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The Impact Of Statistical Learning On Language And Social Competency In Asd And Adhd: Divergent Findings, Kaitlyn M.A Parks Sep 2019

The Impact Of Statistical Learning On Language And Social Competency In Asd And Adhd: Divergent Findings, Kaitlyn M.A Parks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Statistical learning is a process that allows individuals to extract regularities from the environment and plays an important role in language acquisition, speech segmentation, and aspects of social behaviour. Little is known about the contribution of statistical learning impairments on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) related traits. The current study examined whether impairments in auditory and visual statistical learning are related to ASD and ADHD traits, language, and social competency. Decreased auditory, but not visual statistical learning abilities was related to increased autism traits and visual statistical learning and social competency abilities were mediated by language ...


Who I Am Is Shaped By My Past And Impacts My Future: Exploring Antecedents And Outcomes Of Self-Views Across International, Immigrant, And Canadian Born Undergraduate Students, Anjana Balakrishnan Sep 2019

Who I Am Is Shaped By My Past And Impacts My Future: Exploring Antecedents And Outcomes Of Self-Views Across International, Immigrant, And Canadian Born Undergraduate Students, Anjana Balakrishnan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation focused on how various self-views variables (self-esteem, self-concept, and self-concept clarity) differ across and within groups of university students, are influenced by internal and external factors, and predict academic and non-academic variables. Key models of self and group perceptions were used in deriving hypotheses (i.e., Shavelson, Hubner & Stanton, 1976; Bosson & Swann Jr, 2009; Stephan, Ybarra, & Morrison, 2009). Across the four studies, self-report questionnaires were used. Studies 1 and 4 were completed online by international, immigrant, and Canadian born students. Studies 2 and 3 examined only international students, involved an experimental manipulation, and were conducted in-lab. The aim of Study 1 was to ...


The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain Aug 2019

The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

The ways in which new members are integrated into a particular group environment—also known as organizational socialization processes—have been shown to be a powerful predictor of newcomer adjustment in the workplace. Yet, there is a scarcity of research on how sport teams manage the integration of new team members, and the consequences of different tactics. The current research uses the recently developed Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ) to evaluate how socialization processes are systematically related to youth athletes’ perceptions of their group environment. Across two time points, 202 competitive adolescent ice hockey players (Mage = 14 ...


The Effect Of Perceived Role Suitability On Prestige, Dominance, Performance, And Communication., Lynden Jensen Aug 2019

The Effect Of Perceived Role Suitability On Prestige, Dominance, Performance, And Communication., Lynden Jensen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pursuit of social rank is pervasive across societies and cultures. Previous studies have identified two distinct avenues for attaining social rank: prestige and dominance. While prestige (communication of skill/ability) and dominance (communication of superiority) are crucial to interpersonal interactions, it is unclear how people communicate prestige or dominance and how such communication affects team performance. To investigate these ideas, 206 individuals participated in a cooperative dyadic building task. A computer randomly assigned dyad members to one of two roles—builder (who handled and placed model pieces) and instructor (who directed the builder's actions). Additionally, using a false ...


Pattern Separation In The Ventral Visual Stream, Kayla Ferko Aug 2019

Pattern Separation In The Ventral Visual Stream, Kayla Ferko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pattern separation is a neural computation thought to underlie our ability to form distinct memories of similar events. It involves transforming overlapping inputs into less overlapping outputs. In the ventral visual stream (VVS) there is considerable evidence for hierarchical transformation from feature-based visual representations to conjunctive whole-object representations, with the latter allowing for distinct coding even when objects have significant feature overlap. In the current study, we asked whether this transformation can be understood as pattern separation, and whether pattern separation can be observed even outside the context of classic recognition-memory tasks. To investigate pattern separation in the VVS, we ...


Double Jeopardy: What Is Mentorship And Diversity-Valuing On Perceived Competence?, T. Eva Kwan Aug 2019

Double Jeopardy: What Is Mentorship And Diversity-Valuing On Perceived Competence?, T. Eva Kwan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous research has found that female managers and those who might benefit from diversity initiatives receive lower perceived competence ratings when they engage in activities that support or value diversity. Theoretically, this is supported by the role congruity theory, expectation states theory, and stereotype content model. This study sought to replicate these findings in the context of highly competent non-managerial employees and to examine the impact of mentorship on perceived competence ratings. The demerit to perceived competence from gender and using one’s voice to support diversity was not replicated in this study. However, mentorship had a modest positive effect ...


