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The Effects Of Proficiency And Task Context On L2-L1 Noncognate Masked Translation Priming In Chinese-English Bilinguals, Mark J. Mcphedran Dec 2018

The Effects Of Proficiency And Task Context On L2-L1 Noncognate Masked Translation Priming In Chinese-English Bilinguals, Mark J. Mcphedran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The masked translation priming effect was examined in Chinese-English bilinguals using three experimental paradigms: lexical decision, semantic categorization, and speeded episodic recognition. A machine-learning approach was used to assess the subject- and item-specific factors that contribute to the sizes of translation priming effects across these tasks. The factors that contributed to translation priming effects were found to be task specific. Priming effects in lexical decision were associated with higher self-rated listening and writing abilities in English, especially when primes were high-frequency and targets were low-frequency. Priming effects in semantic categorization were associated with more frequent use of English in daily ...


The Effects Of Semantic Priming On Lexical Processing, Alexander Taikh Dec 2018

The Effects Of Semantic Priming On Lexical Processing, Alexander Taikh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present experiments were designed to investigate the locus of the semantic priming effect, a phenomenon that has received much research attention. Semantically related primes (e.g., cat) might activate the lexical representations of their targets (e.g., DOG) through automatic spreading activation at short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the prime and target, or through generation of words expected to follow the prime at long SOAs. Alternately, semantically related primes might be used strategically to aid responding after target identification. The effects of masked orthographic primes (e.g., judpe-JUDGE), in contrast, are assumed to be strictly lexical and automatic ...


The Effects Of Emotionally Salient Unimodal And Multimodal Stimuli On Low-Level Visual Perception, Stephen Raymond Pierzchajlo Dec 2018

The Effects Of Emotionally Salient Unimodal And Multimodal Stimuli On Low-Level Visual Perception, Stephen Raymond Pierzchajlo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sensory information can both impair and enhance low-level visual feature processing, and this can be significantly modulated depending on the whether this information matches the visual sensory modality. Emotionally significant visual and auditory stimuli can have opposing effects on attention. While task-irrelevant emotionally salient visual stimuli can often impair task attention, task-irrelevant emotionally salient auditory stimuli have been shown to enhance aspects of attention. To date, no study has directly compared how emotionally salient information presented to different sensory modalities can affect low-level vision. Using Gabor patches of differing contrasts to measure the threshold of visual perception, we hypothesized that ...


Conceptual Representation In Bilinguals: A Feature-Based Approach, Eriko Matsuki Dec 2018

Conceptual Representation In Bilinguals: A Feature-Based Approach, Eriko Matsuki

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A challenge for bilinguals is that translation equivalent words often do not convey exactly the same conceptual information. A bilingual exhibits a “semantic accent” when they comprehend or use a word in one language in a way that is influenced by knowledge of its translation equivalent. Semantic accents are well-captured by feature-based models, such as the Distributed Conceptual Feature model and the Shared (Distributed) Asymmetrical model, however, few empirical studies have used semantic features to provide direct evidence for these models. The goal of this thesis is to use a feature-based approach to identify conceptual differences in translation equivalent words ...


Understanding And Coping With Possible Depressive Symptoms: An Extension Of The Self-Regulation Model, Melissa N. Mohan Nov 2018

Understanding And Coping With Possible Depressive Symptoms: An Extension Of The Self-Regulation Model, Melissa N. Mohan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation used Leventhal’s Self-Regulation Model (SRM) as a theoretical framework to examine how undergraduates make sense of and cope with symptoms often associated with depression. Students completed questionnaires about possible depressive symptoms (not labelled as such); as well as other components of the SRM, including demographics, psychosocial context, current psychopathology, cognitive appraisals and emotional reactions. Previous SRM studies have often focused on how people make sense of depression once symptoms have coalesced into a clearer clinical picture. In contrast, Part 1 of this dissertation focused on an earlier application of the SRM to a range of vague, generally ...


The Cognitive Psychology Of Humour In Written Puns, James Boylan Nov 2018

The Cognitive Psychology Of Humour In Written Puns, James Boylan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The primary purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how humour from written puns is produced. Prior models have emphasized that novel or surprising incongruities should be important to humour appreciation­ (Suls, 1972; Topolinski, 2014). In study 1, a new approach to operationalizing incongruity as semantic dissimilarity was developed and tested using Latent Semantic Analysis (Landauer, Foltz & Laham, 1998). “Latent semantic incongruity” was associated with humour ratings, but only for puns with low ratings of familiarity from a prior occasion or for those with a low level of aggressive content. Overall, there was also an unexpected strong positive association between ...


