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The Use Of Exercise Self-Talk By Female Adolescents, Sadie Puddister Dec 2015

The Use Of Exercise Self-Talk By Female Adolescents, Sadie Puddister

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Already below recommended levels, physical activity participation in female youth is known to decline throughout adolescence. Self-talk, a form of self-regulation has been demonstrated to influence behaviour in both sport and exercise settings. The purpose of the present research was to explore the exercise related self-talk of teen girls (aged 14-18) with the intent of uncovering reoccurring themes and attributes in the self-talk of both low frequency exercisers (LFEs) and high frequency exercisers (HFEs). Participants were teen girls (N=28, Mage=15.56, SDage=1.47) recruited from A. B. Lucas Secondary School in London, Ontario. Physical activity ...


Mathematical Modeling Of Stress Management Via Decisional Control, Matthew J. Shanahan Dec 2015

Mathematical Modeling Of Stress Management Via Decisional Control, Matthew J. Shanahan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Engaging the environment through reason, humankind evaluates information, compares it to a standard of desirability, and selects the best option available. Stress is theorized to arise from the perception of survival-related demands on an organism. Cognitive efforts are no mere intellectual exercise when ontologically backed by survival-relevant reward or punishment. This dissertation examines the stressful impact, and countervailing peaceful impact, of environmental demands on cognitive efforts and of successful cognitive efforts on a person’s day-to-day environment, through mathematical modeling of ‘decisional control’. A modeling approach to clinical considerations is introduced in the first paper, “Clinical Mathematical Psychology”. A general ...


Social Networking Sites And Personnel Selection: An Initial Validity Assessment, Travis J. Schneider Dec 2015

Social Networking Sites And Personnel Selection: An Initial Validity Assessment, Travis J. Schneider

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this dissertation was to add to the literature on the use of social networking sites (SNSs) for personnel selection. The first goal was to evaluate whether SNSs have the potential to be used as a valid source of information for selection. Specific SNS Indicator scales were created to test whether they have better validity evidence than the more traditionally-used Global SNS Rating. In a study of 141 undergraduate students at a large Canadian university, the Specific SNS Indicators demonstrated fairly weak evidence of interrater reliability, but some evidence of structural validity, and construct validity (convergent and discriminant ...


Exploring And Training Spatial Reasoning Via Eye Movements: Implications On Performance, Victoria A. Roach Dec 2015

Exploring And Training Spatial Reasoning Via Eye Movements: Implications On Performance, Victoria A. Roach

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation sought to determine if eye movements could serve as an indicator of success in spatial reasoning, and if eye movements associated with successful completion could be applied to strategically improve spatial reasoning.

Using the line images of Shepard and Metzler, an electronic test of mental rotations ability (EMRT) was designed. Two versions of the test were created, allowing for both a timed (6 seconds per question) and untimed testing environment. Four experiments were designed and completed to relate mental rotation ability (MRA) scores from the EMRT, to patterns in chrononumeric and visual salience data. In each experiment, participants ...


An Examination Of Daily Humour Styles And Relationship Satisfaction In Dating Couples, Sara Caird Nov 2015

An Examination Of Daily Humour Styles And Relationship Satisfaction In Dating Couples, Sara Caird

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Humour can be both beneficial and harmful to romantic relationships. Research indicates that affiliative humour is associated with higher levels of relationship satisfaction, whereas aggressive humour is associated with lower levels of relationship satisfaction. However, past research is limited by its reliance on cross-sectional designs and general measures of humour use. Furthermore, little research has examined potential mediators that may account for the observed relationships between humour styles and relationship satisfaction. The current daily diary studies were the among the first to examine daily within-person associations between humour styles (specifically in the context of romantic relationship), relationship satisfaction, and positive ...


Striving For Teaching Success: Enhancing Emotional Intelligence In Pre-Service Teachers, Ashley K. Vesely-Maillefer Oct 2015

Striving For Teaching Success: Enhancing Emotional Intelligence In Pre-Service Teachers, Ashley K. Vesely-Maillefer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Research has confirmed job dissatisfaction, and high levels of occupational stress and burnout resulting from the emotional demands of teaching. This dissertation focuses on a potential solution to support teachers’ psychological wellbeing in their paramount role to society: training in emotional intelligence. Recent research has demonstrated not only the positive role of emotional intelligence (EI) in enhancing stress management, coping skills, psychological wellbeing, and resilience, but that EI can be developed through EI training. Empirical evidence has recently shown support for EI training specifically within the teaching population. However, there remains a dearth of applicable empirically-based training programs aimed at ...