Improving Stimulus Realism: The Effect Of Visual Dimension On Affective Responding, Shannon Compton Aug 2019

Improving Stimulus Realism: The Effect Of Visual Dimension On Affective Responding, Shannon Compton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For decades researchers have used 2D stimuli under the assumption that they accurately represent real objects. This assumption has been challenged by recent vision and neuroeconomics research which has found that 2D images can evoke different neural and behavioural responses than real objects. The current study continues this line of research in the field of affective cognitive neuroscience; a field where small effect sizes are common and rapid habituation to affective stimuli used in the lab often occurs. The present study uses realistic 2D and 3D emotional images to determine the impact of visual dimension on affective responding. Subjective ratings ...


Not In My Occupation: An Examination Of Occupational Identification And Unethical Pro-Organizational Behaviour, Trevor Thomas Coppins Aug 2019

Not In My Occupation: An Examination Of Occupational Identification And Unethical Pro-Organizational Behaviour, Trevor Thomas Coppins

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Workplace identification has been investigated as a predictor of unethical pro-organizational behaviour (UPB), a form of unethical behaviour that primarily benefits the organization. While there have been fruitful findings for organizational identification, there is currently a lack of understanding for how other sources of identification influence this relationship. I sought to investigate whether occupational identification, defining oneself as a member of an occupation, would negatively moderate the relationship between organizational identification and UPB in an ethical decision-making study utilizing a sample of 193 accountants. Similarly, to past research, I hypothesized that moral disengagement would be a mediator in the model ...


Examining The Neural Correlates Of Vocabulary And Grammar Learning Using Fnirs, Leah Brainin Aug 2019

Examining The Neural Correlates Of Vocabulary And Grammar Learning Using Fnirs, Leah Brainin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Adults struggle with learning language components involving categorical relations such as grammar while achieving higher proficiency in vocabulary. The cognitive and neural mechanisms modulating this learning difference remain unclear. The present thesis investigated behavioural and neural differences between vocabulary and grammar processing in adults using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Participants took part in an artificial language learning paradigm consisting of novel singular and plural words paired with images of common objects. Findings revealed higher accuracy scores and faster response times on semantic vocabulary judgement trials compared to grammar judgement trials. Singular vocabulary judgement was associated with neural activity in part ...


Who Should Defend Victims Of Bullying? The Effects Of Relative Status On Defender And Victim Outcomes, Kunio Hessel Aug 2019

Who Should Defend Victims Of Bullying? The Effects Of Relative Status On Defender And Victim Outcomes, Kunio Hessel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although children often are encouraged to defend victims of bullying, social consequences for defenders are relatively unknown. The present study examined the protective effects of defender and bully status on social and victimization outcomes after defending. Participants (N = 222, 118 male, age 10-14, Mage = 12.28 years) from six schools in South-western Ontario completed a 44-item questionnaire in which they reported on bully-victim-defender relationships in their classroom. Polynomial regression with response surface analysis indicated that the status effects of multiple bullying roles provided information beyond the status effects of each individual role. When defender popularity exceeded bully popularity, bullies ...


Optimizing Gait Outcomes In Parkinson's Disease With Auditory Cues: The Effects Of Synchronization, Groove, And Beat Perception Ability, Emily A. Ready Jul 2019

Optimizing Gait Outcomes In Parkinson's Disease With Auditory Cues: The Effects Of Synchronization, Groove, And Beat Perception Ability, Emily A. Ready

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation explores a common, rehabilitative strategy for mitigating gait impairments in Parkinson’s disease (PD) called Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS). The effects of this intervention on gait in PD are well documented but highly variable, which poses difficulty for appropriate therapeutic application. Part of this variability may be related to individual musical abilities, such as beat perception accuracy, as most RAS interventions involve synchronizing with a beat. However, music is complex and variable. Therefore, factors inherent in the music itself may play a role in these differences, such as how much the music makes you want to move (groove ...


Neural Entrainment Indexes Statistical Learning In Children, Christine Moreau Jul 2019

Neural Entrainment Indexes Statistical Learning In Children, Christine Moreau

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Statistical learning is proposed as a mechanism for discovering structural patterns in speech through incidental exposure. However, studies have largely relied on assessing explicit memory after learning has occurred, which does not capture the time course and process of statistical learning per se. To better understand the dynamics of statistical learning, we assessed 8- to 12-year-old children using an EEG measure of learning, which captures changes in neural entrainment to words embedded in a continuous artificial language. Statistical learning was assessed post-learning using implicit and explicit behavioural tests. The neural entrainment results demonstrated rapid learning of word-level information, while post-learning ...