Semantic Processing Of Nominal Metaphor: Figurative Abstraction And Embodied Simulation, Hamad Al-Azary Nov 2018

Semantic Processing Of Nominal Metaphor: Figurative Abstraction And Embodied Simulation, Hamad Al-Azary

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In a metaphor such as that lawyer is a shark, the concept lawyer, which is the metaphor topic, and the concept shark, which is the metaphor vehicle, interact to produce a figurative meaning such that lawyers are predatory. Some theorists argue that sensorimotor properties of the vehicle are the basis of metaphor comprehension (Gibbs & Matlock, 2008; Paivio, 1979; Wilson & Gibbs, 2007). As such, that lawyer is a shark is processed by an embodied simulation where sensorimotor imagery associated with sharks is simulated (e.g., sharks hunting in deep water). However, the long-standing assumption is that metaphors are processed abstractly and sensorimotor representations play no role (e.g., Gentner & Bowdle, 2008; Glucksberg, 2008). This thesis examines the role of sensorimotor simulation in processing metaphor. In Studies 1 – 2, participants rated metaphors on comprehensibility. The metaphors contained vehicles that varied on a semantic richness variable known as body-object interaction (BOI), which characterizes the degree to ...


Developing And Testing A Novel Intervention To Reduce Household Food Waste, Paul Van Der Werf Nov 2018

Developing And Testing A Novel Intervention To Reduce Household Food Waste, Paul Van Der Werf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The amount of food wasted is a topic of societal and academic interest. As academic research in this area is nascent, there are significant knowledge gaps, which this dissertation seeks to narrow, pertaining to: (1) the measurement of food waste; (2) the human behaviors that lead to wasting of food; and (3) the development of efficacious food waste reduction interventions.

A systematic literature review of 55 food waste estimates showed that on average 114.3 kg/capita/year is wasted from consumption (i.e., household) and 198.9 kg/capita/year across the entire food supply chain. There is considerable ...


Searching For Wisdom: A Phenomenological Investigation Of Women's Perspectives Following Participation In An Ovarian Cancer Supportive Care Group, Helen Butlin Oct 2018

Searching For Wisdom: A Phenomenological Investigation Of Women's Perspectives Following Participation In An Ovarian Cancer Supportive Care Group, Helen Butlin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study used a novel methodology of hermeneutic-poetic-phenomenology to explore perspectives of women living with ovarian cancer. Each had participated in a supportive care group process Soul-Medicine prior to volunteering. Three women, Beth, Carrie, and Denise contributed to this study. The methodology was grounded in Gaston Bachelard’s philosophy of poetic-phenomenology. Data was analyzed with attention to image-centred knowledge; material imagination; reverie; and horizons of hope to elucidate their implicated aspects of wisdom and the ways participant’s formed their personal wisdom integrating feminist theories of embodiment and bioethics.

Findings are framed through three images of a uniquely formed inner ...


Cardiodynamic Associations With Resilience In Undergraduate Students And The Effect Of A Mentorship Intervention, Rachel J. Knetsch Oct 2018

Cardiodynamic Associations With Resilience In Undergraduate Students And The Effect Of A Mentorship Intervention, Rachel J. Knetsch

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The National College Health Assessment (NCHA) indicates that a majority of Canadian university students report feeling overwhelmed, stressed, and anxious during their undergraduate studies. Resilience refers to positive adaptation, or the ability to maintain or regain mental health, despite experiencing adversity (Herrman et al., 2011). While autonomic indices have been used to describe chronic physiological stress, the role of heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of resilience remains unclear. This research tested the hypotheses that (1) there is a relationship between HRV and resilience scoresand (2) a mentorship intervention will improve HRV and resilience outcomes. Fifty-seven first year students ...


The Development And Validation Of A Preliminary Meditation Intentions Questionnaire, Daniel Kharlas Oct 2018

The Development And Validation Of A Preliminary Meditation Intentions Questionnaire, Daniel Kharlas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Meditation programs and mindfulness interventions have become increasingly popular over the last 30 years in both clinical and non-clinical populations. However, challenges such as motivating participants in 8-week programs and adherence rates are issues in many mindfulness meditation interventions. The Meditation Intentions Questionnaire (MIQ) was developed as a measure intended to guide participants to set their own goals and intentions for meditation. The MIQ has six subscales with 8 items each. The subscales assess intentions for participating in meditation programs in the following domains: cognitive enhancement, increased emotional control, greater positive affect, stress relief, spiritual discovery and psychological discovery. Items ...


