programs are in place, there still exists a gap in our knowledge as to how to encourage the public to reach out to individuals who may be suicidal. The aim of the current study is to examine methods of responding when confronted by an individual with suicidal tendencies. Participants completed four scales measuring their knowledge of suicide, personality characteristics, level of suicide stigma, and knowledge of how best to respond to an individual with suicidal tendencies ...


Executive Function Deficits In Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: Exploring The Impact Of Substance Use, William C. Dooley May 2019

Executive Function Deficits In Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: Exploring The Impact Of Substance Use, William C. Dooley

MSU Graduate Theses

Substance use is pervasive in the United States. With overdose deaths on the rise for the past decade, studies have examined the detrimental effects of a range of substances. Substance use has been shown to affect the domains of executive functioning, while diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis-C (Hep-C) have been shown to increase the severity of these deficits when comorbid with substance use. Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD) also affects many of the same domains of executive functioning as substance use. However, because of the rapid degenerative nature of the disease, individuals clinically determined to have Mild ...


Moral Foundations Of U.S. Political News Sources, William Edward Padfield May 2019

Moral Foundations Of U.S. Political News Sources, William Edward Padfield

MSU Graduate Theses

The media ecosystem has grown, and political opinions have diverged such that there are competing conceptions of objective truth. Commentators often point to political biases in news coverage as a catalyst for this political divide. The Moral Foundations Dictionary (MFD) facilitates identification of ideological leanings in text through frequency of the occurrence of certain words. Through web scraping, the researcher extracted articles from popular news sources’ websites, calculated MFD word frequencies, and identified words’ respective valences. This process attempts to uncover news outlets’ positive or negative endorsements of certain moral dimensions concomitant with a particular ideology. In Experiment 1, the ...


The Impact Of Black Lives Matter Movement Publicity On Juror Decision Making, Emily R. Nerness Dec 2018

The Impact Of Black Lives Matter Movement Publicity On Juror Decision Making, Emily R. Nerness

MSU Graduate Theses

Others have investigated separately whether general pretrial publicity (PTP) or racial salience have an impact on juror decision making, but no one has explored a potential connection between the two. With information about the Black lives matter (BLM) movement recurring in the media, the question arises of whether news about the BLM movement can increase racial salience, thereby influencing juror decision making. The present research addressed whether 1) exposing participants to pro-BLM or negative-BLM news articles would influence verdicts and guilt ratings when compared to a control group, 2) whether this PTP effect would be different for Black versus White ...


Controlling The Uncontrollable: Understanding The Relationships Between Psychological Distress, Physical Impairment, And Acceptance Among Women With Gynecological Cancer, Kirby L. Williams May 2018

Controlling The Uncontrollable: Understanding The Relationships Between Psychological Distress, Physical Impairment, And Acceptance Among Women With Gynecological Cancer, Kirby L. Williams

MSU Graduate Theses

As women age, the risk for being diagnosed with any gynecological cancer increases. Despite outnumbering the number of breast cancer diagnoses in a given year, there are significantly fewer studies addressing gynecological cancers. Treatment for gynecological cancers can be incredibly debilitating, both physically and psychologically. Although previous studies have evaluated and shown a relationship between physical impairment and perceived control on psychological distress in cancer patients during treatment, none have evaluated the influence of willingness and acceptance. The present study sought to expand this theory by assessing 25 gynecological cancer participants via self-report measures. Utilizing structural equation modelling, a moderated ...


Making Mental Health A Priority On College Campuses: Implementing Large Scale Screening And Follow-Up In A High Enrollment Gateway Course, Flora-Jean M. Forbes May 2018

Making Mental Health A Priority On College Campuses: Implementing Large Scale Screening And Follow-Up In A High Enrollment Gateway Course, Flora-Jean M. Forbes

MSU Graduate Theses

Objectives: A universal mental health screening program for undergraduate students was implemented using graduate student clinicians and online interviewing tools. Participants: Participants included 455 undergraduate students at a large Midwestern University enrolled in introductory psychology. Methods: Participants in the experimental group first completed an in-class self-report mental health screening questionnaire. Based on subscale elevations, students scoring in an “at risk” range on any subscale were invited to participate in individual online follow-up interviews to assess risk level and provide referral information. Results: Results demonstrated that a majority of undergraduate students scored in an at-risk range on at least one subscale ...


