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The Use Of Capacity As An Indicator Of Automatic Processing: Is Smoking Automatic?, Agnes A. Massak Aug 2011

The Use Of Capacity As An Indicator Of Automatic Processing: Is Smoking Automatic?, Agnes A. Massak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It has been suggested that substance use transitions from a controlled to an automatic process (Tiffany, 1990). In particular, smoking has been found to appear automatic (Baxter & Hinson, 2001). Experienced smokers were able to attend to a reaction time task with minimal interference while smoking. Novice smokers’ performances were impaired when smoking. These results were based on differences in mean reaction times using analysis of variance. Another analytic approach to test the hypothesis that smoking is an automatic process is through the use of capacity coefficients and ratios. These mathematical tools allow for the direct testing of mental processing. The ...


Contributions Of Signal-Detection Mechanisms And Semantic Memory Representations To Famous Name Recognition, Ben P. Bowles Aug 2011

Contributions Of Signal-Detection Mechanisms And Semantic Memory Representations To Famous Name Recognition, Ben P. Bowles

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In past research, investigators have often used the recognition memory paradigm to study the cognitive and neural processes that permit the ability to accurately assess whether or not stimuli are familiar. This paradigm involves presenting stimuli to participants in a study phase, and examining their later recognition of them when these stimuli are subsequently presented again in a later test phase. It is not well understood, however, whether the same mechanisms that support familiarity assessment in recognition memory also support familiarity based on general life experience (e.g., recognizing a famous celebrity in daily life). To address this, I implemented ...


A Model, Leah K. Hamilton Aug 2011

A Model, Leah K. Hamilton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

to be released at conclusion of embargo.


An Investigation Of Masked Priming Mechanisms In Binary Classification Tasks, Jason Perry Aug 2011

An Investigation Of Masked Priming Mechanisms In Binary Classification Tasks, Jason Perry

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The goal of the present research was to examine the nature of masked priming with an emphasis on the influence of stimulus-response (S-R) associations. In Chapter 2, both the magnitude of the category congruence (priming) effect and the nature of the priming distance effect were assessed in two number classification tasks. Participants made either magnitude (i.e., is the target larger or smaller than ‘5’?) or identification judgments (i.e., press one button if the target is a ‘1’, ‘2’, ‘3’ or ‘4’ or the other button if the target is a ‘6’, ‘7’, ‘8’ or ‘9’). Priming distance effects ...


The Prejudice Paradox (Or Discrimination Is Not Dead): Systematic Discrimination In Forced Choice Employment Decisions, Paula M. Brochu Aug 2011

The Prejudice Paradox (Or Discrimination Is Not Dead): Systematic Discrimination In Forced Choice Employment Decisions, Paula M. Brochu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research examined discriminatory responding in a forced choice employment decision paradigm, using a justification-suppression perspective to interpret the findings. In this paradigm, participants play the role of employers and make employment choices between two excellent and similarly qualified individuals that differ only on one dimension. In the first three studies, participants chose between two individuals who were described as differing only in ethnicity (European vs. Middle Eastern), gender (Male vs. Female), religion (Christian vs. Muslim), age (Young vs. Old), height (Tall vs. Short), weight (Average Weight vs. Overweight), nationality (Canadian vs. Immigrant), or sexual orientation (Heterosexual vs. Homosexual). Patterns ...


Judging Covers By Their Books: Malleable Attractiveness Appraisals In Response To Belongingness Feedback, Christopher J. Wilbur Aug 2011

Judging Covers By Their Books: Malleable Attractiveness Appraisals In Response To Belongingness Feedback, Christopher J. Wilbur

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present research examined biases in appraisals of target attractiveness in response to belongingness feedback. Specifically, I hypothesized that individuals would provide favorable attractiveness appraisals of targets who accept them, and would provide unfavorable attractiveness appraisals of targets who reject them. I hypothesized further that biased appraisals would be most pronounced when people received feedback from opposite-sex targets. Two literatures guided the development of the present research. The first literature underscores the power of reciprocal liking – people like those who like them. In mirror fashion, people are highly critical of targets who deny opportunities for social affiliation. The second literature ...


