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Effect Of Reverberation Context On Spatial Hearing Performance Of Normally Hearing Listeners, Renita E. Sudirga Dec 2014

Effect Of Reverberation Context On Spatial Hearing Performance Of Normally Hearing Listeners, Renita E. Sudirga

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous studies provide evidence that listening experience in a particular reverberant environment improves speech intelligibility and localization performance in that environment. Such studies, however, are few, and there is little knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. The experiments presented in this thesis explored the effect of reverberation context, in particular, the similarity in interaural coherence within a context, on listeners' performance in sound localization, speech perception in a spatially separated noise, spatial release from speech-on-speech masking, and target location identification in a multi-talker configuration.

All experiments were conducted in simulated reverberant environments created with a loudspeaker array in an anechoic chamber ...


An Examination Of Psychological Variables Influencing Perceptions Of The Self Among A Sample Of Female Exercise Initiates, Lisa Cooke Dec 2014

An Examination Of Psychological Variables Influencing Perceptions Of The Self Among A Sample Of Female Exercise Initiates, Lisa Cooke

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The general purpose of this dissertation was to explore the relationship among and within cognitive variables associated with exercise initiation and maintenance in a sample of female exercise initiates.

Manuscript 1 was structured to explore the changes to exercise identity among a population of female exercise initiates (N = 78) grouped into an imagery or control condition. Previous research has found that a strong exercise identity is associated with more frequent exercise (Strachan et al., 2009) and increases over time as a person continues to exercise (Cardinal & Cardinal, 1997). Participants were assessed multiple times (weeks 0, 5, 9, 18, 36) during ...


The Effects Of Alcohol On Different Classes Of Motion Perception, Steven J. Matson Dec 2014

The Effects Of Alcohol On Different Classes Of Motion Perception, Steven J. Matson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We used a psychophysical approach to investigate how alcohol affected visual sensitivity to perceive different classes of motion. Visual sensitivities were measured in both a non-alcohol and an alcohol condition for three classes of motion: Minimum Motion, Simple Motion, and Complex Motion. Perceptual thresholds, taken as the degree of motion at which an observer responded correctly with an accuracy of 75%, or Weber fractions were compared between the non-alcohol and the alcohol conditions. For Simple and Complex motion, similar comparisons were made as a function of speed (e.g., 2°s-1, 6°s-1, and 12°s-1). Perceptual ...


Attachment Relationships Across Siblings And Their Common Mother: Patterns And Predictors, Kathleen Anne O'Connor Nov 2014

Attachment Relationships Across Siblings And Their Common Mother: Patterns And Predictors, Kathleen Anne O'Connor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Traditional attachment theory suggests that because maternal state of mind regarding attachment is generally stable by adulthood, mothers should interact similarly with their children and, consequently, should share a similar quality of attachment with each. Early empirical work, however, suggests that the quality of siblings’ relationships is frequently different. Using varied theoretical and methodological approaches, this dissertation expanded upon the existing literature to further explore the nature and underpinnings of variability in the quality of mother-infant attachment across siblings.

Study 1 comprehensively described patterns of attachment within the family, investigating the extent to which the quality of siblings’ relationships with ...


The Contribution Of Attachment Styles And Reassurance Seeking To Daily Mood And Relationship Quality In Romantic Couples, Lyndsay E. Evraire Nov 2014

The Contribution Of Attachment Styles And Reassurance Seeking To Daily Mood And Relationship Quality In Romantic Couples, Lyndsay E. Evraire

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Excessive reassurance seeking (ERS), defined as the stable tendency to excessively and persistently seek assurances from others, has recently emerged as a possible risk factor for interpersonal distress and depression. An important limitation in the ERS literature concerns the mechanism(s) by which individuals engage in ERS. The current daily diary study was among the first to examine the daily relationships among ERS, mood, and relationship quality in romantic couples, and explore how these associations were moderated by individual and partner attachment styles. Method: A sample of 110 heterosexual couples completed measures of attachment, ERS, symptoms of depression, and relationship ...