Effects Of Motion Pattern Characteristics On The Perception Of Visual Acceleration, Alexandra S. Mueller Sep 2015

Effects Of Motion Pattern Characteristics On The Perception Of Visual Acceleration, Alexandra S. Mueller

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to perceive visual motion is one that we use every day to perform goal-directed activities, such as intercepting or avoiding objects. As objects and observers rarely move at constant velocities, it is important to be able to detect changes in velocity. However, little attention has been paid to how we perceive visual acceleration in the literature. This thesis explored the influence of real world-relevant motion pattern characteristics on visual acceleration perception. Observers rarely see object motion with an unlimited field of view, and therefore we first examined how physically constraining the horizontal distance over which a stimulus can ...


Factors Influencing Continuity Of Attachment Quality In Early Childhood, Ya F. Xue Sep 2015

Factors Influencing Continuity Of Attachment Quality In Early Childhood, Ya F. Xue

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although the study of attachment continuity has flourished over the last several decades, gaps remain in the literature. These include a dearth of studies that have examined: 1) how children differ in their patterns of continuity in attachment quality; 2) factors that underlie these patterns; and 3) the roles that infant characteristics, such as children’s levels of susceptibility to parenting influences, have in shaping attachment stability. Correspondingly, this dissertation aimed to identify children’s patterns of continuity in attachment quality across early childhood, and to elucidate the processes that influence the development of these different patterns. Using Latent Class ...


The Sixties Scoop Among Aboriginal Veterans: A Critical Narrative Study, Munira Abdulwasi Sep 2015

The Sixties Scoop Among Aboriginal Veterans: A Critical Narrative Study, Munira Abdulwasi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study explored the experience of Aboriginal Veterans adopted and/or fostered during the Sixties Scoop using critical narrative inquiry. The objectives were to: 1) understand the lived experience of Aboriginal veterans adopted and/or fostered during the Sixties Scoop, 2) explore any health needs expressed by Aboriginal veterans adopted and/or fostered during the Sixties Scoop, and 3) provide recommendations for the implementation of health services and programs to assist this group of Aboriginal veterans with their health needs. Eight individual interviews were conducted with participants in Kitchener-Waterloo, London, Ottawa, Winnipeg, and Vancouver. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim ...


Neural And Behavioural Responses To Rewards And Losses In Early Development: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study, Niki Hosseini-Kamkar Sep 2015

Neural And Behavioural Responses To Rewards And Losses In Early Development: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study, Niki Hosseini-Kamkar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural and behavioural correlates of learning from rewards and losses in children. Greater blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses in the ventral striatum (VS) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) were found when participants received rewards compared to when they missed out on an opportunity to receive rewards. In contrast, greater BOLD responses in the anterior insula (AI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were found when participants received losses compared to when they avoided losing. The BOLD response to rewards in the VS and VMPFC correlated positively with the tendency to ...


The Impact Of The Operational Environment On The Commitment Profiles Of Canadian Armed Forces Soldiers, Christina L. Eastwood Aug 2015

The Impact Of The Operational Environment On The Commitment Profiles Of Canadian Armed Forces Soldiers, Christina L. Eastwood

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of this study was to use latent profile analysis to determine whether commitment profiles found in previous studies could be replicated in a deployed Canadian military sample. This study examined antecedents contributing to the development of the profiles, outcomes associated with profile membership and stability of profiles solutions. A total of 4254 (pre-deployment) and 2365 (post-deployment) military personnel completed surveys related to affective (AC), normative (NC) and continuance (CC) organizational commitment, unit climate, operational preparedness, psychological distress, and intention to stay. Four commitment profiles (e.g., high AC- dominant, low CC/NC-dominant, Moderately and Weakly committed) emerged across ...


Prosody: An Important Cue To Word Learning, Monica Dasilva Aug 2015

Prosody: An Important Cue To Word Learning, Monica Dasilva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Infants rely on cues from their environment during language acquisition. Prosodic features of words are one such cue and involve changes in stress and rhythmic patterns within speech. Studies have examined prosody’s influence on word segmentation and have found it to be a useful cue for detecting word boundaries (Johnson & Seidl, 2009). What is less understood is how prosody helps infants form associations between novel labels and their referents during word learning. The present thesis investigated the influence of prosodic cues on word learning. The looking times were recorded of 13 infants (19-25 months) exposed to object-label pairings that ...