Mechanisms Behind The Success Of Exercise As An Adjunct Quit Smoking Aid, Therese M. Harper Jul 2011

Mechanisms Behind The Success Of Exercise As An Adjunct Quit Smoking Aid, Therese M. Harper

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is well documented that temporarily abstinent smokers who undergo an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise experience a reduction in nicotine craving and withdrawal. Conversely, available research in chronic exercise and smoking cessation does not reliably demonstrate that combining exercise with well established treatments increases smoking abstinence rates. The overall aim of this dissertation was to investigate mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise in a group of female smokers taking part in a 14 week exercise plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch programme. Determining how smokers may benefit from exercise has important implications for designing effective interventions. Three ...


The Importance Of Self-Efficacy And Basic Psychological Needs In Children’S Physical Activity: Measurement, Prediction And Intervention, Casey E. Gray Jul 2011

The Importance Of Self-Efficacy And Basic Psychological Needs In Children’S Physical Activity: Measurement, Prediction And Intervention, Casey E. Gray

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The importance of physical activity in the overall health promotion and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic diseases in children is well established. Nonetheless, interventions to increase physical activity among this population have been largely unsuccessful. The main objective of the research in this dissertation was to explore the suitability of self-efficacy and basic psychological needs for physical activity prediction and intervention in children. Item generation and psychometric evaluation of psychological questionnaires occurred in study 1 (Chapter 2). Using a prospective design, study 2 (Chapter 3) established task efficacy, barriers efficacy, competence, and autonomy as significant predictors ...


Carving Cognition At Its Joints: Insights From The Interaction Between Explicit And Implicit Social Cognition, Kurt R. Peters Jun 2011

Carving Cognition At Its Joints: Insights From The Interaction Between Explicit And Implicit Social Cognition, Kurt R. Peters

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The distinction of cognition into kinds of cognitive process has proven theoretically fruitful and empirically compelling, but there remain significant challenges in deciding how best to carve cognition. First, it is unclear how to design measurement procedures that select distinct kinds of cognitive processing as exclusively as possible and, conversely, how to interpret the results of different kinds of measurement procedure. Second, the distinction between kinds of cognition must be specified with enough precision to derive empirically testable and falsifiable predictions. Third, there must be a reasonable explanation, ultimately compatible with phylogenetic evidence, for the existence of the specified distinction ...


The Utility And Feasibility Of Metric Calibration For Basic Psychological Research, Etienne Lebel Jun 2011

The Utility And Feasibility Of Metric Calibration For Basic Psychological Research, Etienne Lebel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Inspired by the history of the development of instruments in the physical sciences, and by past psychology giants, the following dissertation aimed to advance basic psychological science by investigating the metric calibration of psychological instruments. The over-arching goal of the dissertation was to demonstrate that it is both useful and feasible to calibrate the metric of psychological instruments so as to render their metrics non-arbitrary. Concerning utility, a conceptual analysis was executed delineating four categories of proposed benefits of non-arbitrary metrics including (a) help in the interpretation of data, (b) facilitation of construct validity research, (c) contribution to theory development ...


A Social Relations Analysis Of Transactive Memory In Groups, Sarah J. Ross Jun 2011

A Social Relations Analysis Of Transactive Memory In Groups, Sarah J. Ross

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transactive memory is the knowledge of what others in a group know and the exchange of that knowledge. In groups with effective transactive memory systems, members know “who knows what”, send knowledge to the appropriate individuals, and develop strategies for retrieving that information (Mohammed & Dumville, 2001; Wegner, 1995). Transactive memory studies tend to focus on the group as a whole, but useful information might be gathered by investigating transactive memory in dyads within groups. The purpose of this research was to use the social relations model (Kenny & LaVoie, 1984) as the basis for operationalizing transactive memory and to examine this new operationalization of transactive memory as it related to group performance. In social relations model terms, an effective transactive memory system was operationalized as consensus about expertise and knowledge seeking. Data were collected from two samples of student engineering project groups (n = 55 groups and n = 77 groups) and a sample of organizational engineering project groups (n = 7 groups). Groups whose members had spent significant time working together were hypothesized to have effective transactive memory systems and to exhibit significant consensus. Groups whose members had spent relatively less time with one another were hypothesized to have poorer transactive memory systems and to make use of unique relations in the group and assimilation as the basis for identifying expertise. The hypotheses were partially supported. In groups whose members spent relatively more time together, there was some agreement about who was expert and from whom to seek knowledge; however, knowledge exchange tended to be mostly based on seeking knowledge from no one or ...