Exploring Communication Apprehension And Its Relationship To Communication Attitude And Socio-Communicative Functioning In Children With Velopharyngeal Insufficiency, Agnieszka Dzioba Oct 2014

Exploring Communication Apprehension And Its Relationship To Communication Attitude And Socio-Communicative Functioning In Children With Velopharyngeal Insufficiency, Agnieszka Dzioba

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Myriad findings on children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) indicate the potential for this population of children to experience feelings of apprehension specific to communication and the potential for other psychological and social difficulties. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the construct of communication apprehension (CA) and its potential relationship to social and communicative functioning in a diverse group of children with VPI. Potential linkages between CA and multiple socio-communicative constructs including attitude, speech satisfaction, speech and language skill, social competence, and speech severity were explored in a cohort of children with and without VPI, followed by an ...


Self-Referential Processing: An Investigation Of The Mediating Role Of Alpha Power, Tanaz Javan Sep 2014

Self-Referential Processing: An Investigation Of The Mediating Role Of Alpha Power, Tanaz Javan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The EEG correlates of valenced self- and other-referential processing (SRP-ORP) are relatively little understood. This study examined the immediate effects of mindfulness meditation (MM) and EEG alpha neurofeedback (NFB) on resting state EEG alpha amplitudes and alpha event related (de-)synchronization (ERD/S) during an experimental implicit and explicit SRP-ORP task. Undergraduate students (n = 93) were randomized to a single session of MM, NFB alpha synchronization training (“alpha-up”), NFB alpha desynchronization training (“alpha-down”), or sham (placebo control) NFB before completing the Visual-Verbal Self-Other Referential Processing Task (VV-SORP-T). A reduction in resting-state alpha power over posterior cortex was observed across groups ...


The Ha-Ha Holocaust: Exploring Levity Amidst The Ruins And Beyond In Testimony, Literature And Film, Aviva Atlani Sep 2014

The Ha-Ha Holocaust: Exploring Levity Amidst The Ruins And Beyond In Testimony, Literature And Film, Aviva Atlani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ABSTRACT

Jewish humour sheds a crude light on the social, political, and historical realities of the Holocaust. Paradoxically, contentiously, doses of levity during this period were very much a reality, and even a psychological necessity. The purpose of my thesis is to explore the historical, social, and political ramifications of such laughter provoking manifestations. In doing so, the nuances are highlighted which are found within the laughter of the ghettos, the transit camps, and the concentration camps. Furthermore, some of these jokes, and their subsequent variations, reappear within the discourse of children of survivors. The dissertation explores how some of ...


When Objects Become Part Of Self: Effects Of Ownership And Choice On Self-Object Associations, Yang Ye Sep 2014

When Objects Become Part Of Self: Effects Of Ownership And Choice On Self-Object Associations, Yang Ye

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite its significant role in the society, ownership has received little research attention from social psychology. Understanding ownership as a form of people-object relations has important implications for social cognition, as the relations between people and objects share similar mechanisms with the relations between people and other social entities. Adopting an associative approach to relations, the present research investigates how ownership influences self-object association—mental associations between the owner’s self and the owned objects in the owner’s associative network. It is argued that the formation of self-object associations is gated by the levels of congruence or incongruence between ...


Mediators Of Change In The Stigmatization Of Depression Among Caucasian And Asian Populations, Francois B. Botha Aug 2014

Mediators Of Change In The Stigmatization Of Depression Among Caucasian And Asian Populations, Francois B. Botha

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Public stigma negatively impacts public health by discouraging people with depression from seeking help. In North America, Asians reliably report higher levels of stigma and lower levels of help-seeking than do Caucasians. The reasons for this discrepancy and possible methods of reducing this have, however, rarely been explored. In Study 1, undergraduate students (n = 573) completed several questionnaires related to public stigma, values and ideological beliefs, attitudes and beliefs regarding people with depression and perceived norms. At least one week afterward, participants completed the second part of Study 1, where they were presented with contrived articles highlighting a biological cause ...


The Effect Of Exercise On Cigarette Craving And Withdrawal Symptoms While Using A Nicotine Lozenge, Amelia Tritter Aug 2014

The Effect Of Exercise On Cigarette Craving And Withdrawal Symptoms While Using A Nicotine Lozenge, Amelia Tritter

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is imperative that smoking cessation aids effectively alleviate cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms because their intensity has shown to predict relapse. The nicotine lozenge is a pharmacotherapy that has shown to reduce symptoms of craving and withdrawal. Research has also shown that a single session of exercise can provide temporary relief from craving and withdrawal for smokers who are both temporarily abstaining and undergoing a real quit attempt. Applying two efficacious monotherapies concurrently may provide additive benefit and greater symptom relief. Thirty recently quit smokers were randomized to either the experimental (exercise and lozenge) or control (lozenge alone) condition ...