The Role Of Androgens In Life History Theories Of Attachment, Janani S. Sankar Aug 2015

The Role Of Androgens In Life History Theories Of Attachment, Janani S. Sankar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Life history theories (LHTs) of attachment address how attachments to caregivers in infancy/childhood and to romantic partners in adulthood are used to negotiate mating and reproductive choices. Greater insecure-avoidant attachment has been suggested to be associated with the adoption of a low-investment, short-term reproductive strategy. The role of sex hormones, including the androgen testosterone (T), in the development of attachment-related reproductive strategies has been speculated in some LHTs. This research tested an integrated-LHT model of early environment, attachment, and reproductive strategies in men, using structural equation modeling. Androgen-related effects were hypothesized to occur prenatally and/or in adulthood, consistent ...


"She Will Drive The ____": Verb-Based Prediction In Individuals With Parkinson Disease, Kelsey G. Santerre Aug 2015

"She Will Drive The ____": Verb-Based Prediction In Individuals With Parkinson Disease, Kelsey G. Santerre

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cognitive changes in Parkinson disease (PD) affect language processing, including sentence comprehension impairments, difficulties with processing verbs, and discourse impairments. In many theories of language comprehension, efficient language processing depends on successful implicit prediction of upcoming concepts and grammatical structures. Such prediction processes, in part, may be regulated by the neural dopaminergic system, which is markedly impaired in PD. In non-language tasks, persons with PD (PwPD) are impaired in prediction, sequencing, and probabilistic learning. However, the contributions of these dopaminergic-mediated prediction and probabilistic learning processes to language processing impairments in PD remain unexplored. We tested whether PwPD are impaired in ...


The Coffee Shop Effect: Investigating The Relationship Between Ambient Noise And Cognitive Flexibility, Emily G. Nielsen Aug 2015

The Coffee Shop Effect: Investigating The Relationship Between Ambient Noise And Cognitive Flexibility, Emily G. Nielsen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cognitive flexibility is the ability to think diversely in order to solve problems and learn concepts. It has also been suggested that cognitive flexibility supports creativity. Research has demonstrated that creativity is enhanced by moderate volumes of ambient noise. This thesis sought to replicate and extend this line of research by investigating how noise affects cognitive flexibility. Study 1 assessed the effects of noise on three creativity tasks. Performance was found to be enhanced by ambient noise, particularly among those who listen to music while they study/work. Study 2 examined how noise affects performance on a category learning task ...


The Cultural Connectedness Scale And Its Relation To Positive Mental Health Among First Nations Youth, Angela Snowshoe Aug 2015

The Cultural Connectedness Scale And Its Relation To Positive Mental Health Among First Nations Youth, Angela Snowshoe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The mental health and wellbeing of youth is one of the most urgent concerns affecting many First Nations communities across Canada. Despite a growing recognition that cultural connectedness (i.e., the extent to which an individual is integrated within his or her First Nations culture) is an important factor for promoting the mental health of First Nations youth, there remains a clear need for a conceptual model that organizes, explains, and leads to an understanding of the resiliency mechanisms underlying this construct. Study 1 involved the development of the Cultural Connectedness Scale (CCS) with a sample of 319 First Nations ...


Congruent Familiar Size Relationships Decrease Size Contrast Illusion, Margarita Maltseva Aug 2015

Congruent Familiar Size Relationships Decrease Size Contrast Illusion, Margarita Maltseva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We examined the effect of familiar size of objects on size perception. Participants matched the size of a target image to the perceived size of a central image in the Ebbinghaus illusion. The central image was identical throughout all trials (a 25-mm-wide dog), but the annuli varied in physical size (12 mm vs. 37 mm), semantic category (animate vs. inanimate), and familiar real-world size (cat vs. horse for the animate category; shoe vs. car for the inanimate category). Importantly, the familiar size relationship between the center and the annuli was either congruent (e.g., dog surrounded by small shoes or ...


National Identity And Attitudes Toward Immigrants: The Role Of Social Comparison And Perceptions Of Competition, Kelly L. Barnes Aug 2015

National Identity And Attitudes Toward Immigrants: The Role Of Social Comparison And Perceptions Of Competition, Kelly L. Barnes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Research has long demonstrated that negative types of national attachment, like nationalism, are related to relatively more negative intergroup attitudes while more positive forms of national identity, like patriotism, are either related to relatively more positive attitudes or unrelated. Most of this research has been conducted using individual difference measures of national identity. This series of studies seeks to test the difference between nationalism and patriotism empirically, by examining the idea that the presence of social comparison is what separates nationalism from patriotism. Further, the literature suggests that perceptions of competition between groups are an important factor in determining intergroup ...