An Observational Assessment Of Peer Group Contributions To Adolescent Identity Development, Tara M. Dumas Jun 2011

An Observational Assessment Of Peer Group Contributions To Adolescent Identity Development, Tara M. Dumas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that interaction-based peer groups play an important role in adolescents’ identity development. Peer group members’ current identity development and peer group interaction processes were examined as predictors of teens’ later identity exploration and commitment. Participants (n = 1070; 522 girls; Mage = 15.45 years) reported on their identity development and a subset of participants took part in an interactive group decision task within peer triads (n = 258; 86 triads). Task-related interactions were coded for support (openness to opinions) or discouragement (teasing of opinions and controlling behaviours) of group members' individuality. Nineteen to ...


Dissociable And Dynamic Components Of Cognitive Control: A Developmental Electrophysiological Investigation, Matthew Waxer Apr 2011

Dissociable And Dynamic Components Of Cognitive Control: A Developmental Electrophysiological Investigation, Matthew Waxer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

One standard task used to investigate the development of cognitive control is the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS). Performance and patterns of brain activity associated with the DCCS show continued age-related advances into early adolescence. According to many theoretical accounts, the DCCS places demands on a single underlying executive control process. Three experiments examined the possibility that the DCCS places demands on multiple control processes that follow distinct developmental trajectories. In Experiment 1, rule switching and conflict processing made orthogonal contributions to DCCS performance. Rule switching was associated with a cue-locked late frontal negativity (LFN) event-related potential (ERP) and conflict ...


Exploring Process Dissociation As A Tool For Investigating Discrimination In Hiring Situations, Rhys J. Lewis Mar 2011

Exploring Process Dissociation As A Tool For Investigating Discrimination In Hiring Situations, Rhys J. Lewis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Process dissociation is introduced as a way to overcome methodological limitations currently hindering sexism research. Researchers have identified two main types of sexism in hiring contexts. Meta-analyses confirm that men are traditionally advantaged over women (Tosi & Einbender, 1985), and that both genders encounter discrimination when applying to a job typically associated with the other gender (Davison & Burke, 2000). One problem is that these two biases are often confounded. As a result, researchers have hitherto been limited to showing that the two biases exist, but are largely unable to quantify them.

A possible solution might be process dissociation. It provides a ...


Does Anyone Really Like Horror Movies? Personality And Automatic Affective Reactions To Frightening Films, Michael E. Battista Feb 2011

Does Anyone Really Like Horror Movies? Personality And Automatic Affective Reactions To Frightening Films, Michael E. Battista

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I sought to explain why many people willingly expose themselves to apparently unpleasant media, such as horror movies. Participants (N = 133) completed a modified version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP; Payne et al., 2005), which assessed initial affective reactions to screenshots from movies that were either frightening or neutral. The time between exposure to the screenshots and assessment of affect was either short (100 ms) or long (1000 ms). Explicit attitudes about the movies and about the horror genre were also assessed, in addition to the following personality variables: The Big Five, Machiavellianism (from the Supernumerary Personality Inventory), Sensation ...


Sexual Differentiation In The Auditory System: An Investigation Into Prenatal And Adult Sex Steroid Influences On Otoacoustic Emissions, Adrian W.K. Snihur Jan 2011

Sexual Differentiation In The Auditory System: An Investigation Into Prenatal And Adult Sex Steroid Influences On Otoacoustic Emissions, Adrian W.K. Snihur

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are a naturally occurring by-product of the outer hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. A sexual dimorphism in OAE production favouring females has been reported in both human and non-human species. The broad objective of the present set of studies is to explore how the sexual dimorphism originates and the degree to which it reflects the organizational and activational influences of sex steroid hormones.

Most previous studies of sex differences in OAEs have been based on neonatal, infant, or broad adult samples, Study 1 of the present work was done to verify the reported ...