Understanding How To Make Physical Activity Pleasurable, Cassandra L. Ellis Aug 2018

Understanding How To Make Physical Activity Pleasurable, Cassandra L. Ellis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this dissertation was to understand how specific factors can be manipulated to affect participant’s experience with physical activity (PA). Three studies were conducted. Study 1 was a comprehensive review, examining specific factors and measures that can be used to study the affective experience of PA participants. For Study 2, several focus group interviews were conducted, and a questionnaire distributed to Kinesiology students (n = 113) to determine how music affects PA participants. The qualities of songs provided were analysed. Finally, the purpose of Study 3 was to use the motivational playlist from Study 2 and determine whether ...


Exploring The Process Of Statistical Language Learning, Nicolette B. Noonan Aug 2018

Exploring The Process Of Statistical Language Learning, Nicolette B. Noonan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, I investigated the process of statistical word segmentation using a combination of behavioural, clinical, and neuroimaging approaches. Prior research has largely focused on the outcome of statistical learning approaches, with little research attention paid to the process of learning. In this body of research, I sought to address this issue. In Chapter 2, I examined how domain-specific and domain-general working memory interference effects on a statistical word segmentation task. I found that when completing a concurrent visuospatial or verbal working memory task, statistical language learning was impaired. Thus, this study provided some evidence that domain-general working memory ...


Episodic-Like Memory In Dogs: Solving What-Where-When Tasks, Ka Ho Lo Aug 2018

Episodic-Like Memory In Dogs: Solving What-Where-When Tasks, Ka Ho Lo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Episodic memory is a unique, personal memory that contains what happened, where it happened, and when it happened. Although episodic-like memory (ELM) in non-human animals has been shown using ­­what-where-when (WWW) memory paradigms, it has not previously been shown in dogs. Dogs are an excellent candidate for developing translational models of neurodegenerative disorders related to episodic memory, including Alzheimer’s disease. Dogs were tested on experiments that involved spatially and temporally unique odour sequences. Dogs were tested to see if they remembered the odours, their locations, and their time of presentation by choosing the earlier-exposed odour at the test. Findings ...


The Role Of Familiarity In Rhythmic Timing And Beat Perception, Joshua Hoddinott Aug 2018

The Role Of Familiarity In Rhythmic Timing And Beat Perception, Joshua Hoddinott

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Behavioural and neural differences associated with strong and weak-beat rhythms may indicate that strong-beat rhythms are more familiar stimuli than weak-beat rhythms, or differences may be because intervals in strong-beat rhythms are more easily encoded relative to a beat. To test these different possibilities, participants were trained to reproduce strong-, weak-, and non-beat rhythms over 4 days, in an attempt to equate familiarity across the different categories of rhythms. On a fifth day, participants were tested on their ability to reproduce these same rhythms at learned, slower, and faster rates, as well as novel rhythms. Participants improved performance on all ...


The Effects Of Perceptual Fluency On Emotional Word Recognition, Joseph M. Nidel Aug 2018

The Effects Of Perceptual Fluency On Emotional Word Recognition, Joseph M. Nidel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To investigate if making a word harder to read attenuates emotional influences like valence and arousal, we used a sample of Warriner and colleagues’ (2013) corpus with valence and arousal norms, a font manipulation from the perceptual fluency paradigm, and a word naming task. We found that, contrary to our hypotheses, emotional influences of words on RT were not attenuated in the disfluent condition; in fact, disfluency seemed to amplify the facilitative effects of high arousal. These results suggest that models of word recognition should consider the role that emotions play in recognition. They also provide limited support to models ...


The Politics Of Wounds, Jonathan Nash Aug 2018

The Politics Of Wounds, Jonathan Nash

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

What configuration of strategies and discourses enable the white male and settler body politic to render itself as simultaneously wounded and invulnerable? I contextualize this question by reading the discursive continuities between Euro-America’s War on Terror post-9/11 and Algeria’s War for Independence. By interrogating political-philosophical responses to September 11, 2001 beside American rhetoric of a wounded nation, I argue that white nationalism, as a mode of settler colonialism, appropriates the discourses of political wounding to imagine and legitimize a narrative of white hurt and white victimhood; in effect, reproducing and hardening the borders of the nation-state. Additionally ...


Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan Aug 2018

Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...