Naturalistic Paradigms For Neuroimaging And Bedside Measures Of Conscious Awareness, Leah J. Sinai Aug 2015

Naturalistic Paradigms For Neuroimaging And Bedside Measures Of Conscious Awareness, Leah J. Sinai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Complex, naturalistic stimuli can test for covert awareness in behaviourally non-responsive patients. For patients with poor visual function, this thesis aimed to identify an auditory-only stimulus that could evaluate executive function. Also, it assessed if Galvanic Skin Response could be a suitable bedside testing method. Healthy individuals listened to 4 auditory stimuli in the fMRI scanner. During Galvanic Skin Response recording, an independent group of controls listened to an audio narrative and watched a movie. Behaviourally non-responsive patients were also tested during movie viewing. Using fMRI, an audio narrative was identified that produced widespread brain synchronization between healthy participants, critically ...


Reactions To Negative Feedback: The Role Of Resilience And Implications For Counterproductivity, Kabir N. Daljeet Aug 2015

Reactions To Negative Feedback: The Role Of Resilience And Implications For Counterproductivity, Kabir N. Daljeet

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The model of Organizational Frustration (Spector, 1978) suggests that individuals are more likely to engage in counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) after having had a negative experience at work due to the negative emotions brought on by such an experience. The King and Rothstein (2010) model of resilience suggests that the degree to which an individual self-regulates after an adverse workplace experience influences how they subsequently behave. Using vignettes, participants were told they received either positive or negative feedback regarding their job performance and were asked to fill out measures of resilience and intentions to engage in CWB. In a sample ...


Biological And Contextual Predictors Of The Stability Of Behavioural Inhibition In Early Childhood, Victoria C. Johnson Aug 2015

Biological And Contextual Predictors Of The Stability Of Behavioural Inhibition In Early Childhood, Victoria C. Johnson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Persistently elevated behavioural inhibition (BI) in children confers increased risk for anxiety disorders. However, little research has jointly examined exogenous and endogenous factors that may moderate BI stability in early childhood. To explore whether parent (i.e., parental overinvolvement, parent anxiety) and child (i.e., 5-HTTLPR and BDNF val66met genotype, positive emotionality) factors influenced the stability of early BI, a community sample of 371 preschoolers and their caregivers completed observational measures of child temperament, observational and questionnaire measures of parenting, and parent interviews for anxiety disorder history. Child BI at age 3 interacted with children’s 5-HTTLPR variants to predict ...


Relationships Between The Dark Triad And Delayed Gratification: An Evolutionary Perspective, Holly M. Baughman Aug 2015

Relationships Between The Dark Triad And Delayed Gratification: An Evolutionary Perspective, Holly M. Baughman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Dark Triad (i.e., psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) is a cluster of socially aversive personality traits that account for the “darker” side of human behavior. While traditional views have focused on the maladaptive nature of these traits, recent work in the field of evolutionary psychology suggests these traits may be adaptive in terms of pursuing a life strategy; one that is characterized by immediate gratification and risk-taking. The present study examined links between the Dark Triad traits and ability to delay gratification in a sample of 364 undergraduate students (136 males). Psychopathy was the most strongly linked to an ...


Hair Cortisol Concentrations In High- And Low-Stress Mother-Daughter Dyads, Sarah J. Ouellette Aug 2015

Hair Cortisol Concentrations In High- And Low-Stress Mother-Daughter Dyads, Sarah J. Ouellette

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are receiving increased attention as a novel biomarker of psychophysiological responses to chronic stress. I examined the validity of HCC as a marker of psychosocial stress in mother-daughter dyads characterized by high (n = 30) or low (n = 30) maternal chronic stress. Additionally, I examined whether early care and daughters’ symptoms moderated similarity of HCC levels within dyads. Finally, I examined chronic stress and early caregiving as potential mediators of children’s cortisol stability. High-stress mothers had significantly lower HCC compared to low-stress mothers. Further, HCC in daughters were significantly associated with previously assessed salivary cortisol reactivity ...


Motivation And Well-Being: A Test Of Self-Determination Theory Using A Person-Centered Approach, Chelsea A. Vaters Jul 2015

Motivation And Well-Being: A Test Of Self-Determination Theory Using A Person-Centered Approach, Chelsea A. Vaters

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Self-determination theory postulates that individuals can experience motivation in different ways and that these different types of motivation fall along a continuum from controlled to autonomous regulation. Recently, there have been challenges to the notion that an individual’s motivation can be categorized as falling at a particular point along the autonomy continuum. Researchers have begun to investigate the possibility that individuals can experience different types of motivation simultaneously. The current study used a person-centered approach to study motivation and also examined how the profiles detected related to well-being outcomes and adaptive student behaviours. Latent profile analyses of data from ...