Memory Complaint Profiles In Dementia Populations Utilizing The Memory Complaints Inventory, Becca N. Johnson May 2018

Memory Complaint Profiles In Dementia Populations Utilizing The Memory Complaints Inventory, Becca N. Johnson

MSU Graduate Theses

The Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI) is a self-report questionnaire developed by Paul Green to provide further effort-related evidence in neuropsychiatric practice. It is comprised of nine subscale scores, in addition to the imbedded Plausible and Implausible symptom validity scales. The current study utilized archival MCI scores in dementia populations to determine the presence of, and difference between, genuine memory impairment profiles in separate subgroups of cognitive impairment. The study sample consisted of 244 adults presenting to an outpatient neuropsychology practice for evaluation of memory impairment. The diagnostic categories of the sample consisted of Alzheimer’s Disease (n = 21), Vascular Dementia ...


Effects Of Goal Training On Goal Structures, Charlotte S. Redhead May 2018

Effects Of Goal Training On Goal Structures, Charlotte S. Redhead

MSU Graduate Theses

In this study, a goal training intervention was developed and evaluated. The main purpose of this investigation was to provide evidence that training, constructed according to implications drawn from goal theory, can affect student goal setting and achievement. Unique to this investigation was that training targeted both short- and long-term goal setting processes linked to career goal pursuits. Findings indicated that goal training resulted in students’ productions of career goal hierarchies consistent with theoretical prescriptions of quality goal structures. This study has implications for those in positions to develop and mentor individuals’ pursuit of long-term meaningful goals across settings.


Interactions In Social Settings: The Relationship Between Alcohol And Sexual Assault Among College Students, Heather Lepper May 2018

Interactions In Social Settings: The Relationship Between Alcohol And Sexual Assault Among College Students, Heather Lepper

MSU Graduate Theses

Research has linked alcohol to violence and sexual assault, especially within the college student population. Most of this research focuses on the effects of alcohol on victims or perpetrators of sexual assault and not on bystanders of such situations. This study examines how self-reported drinking behavior affects students' ability to recognize risk of sexual assault in written scenarios and the various barriers that would inhibit their willingness to intervene. A sample of 275 students (183 female, 92 male) were asked to read one of three scenarios and respond to a brief questionnaire adapted from Burn's (2009) Barriers to Bystander ...


Expressing Pride: The Effects Skin Tone Has On Perceptions Of Agency, Communality, And Interpersonal Hostility For Black Women, Jessica Aikens May 2018

Expressing Pride: The Effects Skin Tone Has On Perceptions Of Agency, Communality, And Interpersonal Hostility For Black Women, Jessica Aikens

MSU Graduate Theses

This study is a replication and extension of Brosi, Welpe, Sporrle, and Heilman’s (2016) study that investigates the effects skin tone and emotional expression has on ratings of agency, communality, and interpersonal hostility. A picture of an African American female target was manipulated to depict three skin tones (light, brown, and dark) and expressed either pride or happiness. Data were collected from 399 participants via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Although explicit and implicit measures were used, the implicit measures were unreliable therefore, only the explicit measures were analyzed. Results revealed the brown target rated as more agentic and interpersonally hostile ...


The Development And Validation Of Implicit Measures Of Emotional Intelligence, Ricardo R. Brooks May 2018

The Development And Validation Of Implicit Measures Of Emotional Intelligence, Ricardo R. Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted much attention in the decades since Goleman’s (1995) claim that EI is important for success in a wide range of social and professional roles. With this interest has come much debate about whether EI should be defined and measured as a set of abilities or as a set of dispositional self-perceptions. The latter is typically assessed with self-report measures that are susceptible to contamination related to inaccurate self-knowledge and impression management artifacts – problems that may be mitigated by implicit measures. This research used Implicit Association Test (IAT) procedures to develop implicit measures of EI ...


Modeling Memory: Exploring The Relationship Between Word Overlap And Single Word Norms When Predicting Judgments And Recall, Nicholas Pruett Maxwell May 2018

Modeling Memory: Exploring The Relationship Between Word Overlap And Single Word Norms When Predicting Judgments And Recall, Nicholas Pruett Maxwell

MSU Graduate Theses

This study examined the interactive relationship between associative, semantic, and thematic word pair strength when predicating item relatedness judgments and cued-recall performance. In Experiment One, 112 participants were shown word pairs with varied levels of associative, semantic, and thematic overlap (measured with forward strength, cosine, and latent semantic analysis) and were asked to judge how related item pairs were before taking a cued-recall test. Experiment One had four goals. First, the judgment of associative memory task (JAM) was expanded to include three types of judgments. Next, the and interaction between database norms (FSG, COS, and LSA) was for when predicting ...