The Antisaccade Task: Visual Distractors Elicit A Location-Independent Planning 'Cost', Jesse C. Desimone Aug 2014

The Antisaccade Task: Visual Distractors Elicit A Location-Independent Planning 'Cost', Jesse C. Desimone

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prosaccades are rapid eye movements with direct stimulus and response relations and are designed to bring the fovea onto a target or area of interest. In contrast, antisaccades require the inhibition of a prosaccade and the evocation of a saccade to a target’s mirror-symmetrical location. Previous work has shown that a remote (i.e., midline, contralateral) – but not proximal (i.e., ipsilateral) – task-irrelevant distractor relative to a visual target delays prosaccade reaction times (RT) (i.e., remote distractor effect: RDE). To my knowledge, however, no work has examined whether antisaccade RTs are similarly influenced by a RDE. Accordingly, I ...


Task-Switching In Oculomotor Control: Systematic Investigations Of The Unidirectional Prosaccade Switch-Cost, Jeffrey Weiler Aug 2014

Task-Switching In Oculomotor Control: Systematic Investigations Of The Unidirectional Prosaccade Switch-Cost, Jeffrey Weiler

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An antisaccade requires suppressing a stimulus-driven prosaccade (i.e., response suppression) and remapping a target’s spatial location to its mirror-symmetrical position (i.e., vector inversion). Notably, my previous work demonstrated that the successful execution of an antisaccade selectively lengthens the reaction time (RT) of a subsequently completed prosaccade (i.e., the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost; Weiler & Heath, 2012a; Weiler & Heath, 2012b). Thus, the objective of this dissertation was further investigate, and ultimately provide a mechanistic explanation for the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost.

In Chapter Two, I demonstrate that the magnitude of the unidirectional prosaccade switch-cost is not dependent of the number of previously ...


The Role Of The Media In The Automatic Dehumanization Of Refugees, Stelian Medianu Aug 2014

The Role Of The Media In The Automatic Dehumanization Of Refugees, Stelian Medianu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The media plays an important role in the process of shaping attitudes about controversial issues such as the arrival of refugees to Canada. The first aim of this research was to investigate how the Canadian newsprint media portrayed one noteworthy event involving the arrival of refugees to Canada: the arrival of the Tamil refugee boat to British Columbia in August of 2010. A media content analysis revealed that the overall portrayal of refugees in the Canadian press in response to this event was mixed. On the one hand, refugees were perceived either as bogus claimants or as criminals/terrorists. On ...


The Development And Validation Of A Multidimensional Measure Of Moral Orientation, Erica A. Giammarco Aug 2014

The Development And Validation Of A Multidimensional Measure Of Moral Orientation, Erica A. Giammarco

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Researchers have found that when individuals are faced with moral dilemmas, they tend to approach the situations with the same general perspective. This general perspective is referred to as their moral orientation. Studies have shown that moral orientations tend to be either justice or care focused. A justice orientation refers to a focus on rights, rules, and objective decision making. In contrast, individuals using a care orientation are more likely to consider relationships, contextual factors, and minimizing harm to others. Although numerous studies have reported individual differences in these orientations, the literature has failed to consider how individuals with “abnormal ...


The Effects Of Semantic Neighborhood Density On The Processing Of Ambiguous Words, Mark J. Mcphedran Aug 2014

The Effects Of Semantic Neighborhood Density On The Processing Of Ambiguous Words, Mark J. Mcphedran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Semantic neighborhood density’s effects on the processing of ambiguous words were examined in three lexical decision experiments. Semantic neighborhoods were defined in terms of semantic set size and connectivity in Experiment 1, and in terms of semantic set size in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 1, set size, connectivity, and ambiguity were crossed. An ambiguity disadvantage was observed for large set, high connectivity words, and there was some suggestion of an ambiguity advantage for small set, high connectivity words. Experiments 2 and 3 held connectivity constant at a high level, and set size and ambiguity were crossed, with ...