Leadership On The Ropes: How Hostile Followership Affects Leadership Behaviour, Noelle Baird Jul 2019

Leadership On The Ropes: How Hostile Followership Affects Leadership Behaviour, Noelle Baird

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current study examined the effect of followership on leadership behaviours, and whether leaders’ responses to hostile followership varies as a function of individual differences. This study used a randomized controlled between-subjects experimental design. Participants were assigned to the role of either the “team leader” or a “team member”. As the focal manipulation, participants were assigned to a hostile followership condition or a control condition. In these two conditions, a confederate either antagonized and challenged the leader’s ideas (i.e., hostile followership) or engaged in neutral behaviours (i.e., control condition) throughout a virtually-mediated group decision-making task. Support was ...


Modern Homonegativity And Lgbtq Activism: The Role Of Identity And Behaviour In Attitude Formation, Sarah E. Moroz Jul 2019

Modern Homonegativity And Lgbtq Activism: The Role Of Identity And Behaviour In Attitude Formation, Sarah E. Moroz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although reported prejudice toward sexual minorities seems to be decreasing over time, sexual minorities themselves continue to report many experiences of prejudice and discrimination. One potential explanation for this discrepancy in the sexual prejudice literature is that explicit prejudice is being measured in a manner that is no longer culturally relevant, as proposed by Morrison and Morrison (2003) in the development of their Modern Homonegativity Scale. Modern homonegativity (MH) is characterized by negative attitudes toward behaviours and policies that benefit LGBTQ people, rather than a negative attitude toward homosexuality itself. The present work aimed to further the field’s understanding ...


A Study Of Multiple Predictors Of Cognitive Fatigue In Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis, Leila M. Mackay Jul 2019

A Study Of Multiple Predictors Of Cognitive Fatigue In Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis, Leila M. Mackay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) commonly experience cognitive fatigue (CF), defined as a decrease in cognitive performance over a sustained activity and measured objectively or subjectively. In the present research, we evaluated the extent to which depression, anxiety, information processing speed, sleep quality, and disease severity predict subjective and objective CF, in a sample of 55 PwMS (37 females, M = 44.23). Although no statistically significant predictors of objective CF were demonstrated, all variables predicted subjective CF, R2adj = .384 [F (6, 40) = 5.783, p = .0002]. In particular, depression and information processing speed were found to be significant predictors of ...


Investigating How Neural Entrainment Relates To Beat Perception By Disentangling The Stimulus-Driven Response, Aaron Wc Gibbings Jul 2019

Investigating How Neural Entrainment Relates To Beat Perception By Disentangling The Stimulus-Driven Response, Aaron Wc Gibbings

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Beat perception – the ability to perceive a steady pulse in music – is nearly ubiquitous in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying this ability are unknown. A growing number of electroencephalography (EEG) studies suggest that beat perception is related to neural entrainment, a phenomenon in which cyclic changes in the excitability of populations of neurons synchronize with a rhythmic stimulus. However, the relationship between acoustically-driven and entrainment-driven neural activity is unclear. This thesis presents EEG research that extends our understanding neural entrainment is related to beat perception by characterizing, equating, and finally removing the stimulus-driven response in the neural signal isolating ...


Descriptive And Prescriptive Belief In A Just World, Joel Armstrong Jul 2019

Descriptive And Prescriptive Belief In A Just World, Joel Armstrong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Justice Motive has traditionally been conceptualized as a homeostatic, prevention-focused motivation, but attempts to measure individual differences in the Justice Motive (i.e., the Belief in a Just World) have not treated it as one. The measurement of a motivation requires accounting for both the current state and the goal state, but traditional measurement techniques have relied solely on beliefs about how just the world currently is (i.e., the current state). This has resulted in two major issues in the literature. First is the assumption that everyone who reports believing in a just world has reached that belief ...


The Origins And Development Of Visual Categorization, Laura Cabral Jun 2019

The Origins And Development Of Visual Categorization, Laura Cabral

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Forming categories is a core part of human cognition, allowing us to make quickly make inferences about our environment. This thesis investigated some of the major theoretical interpretations surrounding the neural basis of visual category development. In adults, there are category-selective regions (e.g. in ventral temporal cortex) and networks (which include regions outside traditional visual regions—e.g. the amygdala) that support visual categorization. While there has been extensive behavioural work investigating visual categorization in infants, the neural sequence of development remains poorly understood. Based on behavioral experiments, one view holds that infants are initially using subcortical structures to ...