Generativity And Other Buffers Of Death Awareness In First Responders With Ptsd, David Joseph Herr May 2018

Generativity And Other Buffers Of Death Awareness In First Responders With Ptsd, David Joseph Herr

MSU Graduate Theses

Anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT) is an application of terror management theory to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). ABDT predicts that posttraumatic stress reactions occur when buffers of awareness of death, such as meaning in life, self-esteem, and social intimacy, fail to suppress overwhelming death-anxiety. The author suggested that generativity may also serve as an effective buffer of awareness of death. The present study investigated the presence of anxiety buffering disruption in first responders with PTSD via a mediation path model of self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, anxiety buffer variables, and death-though accessibility. While results indicate PTSD symptoms have a small ...


The Operationalization Of Task Goal Difficulty: An Exploration Of Qualitative And Quantitative Methods, Sidonia Christine Grozav May 2018

The Operationalization Of Task Goal Difficulty: An Exploration Of Qualitative And Quantitative Methods, Sidonia Christine Grozav

MSU Graduate Theses

This study contributed to an understanding of the goal setting process by investigating a variety of ways to evaluate the difficulty of short-term goals, including requested quantitative goals, different methods to rate the difficulty of self-defined goals, and the difficulty perceptions of the goal-setters themselves. To examine the validity of different goal-difficulty assessment strategies, I collected short-term academic goals from 116 freshman college students at the beginning of their first semester in college. I also collected antecedents of goal difficulty, such as prior performance and self-efficacy, and collected academic achievement at the conclusion of that semester. The validity of eight ...


A Comparison Of Traditional, Trial-Based, And Synthesized Contingency Trial-Based Functional Analyses, Kaitlin S. Curtis Dec 2017

A Comparison Of Traditional, Trial-Based, And Synthesized Contingency Trial-Based Functional Analyses, Kaitlin S. Curtis

MSU Graduate Theses

Researchers have developed functional analyses (FAs) to improve efficiency and correspondence that still use core components of the traditional format. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the correspondence between the trial-based FA and the traditional FA. I also evaluated the correspondence between the synthesized-contingency trial-based FA and the traditional FA. Within this study, I determined that by combining methods, I was able to reduce false negatives for escape found within the trial-based FAs and false-positives found within the synthesized contingency FAs.


Assessment Of Reliability And Stability Of Various Visual Search Parameters, Michael Don Mizer Dec 2017

Assessment Of Reliability And Stability Of Various Visual Search Parameters, Michael Don Mizer

MSU Graduate Theses

Research in social science has been on a continuous self-correcting path as scientists find new ways to look at old problems. Recent technology has given us the ability to perform compounded calculations in a fraction of previous times while recording complex measurements with greater degrees of precision. While this is helpful regarding corporeal measures, quantifying cognition is still a difficult task. Recently, many computer-aided eye tracking devices have been developed and used to validate visual search theories. However, few inquiries have been made assessing the reliability and stability of these methods. This study assessed the reliability and stability of visual ...


A Qualitative Study Of Group Therapy Incorporating Rap Music With Inmates, Abigail V. Richards Dec 2017

A Qualitative Study Of Group Therapy Incorporating Rap Music With Inmates, Abigail V. Richards

MSU Graduate Theses

This study aims to explore the lived experiences of inmates who participate in group psychotherapy incorporating elements of rap music. Rap music includes elements such as emotional expression, songwriting, community building, freestyling, and beat, which can be beneficial for individuals experiencing typical symptoms of incarceration such as anxiety, self-discovery, and difficulties regulating emotion. Ten inmates of a Missouri county justice center (50% male) were recruited on a volunteer basis to participate in a five-week psychotherapy group. The study involves psychoeducation, group-drumming, self-expression, and improvisation. Qualitative data were collected through an interview process with participants, including inmates, facilitators and supervisors. Results ...