Attachment And Attention: An Investigation Of Biases In Attention As They Relate To Attachment Security In Infancy And Adulthood, Paul J. Meinz Aug 2014

Attachment And Attention: An Investigation Of Biases In Attention As They Relate To Attachment Security In Infancy And Adulthood, Paul J. Meinz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

At the advent of attachment theory, John Bowlby hypothesized that cognition and emotion are shaped by early experiences with primary caregivers (Bowlby, 1980). This idea – that aspects of cognition may be organized within early relationships – still plays a prominent role in contemporary attachment theory. The studies described within this dissertation provide support for the idea that attachment security in infancy and adulthood are associated with differences in cognition – particularly with differences in the way that people attend to certain forms of stimuli. Mothers and children in the studies described here were first assessed for individual differences in attachment security. They ...


Multi-Sector Service Use By Children In Contact With Ontario Mental Health Agencies, Christian M. Hahn Aug 2014

Multi-Sector Service Use By Children In Contact With Ontario Mental Health Agencies, Christian M. Hahn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Children and youth frequently receive services for mental health issues from multiple service sectors but little is known about the rates of multi-sector involvement over time. Thus, the prevalence of multi-sector service use for children in contact with Ontario mental health agencies, and the influence of demographic, familial, and need variables on child multi-sector involvement, were examined. Secondary data analyses were performed on chart reviews of clients (N=355; 67% boys; ages 4 to 13) from six mental health agencies. Approximately two-thirds of clients had multi-sector involvement. In cross-sectional analyses, risk factors predicted increased likelihood of multi-sector involvement, whereas protective ...


How Attention And Beat Perception Modulate Neural Entrainment To Rhythm, Aaron Wc Gibbings Jul 2014

How Attention And Beat Perception Modulate Neural Entrainment To Rhythm, Aaron Wc Gibbings

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recently, steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EPs) at the frequency of the beat have been observed in electroencephalograms (EEG; Nozaradan et al., 2011, 2012). Previous studies involved participants actively attending to isochronous sequences and repeating rhythms. Here we assessed whether neural enhancement of SS-EPs at beat-related frequencies occurred when (1) participants did not attend to the rhythms, and (2) the rhythm was novel and did not repeat.

When participants listened to rhythms that contained a beat SS-EP enhancement was larger during attended rhythms than when participants were distracted by another task, although SS-EPs were still present in all conditions. SS-EP enhancement therefore ...


Reactions To Refugees: Do Stronger Believers In A Just World Compensate, Dehumanize, And Perceive Refugees As More Responsible For Their Status?, Amanda N. Devaul-Fetters Jul 2014

Reactions To Refugees: Do Stronger Believers In A Just World Compensate, Dehumanize, And Perceive Refugees As More Responsible For Their Status?, Amanda N. Devaul-Fetters

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research examined Just World Theory (Lerner, 1970) and dehumanization in the context of refugee claimants. Across three studies, threat to belief in a just world (BJW) was manipulated, participants were provided multiple strategies to restore justice, and individual differences in just world beliefs were measured. In Study One, participants read about a refugee persecuted for either political affiliation or race. Stronger believers in a just world were more likely to assign personal responsibility and a larger scholarship to the refugee than weaker believers. Participants viewed the political refugee as more responsible for his status and participants in the high ...


Goal Orientation Heterogeneity In Teams: Investigating Implications For Individual Satisfaction With The Team And Team Conflict, Kyle A. Cameron Jul 2014

Goal Orientation Heterogeneity In Teams: Investigating Implications For Individual Satisfaction With The Team And Team Conflict, Kyle A. Cameron

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The primary purpose of this research was to examine how goal orientation heterogeneity in teams relates to both individual satisfaction with the team and team conflict. Based on current research on team member heterogeneity and goal orientation, I hypothesized, at the individual level of analysis, that goal orientation dissimilarity would be negatively related to individual satisfaction with the team and, at the team level of analysis, that goal orientation diversity would be positively related to relationship and task conflict. Data were collected from a sample of 420 engineering students working on complex design projects in 101 project teams. Results indicate ...