Interactions Between The Basolateral Amygdala And Ventral Striatum During Probabilistic Learning In Children And Associations With Individual Differences In Free Cortisol, Haley J. Fallowfield Jul 2015

Interactions Between The Basolateral Amygdala And Ventral Striatum During Probabilistic Learning In Children And Associations With Individual Differences In Free Cortisol, Haley J. Fallowfield

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stress can drastically alter the behavioural and functional correlates of feedback learning; however, the functional correlates of these effects are poorly understood, particularly in children. In the present study, typically developing children between the ages of 9- and 11-years-old completed a probabilistic learning task with both appetitive and aversive outcomes in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Anticipatory stress to the experimental environment was measured via salivary cortisol at baseline and prior to completion of the task. Although baseline and pre-MRI cortisol values were not reliably different at the group level, subsequent analyses revealed that the basolateral amygdala was less responsive ...


Parent-To-Parent Support For Parents Of Children Who Are Deaf Or Hard Of Hearing: A Conceptual Framework, Rebecca Henderson Jul 2015

Parent-To-Parent Support For Parents Of Children Who Are Deaf Or Hard Of Hearing: A Conceptual Framework, Rebecca Henderson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Parent-to-parent support for parents with children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) is identified as an important component of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs for children with hearing loss.

Purpose: The specific aim of this review was to identify the constructs and components of parent-to-parent support for parents of children who are D/HH.

Research Design: An extensive scoping literature review identified 39 peer-reviewed articles published from 2000-2014. Studies were selected and reviewed based on standardized procedures.

Results: Data was identified, extracted and organized into libraries of thematic and descriptive content. A conceptual framework ...


A Latent Profile Analysis Of Romantic Relationship Quality And Its Associations With Personality, Partner Support, And Psychological Well-Being, Samantha Chen Jul 2015

A Latent Profile Analysis Of Romantic Relationship Quality And Its Associations With Personality, Partner Support, And Psychological Well-Being, Samantha Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current study investigated the number of relationship quality profiles that emerge from a latent profile analysis and subsequently examined the nature of each subgroup using predictors of partner social support and personality, as well as outcomes of psychological well-being. The application of latent profile analysis resulted in three profiles of low, moderate, and high relationship quality among a sample of university students. Additionally, predictors and outcomes of profile membership were incorporated to provide a greater descriptive understanding of the latent profiles. Results showed that the relationship between intimacy and passion and the relationship between relationship satisfaction and received esteem ...


Discrimination Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: Perception Of Discrimination And Microaggressions, Sarah E. Moroz Jul 2015

Discrimination Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: Perception Of Discrimination And Microaggressions, Sarah E. Moroz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present work sought to examine the perception of discrimination toward sexual and romantic minorities. In particular, microaggressions (subtle messages of hostility based on group membership) were examined as a potential factor in varying reports of discrimination frequency. Findings showed that both minority and majority group members agreed that the minority group experienced more discrimination in their day-to-day lives than did the majority group; the minority and majority groups also showed agreement regarding the frequency of this day-to-day discrimination. An indirect model of influence was found, in which frequency ratings of discrimination toward the minority group were impacted by frequency ...


Eyetracking Of Coarticulatory Cue Responses In Children And Adults, Alexandra M. Cross Jul 2015

Eyetracking Of Coarticulatory Cue Responses In Children And Adults, Alexandra M. Cross

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Studies examining sensitivity to coarticulatory cues during spoken word recognition have typically examined children and adults separately. The present thesis compared sensitivity to coarticulatory cues in school-aged children and adults using eyetracking. Children and adults listened to words containing congruent and incongruent coarticulatory cues while looking at a two-picture display. Contrary to theories positing weakened attention to phonetic detail in children, we observed equal or greater sensitivity to coarticulatory cues in children compared to adults. This effect was related to predictors of reading and language proficiency, and was also modulated by phoneme contrasts such that children were overly sensitive to ...


The Impact Of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy On Aggression, Anger, And Hostility In A Forensic Psychiatric Population, Monica F. Tomlinson Jul 2015

The Impact Of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy On Aggression, Anger, And Hostility In A Forensic Psychiatric Population, Monica F. Tomlinson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Forensic psychiatric patients engage in more aggression than any other inpatient psychiatric population. Aggressive behaviour impedes rehabilitation, as aggressive individuals are often excluded from evidence-based therapies due to safety concerns. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a group-based cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy designed to target maladaptive behaviours, such as aggression, in individuals who are behaviourally and emotionally dysregulated. The present study assessed whether six months of DBT is effective in reducing aggression, anger, and hostility in a representative, medium-security, forensic psychiatric population compared to treatment as usual. Participants (N = 17) suffered from a range of psychotic, personality, substance use, and mood disorders. Results ...