Comparison Of Trial-Based, Synthesized Trial-Based, And Traditional Functional Analyses, Kara Leigh Forck Dec 2017

Comparison Of Trial-Based, Synthesized Trial-Based, And Traditional Functional Analyses, Kara Leigh Forck

MSU Graduate Theses

I evaluated a synthesized trial-based functional analysis with two students who engaged in problem behavior by combining the methods from the trial-based functional analysis and synthesized contingency functional analysis. Multiple test conditions were combined into one test condition and were evaluated in 2-min trials. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of correspondence of the results between the trial-based, synthesized trial-based, and traditional function analyses. One participant showed exact correspondence between the three functional analyses, while the other participant showed partial correspondence.


The Effects Of Goal Setting Type And Feedback On Basketball Skill Improvement, Shelby Diane White Dec 2017

The Effects Of Goal Setting Type And Feedback On Basketball Skill Improvement, Shelby Diane White

MSU Graduate Theses

Goal setting is a process that is used by many people in a variety of settings. For example, goals can be set for weight loss, career milestones, or anything a person would like to increase or decrease. According to Locke and Latham (1984), the best way to set a goal is to make sure the goal is specific. If someone wants to lose weight, the individual should state exactly how much weight they would like to lose and set a specific deadline for achieving the weight loss. A second aspect to goal setting is to make sure the goal is ...


Contemplative Practices And Post-Secondary Well-Being: Potential Methods For Reducing Test Anxiety, Shannon S. Hayden Aug 2017

Contemplative Practices And Post-Secondary Well-Being: Potential Methods For Reducing Test Anxiety, Shannon S. Hayden

MSU Graduate Theses

Students encounter numerous sources of stress in college from school work to examinations. A proposed method for reducing test related anxiety is contemplative practice (namely, mindfulness meditation and expressive writing). These interventions were used immediately prior to an exam to determine effectiveness on students’ mood and test grade. Although the study produced few statistically significant results, a promising trend in utilizing these interventions for increasing exam grades, increasing positive mood, and decreasing negative mood was uncovered. Each intervention appears to have dissimilar effects on different types of students (i.e., varying degrees of dispositional mindfulness and cognitive test anxiety; for ...


Exploring The Caregiver-Child Relationship In Institutional Care Facilities In South Sudan, Jennifer Joy Telfer Aug 2017

Exploring The Caregiver-Child Relationship In Institutional Care Facilities In South Sudan, Jennifer Joy Telfer

MSU Graduate Theses

Institutional care for children separated from parents is expanding in Africa, but little research exists on caregiving at these institutions. This study explores the caregiver-child relationship in two residential institutions in South Sudan by investigating how caregivers experience their role and how children experience their lives in the institution. Semi- structured interviews assessed 14 caregivers’ backgrounds, parenting experience, attitudes, education, and motivations. The Orphans and Vulnerable Children Wellbeing Tool (OWT) assessed 98 adolescent residents, who also gave feedback about their answers. Caregivers employ parenting styles used by their parents and report treating non-relative children the same as biological children. Children ...


Exploring Men's Motivations And Restraints In Repeated Extramarital Sex, Casey Marie Stinley Aug 2017

Exploring Men's Motivations And Restraints In Repeated Extramarital Sex, Casey Marie Stinley

MSU Graduate Theses

The influence of extramarital sex (EMS) on marriage has been a topic of discussion in the research community for over 30 years. This thesis explored the influences that drive the EMS participants’ decisions, whether to abstain, continue while in the marriage, or to leave the marriage, and, those influences that affect whether they later participate in EMS or not. This study also used individual semi-structured interviews of ex-husbands who have participated in EMS in the past, as well as husbands who are participating in EMS currently. The four men interviewed were from southwest Missouri. The interviews were reviewed to identify ...


The Effects Of Motivation And Goal Setting On Response Latency And Mental Effort, Jessica K. Willis Aug 2017

The Effects Of Motivation And Goal Setting On Response Latency And Mental Effort, Jessica K. Willis

MSU Graduate Theses

Researchers have found that performance is enhanced when participants set goals that are specific, difficult, and perceived as attainable. Also, motivation contributes to performance; specifically, intrinsic motivation, approach motivation, and avoidance motivation. Ninety participants were assigned randomly to one of two motivation groups; a goal setting or a control and assessed over a series of memory problems; solvable and unsolvable. Participant’s response latencies (RL) following an unsolvable problem was examined as a function of motivation type. Based upon the results from a 2 (Group; goal setting vs control) X 2 (test order) X 2 (memory problem difference scores) mixed ...