Psychological Contracts: A Feature Based Approach To Understanding Transactional And Relational Contracts, Brittney K. Anderson Jul 2014

Psychological Contracts: A Feature Based Approach To Understanding Transactional And Relational Contracts, Brittney K. Anderson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Feature-based measures have been suggested as a solution to some of the many issues associated with measuring psychological contracts. This study involved the refinement of an existing feature-based measure, including adding and rewriting items, to provide a concise but comprehensive and generalizable measure of transactional and relational psychological contracts. Data were collected from an online sample of full-time employees. Analyses revealed three main psychological contract feature dimensions (transactional, individual relational, and group relational) clustered into three contract types (predominantly transactional, predominantly relational, and balanced). Moreover, the balanced contract type had the highest mean score on positive workplace outcome variables, such ...


Seeing With Sound: Investigating The Behavioural Applications And Neural Correlates Of Human Echolocation, Jennifer L. Milne Jun 2014

Seeing With Sound: Investigating The Behavioural Applications And Neural Correlates Of Human Echolocation, Jennifer L. Milne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Some blind humans use the reflected echoes from self-produced signals to perceive their silent surroundings. Although the use of echolocation is well documented in animals such as bats and dolphins, comparatively little is known about human echolocation. The overarching goal of the work presented in this thesis was to shed light on some of the basic functions of human echolocation, including the perception of the shape, size, and material. I addressed these aspects of echolocation using behavioural psychophysics and neuroimaging.

In Chapter 2 I show that blind echolocators were able to accurately identify the shape of 2D objects, but that ...


The Integration And Evaluation Of Humor And Positive Psychology Approaches To Well-Being, Nadia Maiolino Jun 2014

The Integration And Evaluation Of Humor And Positive Psychology Approaches To Well-Being, Nadia Maiolino

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The research domains of humor and positive psychology promote strategies that can enhance well-being. However, these lines of investigation have proceeded in relative isolation. Therefore, this thesis considered how positive psychology constructs, namely, gratitude and savoring, share features with the humor styles. Study 1 mapped out the inter-relationships among these strategies, as differentially used by individuals. Findings indicated that these strategies share meaningful relationships, and that humor and positive psychology have unique roles within the context of well-being. The humor styles also moderated relationships gratitude shared with well-being. Study 2 extended this work by manipulating use of positive psychology and ...


The Relationship Between Implicit And Explicit Processing In Statistical Language Learning, Nicolette B. Noonan Jun 2014

The Relationship Between Implicit And Explicit Processing In Statistical Language Learning, Nicolette B. Noonan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Statistical language learning is an implicit process wherein language learners track sequential statistics in fluent speech, and may it facilitate the learning of word boundaries. This process is well studied, however, the cognitive mechanisms supporting it remain poorly understood. The present thesis investigated whether domain-specific or cross-domain explicit working memory engagement would impair implicit statistical learning of word boundaries in fluent speech. Participants (n = 110) were exposed to an implicit statistical word segmentation paradigm while concurrently engaged in no other task (control), or an explicit domain- specific (verbal) or cross-domain (visuospatial) working memory task of either low- or high- demand ...


The Role Of The Phonological Syllable In English Word Recognition, Daniel Trinh Jun 2014

The Role Of The Phonological Syllable In English Word Recognition, Daniel Trinh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Three ERP experiments examined the role of syllables during English visual word recognition. A colour congruency paradigm (Carreiras, Vergara, & Barber, 2005) was used in which disyllabic words were presented in two colours that divided each item either at the syllable boundary (congruent condition), or one letter away from the syllable boundary (incongruent condition). Experiment 1 investigated syllable congruency effects for words that either were presented with an orthotactically illegal segment in the incongruent condition (e.g., whi-mper, comr-ade), or were presented with orthotactically legal segments in the incongruent condition (e.g., whi-sper, cont-act). A syllable congruency effect was observed in the ERP data, but only for words presented with an orthotactically illegal segment in the incongruent condition. Experiment 2 contrasted the phonological syllable with the Basic Orthographic Syllabic Structure (Taft, 1979), and the Maximal Onset Principle. Behavioural and ERP results did not offer any evidence in support of the BOSS, and provided mixed evidence for the MOP. Although phonological syllable effects were found in both behavioural and ERP data, the advantage for a syllable division appeared to occur primarily when the initial segment in alternative divisions was pronounced differently in isolation than in the context of the word (e.g., pi-cnic but not pla-ster). Experiment 3 investigated syllable congruency effects for phonologically confounded and phonologically unconfounded words. For phonologically confounded words, pronunciation of the initial segment in isolation matched that of the whole word in the congruent condition, but did not match in the incongruent condition (e.g., po-ny vs pon-y; pon-der vs po-nder). For phonologically unconfounded words, the pronunciation of the initial segment in isolation matched that of the whole word in both congruent and incongruent conditions (e.g., cab-in vs ca-bin), or mismatched in both iv congruent and incongruent conditions (e.g., ca-ble vs cab-le). A syllable congruency effect was found in the ERP data, but only for phonologically confounded words. These data suggest that readers of English do not parse words into syllables during silent reading. Implications for theories ...