Rudeness Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: How Gender Impacts Reactions To Incivility At Work, Sarah Carver May 2019

Rudeness Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: How Gender Impacts Reactions To Incivility At Work, Sarah Carver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although incivility is a widely studied topic in IO Psychology, little is known about how gender influences observer reactions to incivility. Using experimental vignettes, we examined how gender of the observer, instigator, and target influenced observer reactions to identical uncivil behaviours. Women observers reported stronger negative reactions to incivility than men. Additionally, results revealed that uncivil behaviour between a man instigator and man target provoked fewer negative reactions compared to women engaging in the same behaviour. Thus, men engaging in incivility against other men may be disregarded as just ‘boys being boys’, whereas women engaging in the same behaviour may ...


The Role Of Cognitive Distortions In The Longitudinal Relationship Between Problematic Drinking And Depressive Symptoms, Monica F. Tomlinson May 2019

The Role Of Cognitive Distortions In The Longitudinal Relationship Between Problematic Drinking And Depressive Symptoms, Monica F. Tomlinson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation investigated the mechanisms by which problematic drinking contributes to depressive symptoms in two longitudinal, prospective, cohort-design studies. Distorted cognitive processes (dysfunctional attitudes, negatively-biased information processing, and rumination) were proposed as mediators in the relationship between problematic drinking and depressive symptoms over time. Study 1 (N = 1090) assessed participants’ levels of problematic drinking, dysfunctional attitudes, and depressive symptoms at three-month intervals for one year. Findings indicated that the social and occupational consequences of alcohol use (e.g., interpersonal conflict) significantly predicted depressive symptoms. The amount and frequency of alcohol consumption did not. Therefore, impairment, but not level of consumption ...


(In)Visible: An Examination Of Eating Disorder Detection In Marginalized Women As A Function Of Weight Status And Ethnic Group Membership, Margaret Head May 2019

(In)Visible: An Examination Of Eating Disorder Detection In Marginalized Women As A Function Of Weight Status And Ethnic Group Membership, Margaret Head

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Women with eating disorders (EDs) from marginalized groups (e.g., higher weight women; Women of Colour) are under-treated compared to non-marginalized women. A reason for these disparities may be that women from marginalized groups do not fit the stereotype of a person with an ED (e.g., thin, White), and therefore ED symptoms are not recognized. The present study tested the impact of weight status and ethnic group on layperson detection of ED symptomology. Undergraduate students (N = 194) read a personal disclosure from a female target describing eating pathology. The target was described as “underweight”, “average weight” or “overweight” and ...


Perceptions Of Settlement Workers On The Needs And Challenges Of Female Syrian Refugees, Sheffy Bhayee Apr 2019

Perceptions Of Settlement Workers On The Needs And Challenges Of Female Syrian Refugees, Sheffy Bhayee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Syrians account for a large proportion of recent refugee migrants to Canada. Settlement workers are the main point of contact for refugees; they remain with these individuals from the day of arrival until they have successfully settled. They are not only providers of information and assistance to meet basic needs but carry the responsibility of ensuring cultural integration. For this, it is crucial to understand the intersectional identities of the incoming migrant; coupled with traumatic experiences of fleeing from war, carrying cultured gender roles, and dealing with the anxiety and stress of relocation. The current study describes the settlement experiences ...


Reflections Of Mentoring For Indigenous Youth In The Fourth R, Elisa Trovarello Apr 2019

Reflections Of Mentoring For Indigenous Youth In The Fourth R, Elisa Trovarello

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the reflections of peer mentors and mentees over time who have participated in the Fourth R: Uniting Our Nations Peer Mentoring Program. Data was collected from five youth mentors, four of whom also participated as mentees, via interviews utilizing a narrative based methodology in which story-telling and meaning-making was encouraged through the interview guide and procedure. Thematic content analysis of the data was conducted manually and revealed five key themes: 1) Cultural Connection, increases in 2) Intrapersonal Skills, 3) Interpersonal skills, 4) Social support, and 5) Education and Career Benefits. The ...


The Effects Of Linguistic Labels On Object Categorization And Perception, Xuan Pan Apr 2019

The Effects Of Linguistic Labels On Object Categorization And Perception, Xuan Pan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The linguistic relativity hypothesis (Whorf, 1956) claims that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently. Language-thought interaction is likely to be more complex in bilinguals because they have two languages that could influence their cognitive and perceptual processes.Lupyan’s (2012) Label-feedback Hypothesis proposes a mechanism underpinning language-thought interactions, arguingthat linguistic labels affect our conceptual and perceptual representations through top-down feedback.This thesis tested the Label-feedback Hypothesis by capitalizing on an interesting feature of Chinese. In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories (an exception issunflower), whereas in Chinese, some nouns provide ...