Parenting At Midnight: Measuring Parents' Thoughts And Strategies To Help Young Children Sleep Through The Night, Aimee J. Coulombe Dec 2010

Parenting At Midnight: Measuring Parents' Thoughts And Strategies To Help Young Children Sleep Through The Night, Aimee J. Coulombe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Throughout the night, brief periods of arousal are common and not necessarily indicative of problematic sleep. Awakening without an easy return to sleep (“night-waking”), however, can be problematic for parents and children alike. Approximately 30% of preschool-aged children wake at least once per night and require parental intervention (“help or assistance”). Although parents’ responses to children’s night-waking (i.e., parents’ night-waking strategies) can determine the course of night-waking over time, very little is known about night-waking strategy use among parents of preschool-aged children. The purpose of the present dissertation was to lay the foundation upon which a better understanding ...


Mental Blocks: The Behavioural Effects And Neural Encoding Of Obstacles When Reaching And Grasping, Craig S. Chapman Nov 2010

Mental Blocks: The Behavioural Effects And Neural Encoding Of Obstacles When Reaching And Grasping, Craig S. Chapman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to adeptly interact with a cluttered and dynamic world requires that the brain simultaneously encode multiple objects. Theoretical frameworks of selective visuomotor attention provide evidence for parallel encoding (Baldauf & Deubel, 2010; Cisek & Kalaska, 2010; Duncan, 2006) where concurrent object processing results in neural competition. Since the end goal of object representation is usually action, these frameworks argue that the competitive activity is best characterized as the development of visuomotor biases. While some behavioural and neural evidence has been accumulated in favour of this explanation, one of the most striking, yet deceptively common, demonstrations of this capacity is often overlooked; the movement of ...


Causality And Similarity In Autobiographical Event Structure: An Investigation Using Event Cueing And Latent Semantic Analysis, Christopher M. O'Connor Nov 2010

Causality And Similarity In Autobiographical Event Structure: An Investigation Using Event Cueing And Latent Semantic Analysis, Christopher M. O'Connor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The influence of similarity- and causally-based relations on the organization of autobiographical events was investigated using extended strings of related event memories. These strings were elicited using an event cueing paradigm in which participants generated descriptions of memories from their life, which were then presented as cues to subsequent event memories. In Experiment 1, similarity between generated events was investigated using participants’ similarity ratings, Latent Semantic Analysis, and experimenter judgements of shared event properties. For events close together in a string, event owners’ similarity ratings were higher than non-owners’, and non-owners’ ratings were comparable to similarity calculated using LSA. In ...


Fall-Related Stigma In Older Adulthood: A Mixed Methods Approach To Understanding The Influence Of Stigma On Older Adults' Reported Attitudes And Behaviours Regarding Falls, Heather M. Hanson Oct 2010

Fall-Related Stigma In Older Adulthood: A Mixed Methods Approach To Understanding The Influence Of Stigma On Older Adults' Reported Attitudes And Behaviours Regarding Falls, Heather M. Hanson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Falls during older adulthood present a major threat to the health and wellbeing of older adults and a challenge to society. While effective fall prevention strategies have been developed to address risk factors for falls, older adults commonly resist participation in such programming and dissociate from the topic of falls in general. After reviewing research findings and the theoretical literature, support was found for approaching falls as a stigmatizing topic for older adults. Three mixed methods experiments were completed to test the influence of stigma on older adults‟ attitudes, opinions, and behaviours. Experiments 1 and 2 tested the labelling aspect ...


The Development And Validation Of An Expertise Development Model For Sport Coaches, Melissa L. Wiman Aug 2010

The Development And Validation Of An Expertise Development Model For Sport Coaches, Melissa L. Wiman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this dissertation was to develop and validate a model for coaching expertise development using semi-structured interviews. The aim of Study One was twofold: first, to examine how coaching expertise is defined and second, to investigate how this expertise develops over time. Interviews were completed with elite athletes and elite coaches and were done in the tradition of grounded theory. Results suggested that there is a need to go beyond identifying a coach as an expert based on the performance of his/her athletes. Some of the additional criteria suggested included: be recognized by peers (other coaches) as ...