Blame Recovery: Modeling The Effects Of Personality, Religious-Spiritual Belief, And Gender On Blame Attributions And Psychological Wellbeing After A Failed Romantic Relationship, Gillian C. Tohver Jun 2014

Blame Recovery: Modeling The Effects Of Personality, Religious-Spiritual Belief, And Gender On Blame Attributions And Psychological Wellbeing After A Failed Romantic Relationship, Gillian C. Tohver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Blame attribution (BA) is the complex cognitive-affective process through which individuals feel negative feelings of internalized self-blame/guilt or externalized other-blame by varying degrees. High BA is accompanied by distress, anxiety, depression and reduced health outcomes, while low BA indicates healthful release from negative affect and direction of attention toward past transgressions or negative events. Previous research has demonstrated a multitude of personality and individual difference associations with BA and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in cross-sectional samples, but little focus has been directed at determining if such traits affect changes in (i.e. recovery from) BA and PWB over time. The ...


Cognitive Predictors And Behavioural Mediators Of Vulnerability-Specific Stress Generation In Depressed Adults, Katerina Rnic Jun 2014

Cognitive Predictors And Behavioural Mediators Of Vulnerability-Specific Stress Generation In Depressed Adults, Katerina Rnic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This longitudinal study investigated the prospective relation of core beliefs and maladaptive behaviours with stress generation. A sample of 151 depressed females completed a battery of questionnaires to assess the presence of early maladaptive schemas, excessive reassurance seeking (ERS), avoidance, depression and anxiety. Approximately three months later, participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, a diagnostic interview, and a semi-structured contextual interview that assessed the number and severity of life events experienced since Baseline. ERS mediated the association between a Subjugation schema and dependent interpersonal stress, and behavioural-nonsocial avoidance mediated the relation of an Abandonment schema and dependent interpersonal stress ...


Employee Voice And Recipients' Appraisals/Reactions: The Effects Of Speech Style, Voice Type, And Voicer Status, Yongsuhk Jung Jun 2014

Employee Voice And Recipients' Appraisals/Reactions: The Effects Of Speech Style, Voice Type, And Voicer Status, Yongsuhk Jung

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this research was to investigate the consequences of employee voice (i.e., the expression of information, ideas, or concerns for organizational development), primarily focusing on voice assertiveness (i.e., the extent of voicing individuals’ assertive expressions) and its influences on perceptual appraisals and reactions of voice recipients. Based on a literature review, I proposed a process model that described the influential mechanisms of voice assertiveness. I also defined moderating conditions that may guide the nature of the influence processes, such as voice type (promotive voice vs. prohibitive voice), voicer status (subordinate vs. peer), and recipient core self-evaluations ...


Associations Between Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis System Gene Variants And Cortisol Reactivity In Preschoolers: Main Effects And Gene-Environment Interactions, Haroon I. Sheikh Jun 2014

Associations Between Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis System Gene Variants And Cortisol Reactivity In Preschoolers: Main Effects And Gene-Environment Interactions, Haroon I. Sheikh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Exposure to stressful events during early development has consistently been shown to produce long lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may increase vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. Recently reported genetic association studies indicate that these disorders may be influenced, in part, by gene-environment interactions (GxE) involving polymorphisms within the corticotrophin-releasing hormone and monoaminergic system genes. However, little is known about how genetic variants and life stress work to shape children’s neuroendocrine reactivity and emerging symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to examine main effects of candidate genes and GxE on the neuroendocrine stress response ...