The Mental Health And Resilience Benefits Of Being A Peer Mentor, Gazal Kukreja Aug 2018

The Mental Health And Resilience Benefits Of Being A Peer Mentor, Gazal Kukreja

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Post-secondary student mental health is a major concern, with students facing increased stress levels and decreased probabilities of engaging in health-promoting behaviours such as physical activity. Peer mentorship programs are one solution. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mental health and resilience outcomes of being a mentor in a year-long, university-based peer mentorship program. Using a mixed methods design, mentors completed quantitative assessments of mental health and resilience pre- and post-mentorship program. Mentors also wrote qualitative self-reflections at the end of the program. Quantitatively, the only statistically significant change was in mentors’ Positive Affect, which increased over ...


Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs Aug 2018

Pilot Study: Heart Rate Variability Analysis And Mental Health Outcomes In University Female Hockey Players, Kaitlyn Jacobs

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exercise improves anxiety and depression, both of which are associated with impaired autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR). In turn, HR variability (HRV) is a reliable physiological indicator of external stressors. The following research tested the hypothesis that HRV is indicative of chronic resilience towards mental stress in female varsity hockey players. Seventeen varsity hockey players (HOCK, age 21 ± 1.5) and fifteen healthy controls (CTRL, age 21 ± 2.2) at Western University participated three times throughout a 7-month season. Participants completed questionnaires (brief resilience scale, BRS; generalized anxiety scale, GAD-7; mental health inventory, MHI; visual analog scale, VAS; short ...


Development Of A Three-Factor Model Of Psychological Ownership Of Country: Applications For Outgroup Attitudes And Citizenship Behaviors, Joshua D. Wright Aug 2018

Development Of A Three-Factor Model Of Psychological Ownership Of Country: Applications For Outgroup Attitudes And Citizenship Behaviors, Joshua D. Wright

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mechanisms linking social identification to negative outgroup attitudes is a prevailing inspiration for research in intergroup relations. Psychological ownership—the possessive feeling that some object is ‘mine’ or ‘ours’—has been proposed as one possible mechanism. Social identification is a precursor to developing feelings of ownership over ideological spaces, such as countries or territories. Subsequently, ownership may drive negative outgroup attitudes through exhibition of one’s right to control the use of the ingroup’s space. Psychological ownership may also have positive roles in developing citizenship behaviors, such as through voting or buying ingroup national products. The following program of ...


The Light Triad Scale: Developing And Validating A Preliminary Measure Of Prosocial Orientation, Laura K.D. Johnson Aug 2018

The Light Triad Scale: Developing And Validating A Preliminary Measure Of Prosocial Orientation, Laura K.D. Johnson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Most research on prosocial behaviour focuses on situational factors rather than individual differences. Empathy, compassion, and altruism are three constructs related to prosocial behaviour that also overlap theoretically. However, prosocial traits are rarely studied together, and measures of prosocial orientation are lacking. To address this gap, the Light Triad Scale (Light-3) was developed to assess individual differences in prosocial orientation. Three subscales with 12 items each, assessing empathy, compassion, and altruism, were created using existing measures of each construct. Items were selected according to theory and literature. The Light-3 was then administered to a sample of undergraduate psychology students at ...


Ipad Use To Enhance Conversations Between Persons With Dementia And Their Family Caregivers, Kelsey Dynes Aug 2018

Ipad Use To Enhance Conversations Between Persons With Dementia And Their Family Caregivers, Kelsey Dynes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Electronic conversational memory notebooks, a more current application of previous hardcopy versions, consist of personally relevant photographs and accompanying sentences. The notebooks help persons with dementia access memories during conversations. Person-centred communication (PCC) recognizes the individual, accommodating for personal beliefs and intentions. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether persons with dementia and their family caregivers could be educated and trained to use PCC while using an iPad-based electronic conversational memory notebook. Seven persons with mild to moderate dementia and their family caregiver completed the six-week study. Participants were educated and trained to use PCC while conversing ...


Spatial Memory For Isolated Arm Locations On The Radial Maze, Hayden Macdonald Aug 2018

Spatial Memory For Isolated Arm Locations On The Radial Maze, Hayden Macdonald

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to encode and retrieve information describing spatial locations allows organisms to solve a variety of natural problems. When multiple spatial locations vary with respect to foraging, predatory or environmental factors, successfully discriminating between these locations may result in increased fitness. Although, how do the spatial relations of multiple locations affect the encoding or retrieval of spatial information? Across three radial maze experiments, I addressed how spatial configuration affects working memory for multiple locations. Specifically, I asked 1) how spatial patterns affect memory for multiple locations, 2) how spatial isolation between to-be-visited locations may affect spatial memory, and 3 ...