There Is A Secret Heart, Dru Farro Apr 2019

There Is A Secret Heart, Dru Farro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

late 14c., originally in grammar (in reference to certain nouns that do not name concrete things), from Latin abstractus "drawn away," past participle of abstrahere "to drag away, detach, pull away, divert;" also figuratively, from assimilated form of ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + trahere "to draw," from PIE root *tragh- "to draw, drag, move."

“To drag away” I find particularly evocative.

“The candidate must ensure that the abstract refers to all the elements that would make the thesis worth consulting.”

I find this, of course, to be a paralyzing requirement. This thesis is not worth “consulting,” I don’t ...


Help Wanted: Investigating Help-Seeking Behaviour Among Post-Secondary Students In Relation To Their Mental Health And Well-Being, Stephanie Karam Apr 2019

Help Wanted: Investigating Help-Seeking Behaviour Among Post-Secondary Students In Relation To Their Mental Health And Well-Being, Stephanie Karam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Research has been done on the importance of addressing mental health concerns while obtaining an undergraduate degree. Despite this, some students do not seek help and their mental health needs are unmet. The objective of the current study was to gain a holistic understanding of the barriers and facilitators affecting the help-seeking behaviour of undergraduate students, as told through the student perspective. Data was collected through an online consultation survey, which asked students for their perspectives of mental health supports on campus.A thematic analysis revealed a lack of promotion of mental health services, lack of academic time off, stigma ...


Community Based Support Group For Siblings Of Children With Down Syndrome: A Pilot Study, Ashley R. Amicarelli Apr 2019

Community Based Support Group For Siblings Of Children With Down Syndrome: A Pilot Study, Ashley R. Amicarelli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The developmental delays associated with Down syndrome (DS) have been shown to affect the well-being of all family members. Research has shown that typically developing (TD) siblings experience increased maladjustment such as internalizing difficulties, behavioural problems and increased stress, however there has been limited research focusing on interventions for this population. Two sibling dyads participated in this pilot study examining the effects of a social support group for TD siblings overall adjustment. Although the was a lack of strong empirical evidence supporting the intervention, five qualitative themes emerged outlining their coping, emotions, experiences and sibling relationships. This research can help ...


Examining The Impact Of Varying The Pace Of Instruction On Skill Acquisition And Off-Task Behaviour In Young Children With Autism And Down Syndrome, Carly A. Esipu Apr 2019

Examining The Impact Of Varying The Pace Of Instruction On Skill Acquisition And Off-Task Behaviour In Young Children With Autism And Down Syndrome, Carly A. Esipu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Considerable research has shown significant impairments in how children with developmental disabilities learn. A particular focus for these children has been on improving instruction, so that it maximizes acquisition. Modifying pace is one approach to tailoring intervention to meet the needs of these children. This study examined the effects of varying the pace of instruction during behaviour- analytic intervention while measuring acquisition and off task behaviour in young children with developmental disabilities. Five intervention target skills were randomly assigned to one of five paces of instruction and a single-subject adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate skill acquisition. In ...


Nonsuicidal And Suicidal Intent Among Children And Youth With Histories Of Trauma: The Role Of Protective Factors, Rebecca West Apr 2019

Nonsuicidal And Suicidal Intent Among Children And Youth With Histories Of Trauma: The Role Of Protective Factors, Rebecca West

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Developmental trauma remains a significant problem as several domains of impairment in children and youth exposed to trauma are affected. The momentum of research is currently focused on the consequences of developmental trauma reflected in disruptions in cognitive, neurological and psychological development which places children and youth at an elevated risk in developing maladaptive coping behaviours. Children and youth who report a history of trauma are typically more likely to engage in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal self-injury (SSI). This research explores whether social support and cognitive and executive functioning moderate the relationship between developmental trauma history and involvement in ...


Female And Male Perpetrators Of Domestic Homicide: A Gendered Phenomenon?, Jackie Salas Apr 2019

Female And Male Perpetrators Of Domestic Homicide: A Gendered Phenomenon?, Jackie Salas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Domestic violence is a global issue extending across regional, cultural, and social boundaries. In 2017, 137 women across the world were killed everyday by intimate partners or relatives. By far, women over-represent victims of domestic violence and domestic homicide across time. Although disproportionate, equally concerning is the issue of violence against men. Researchers have started to question whether the risk factors related to male and female’s use of violence is gendered, however no clear consensus has been reached. A retrospective case analysis was completed using domestic homicide cases reviewed by the Domestic Violence Death Review Committee based in Ontario ...