Examining Child Sex As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Cortisol Reactivity And Symptoms Over Time, Andrew R. Daoust Aug 2018

Examining Child Sex As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Cortisol Reactivity And Symptoms Over Time, Andrew R. Daoust

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Females’ reactivity to stress appears to be closely tied to internalizing symptoms, while males who are under-reactive may be at risk for externalizing problems. Little is known about when such differences emerge, despite possible implications for early prevention. Cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor was assessed in 409 three-year-old children along with children’s parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms, which were re-collected at child ages 5 and 8. Multilevel modelling was used to investigate whether the relationship between cortisol reactivity and symptoms differed between boys and girls longitudinally. Over time, girls with lower cortisol reactivity showed a decrease in depressive ...


Trajectories Of The Effects Of Sad Mood Induction Procedures (Mips), Jennifer C. P. Gillies Aug 2018

Trajectories Of The Effects Of Sad Mood Induction Procedures (Mips), Jennifer C. P. Gillies

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mood Induction Procedures (MIPs) are used widely in cognitive vulnerability to depression research. Although research supports certain MIPs as effective, little research has validated the assumption that MIP-induced sad moods are sufficiently persistent. This study addressed three questions: How long does an MIP-induced mood last? What are the shapes of the trajectories of the mood effects? Do these trajectories differ by type of MIP? Four-hundred-and-one undergraduate students were randomly assigned to undergo one of three commonly used sad MIPs or a neutral MIP. Mood was repeatedly measured immediately prior to and following the MIP.Results did not support the widely ...


Testing A New Model Of Team Interdependence, Natasha E. Ouslis Aug 2018

Testing A New Model Of Team Interdependence, Natasha E. Ouslis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Companies rely on teams to combine their different skills and solve multidisciplinary problems (Engestrom, 2008; Schrage, 1995). One crucial characteristic of teams is their interdependent nature (Sundstrom, de Meuse, & Futrell, 1990). However, interdependence as a construct is not well understood and its role in dynamic team processes is not clear. Recent theoretical advances have proposed a new model of interdependence – one that places two forms of interdependence at the beginning of a path that leads through task and social constructs to team effectiveness (Courtright, Thurgood, Stewart, & Pierotti, 2015). This new model was tested in two data sets of engineering student ...


Understanding Stigma, Secrecy, And Sex In Cnm Relationships, Rhonda Balzarini Aug 2018

Understanding Stigma, Secrecy, And Sex In Cnm Relationships, Rhonda Balzarini

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Scholars have posited that the family system is becoming more diversified with increases in same-sex, mixed sex, and consensually non-monogamous relationships. While same-sex and mixed-sex relationships have received considerable attention, public and academic interest in consensually non-monogamous relationships have increased dramatically. Yet despite increased interest, little is known about the ways in which relationships with various partners in non-monogamous relationships differ, whether differences that emerge are influenced by experiences of stigma or the desired role of different partners, whether stigma was driven by one’s relationship orientation, and how individual’s sexual attitudes impact the decision to pursue consensually non-monogamous ...


Imidacloprid Impairs Performance On A Model Flower Handling Task In Bumblebees (Bombus Impatiens), Jordan D. Phelps Aug 2018

Imidacloprid Impairs Performance On A Model Flower Handling Task In Bumblebees (Bombus Impatiens), Jordan D. Phelps

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bumblebees exposed to neonicotinoid pesticides collect less pollen on foraging trips. Exposed bumblebees are also slower to learn to handle flowers, which may account for reduced pollen collection. It is unclear, however, why neonicotinoid exposure slows learning to handle flowers. I investigated the effect of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, on bumblebee motor learning using a lab model of flower handling. Bumblebees learned to invert inside a narrow tube and lift a petal-shaped barrier to reach a reward chamber. Imidacloprid-exposed bumblebees showed a dose-dependent delay to solve the task, which resulted from reduced switching between behavioural strategies and a subsequent delay ...


Girls’ Internalizing Symptoms And White Matter Tracts In Cortico-Limbic Circuitry, Ola Mohamed Ali Jul 2018

Girls’ Internalizing Symptoms And White Matter Tracts In Cortico-Limbic Circuitry, Ola Mohamed Ali

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysfunction in cortico-limbic circuitry is implicated in internalizing disorders, but less is known about whether structural abnormalities precede disorder, thus potentially marking risk. I therefore examined associations between white matter tract integrity in cortico-limbic circuitry at age 7, obtained using Diffusion Tensor Imaging, and concurrent and longitudinal patterns of internalizing symptoms, over a 5-year period, in 42 typically developing girls. Using Automated Fiber Quantification, diffusion properties were examined at multiple points along tract length (cf., an average diffusion measure of the entire tract). Concurrent internalizing symptoms were associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in segments of the cingulum bundle and uncinate ...