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Gender, Adverse Family-Of-Origin Experiences, And Current, Nichole M. Kuck Jan 2019

Gender, Adverse Family-Of-Origin Experiences, And Current, Nichole M. Kuck

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Prior research has determined that there is a trend within the military that military women experience more relationship disruption than military men and no conclusive findings as to why this may occur. There has been preliminary research indicating that military women experience more Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE)s than military men. Civilian research has shown definitive findings that there are long-term physical, emotional, and relational consequences of ACEs. This purpose of this study was to determine if an adverse family-of-origin environment characterized by traumatic events and a conflictual and less cohesive family-of-origin environment impacted current relationship functioning as a possible ...


Determining Cutoffs For The Psychometric Synonym Analysis To Detect Ier, Tyler Barnes Jan 2018

Determining Cutoffs For The Psychometric Synonym Analysis To Detect Ier, Tyler Barnes

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The validity of individual responses is required for valid inferences drawn from data. Insufficient Effort Responding (IER; Huang, Curran, Keeney, Poposki, & DeShon, 2012) is one possible threat to individual response validity. There are many methods to detect IER, but the Psychometric Synonyms Index, despite its practical utility, is understudied. The purpose of this study is to provide recommendations for its use that are empirically grounded. Using a simulation, I found that the strength of the within-pair correlations used for inclusion into the index, the number of pairs, the type of random responding, the correlation between the pairs, the skewness of ...


Exploring The Social Construction Of Masculinity And Its Differential Expression In Culturally Different Populations Using A Mixed Method Approach, Bryan Davis Jan 2018

Exploring The Social Construction Of Masculinity And Its Differential Expression In Culturally Different Populations Using A Mixed Method Approach, Bryan Davis

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Previous research on gender conflict and strain quantitatively measured traditional masculinity ideology from western societal norms. The current study added to the previous research and qualitatively studied masculinity performance in men from different cultures: Black, Asian, Latino. Results from this study added to masculinity research due to the mixed method approach of both quantitative and qualitative research in males from diverse groups. Information gained from this study enabled masculinity to be operationally defined by different cultural focus groups and compared in order to explore distinct masculinity expression. Information was gained by measuring traditional masculinity ideology quantitatively on the Male Role ...


Development Of A Psychoeducational Parenting Group For Mothers Addicted To Opioids With Infants With Neonatal Abstinance Syndrome, Kaitlyn Marie Eichinger Jan 2018

Development Of A Psychoeducational Parenting Group For Mothers Addicted To Opioids With Infants With Neonatal Abstinance Syndrome, Kaitlyn Marie Eichinger

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Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome occurs when an infant is exposed to opioids in utero and has many associated health concerns post-partum. In the US in 2012, approximately 22,000 infants were born with NAS. Mothers of these infants have a unique set of needs that affect their ability to adequately care for their infants as they transition home with their infant after giving birth. However, few programs specifically address the needs of this population. The program described in this dissertation is based upon a thorough review of the literature and seeks to fill the gap in the available programming for women ...


Too Long And Too Boring: The Effects Of Survey Length And Interest On Careless Responding, Cheyna Katherine Brower Jan 2018

Too Long And Too Boring: The Effects Of Survey Length And Interest On Careless Responding, Cheyna Katherine Brower

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Careless responding (CR), also called insufficient effort responding (IER), occurs when survey participants respond to items without regard to item content. The presence of careless responding threatens the validity of inferences made from self-report data (Huang et al., 2012; Huang et al., 2015). This study examines the effects of two proposed causes of careless responding (Mead & Craig, 2012): questionnaire length and participant disinterest. Specifically, I hypothesized that (a) questionnaire length is positively related to careless responding, (b) participant interest is negatively related to careless responding, and (c) questionnaire length has a weaker relationship with careless responding among participants who are ...


Comparison Of Cyber Network Defense Visual Displays, Christen Elizabeth Lopez Sushereba Jan 2018

Comparison Of Cyber Network Defense Visual Displays, Christen Elizabeth Lopez Sushereba

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This work describes an Ecological Interface Design (EID) comparison of five displays (Alphanumeric, 2D and 3D Aggregate, Radial, and Treemap) on accuracy and latency performance for simple cyber network data analysis tasks. Twenty students from the Computer Science and Engineering Department at Wright State University participated for compensation. Questions (n = 12) ranged from global to specific aspects of the data and required two types of responses: numerical estimates and binary visual judgments. EID principles of attunement and specificity (Bennett & Flach, 2011) guided the interpretation of results. Participants answered faster when the display's visual forms (vertical extent, area, or angle ...


Exploring The Influence Of Meditation Experience On Stress Responses And Empathy: The Mediating Role Of Self-Expansion, Jennifer N. Baumgartner Jan 2018

Exploring The Influence Of Meditation Experience On Stress Responses And Empathy: The Mediating Role Of Self-Expansion, Jennifer N. Baumgartner

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The purpose of the present research was to examine the influence of meditation experience on biopsychosocial responses to stress, empathy, and sense of self. An expanded sense of self was examined as a pathway through which meditation experience influences appraisals, affect, and empathy. It was expected that meditation experience would predict greater challenge stressor appraisals in response to an acute psychosocial stressor and associated affective, behavioral, and psychophysiological stress outcomes. In addition, it was expected that greater meditation experience would predict higher trait empathy and empathic accuracy. Participants (N = 110) included experienced meditators from a variety of practices and people ...


Sport Factors, Body Image, And Eating Behaviors In College Student Athletes, Kelsey Moran Jan 2018

Sport Factors, Body Image, And Eating Behaviors In College Student Athletes, Kelsey Moran

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Eating disorders are a common psychological disorder with athletes being at a higher risk. The rates of clinical and subclinical (i.e. subthreshold, partial diagnosis, or other specified feeding and eating disorder in DSM-5). There are several sport-specific risk factors that increase the prevalence rate of clinical and subclinical eating disorders and body image concerns. Several eating disorder development models exist for the general population, but one specific sport specific factor: coaches, has been left out, despite their significant impact on athletes. This study examined the relationship between coaching behaviors, eating disorder symptomology, and body image concerns. Potential moderators of ...


The Impact Of Feminist Identity Development On The Internalization Of Sociocultural Pressures And Body Dissatisfaction, Jill R. Klotzman Jan 2018

The Impact Of Feminist Identity Development On The Internalization Of Sociocultural Pressures And Body Dissatisfaction, Jill R. Klotzman

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The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between perceived sociocultural pressures and internalization of the thin ideal and to determine whether or not high levels of feminist identity development moderate this relationship. The study also investigated the relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction and whether or not high levels of feminist identity development moderated the relationship. Two multiple hierarchical regression analyses were performed using data collected from a female undergraduate student sample (N=403) from Wright State University. These data were derived from a survey containing the Perceived Sociocultural Pressure Scale (PSPS ...


A Study Of Dementia Assessment Practices In Ohio Prisons, Elizabeth Kate Turner Jan 2018

A Study Of Dementia Assessment Practices In Ohio Prisons, Elizabeth Kate Turner

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Dementia is a chronic disorder of the mental processes generated by brain injury or disease, and is characterized by gradual, irreversible loss of memory, judgment, functional abilities, health, and identity. While dementia can occur in individuals that would not be considered "aging" it primarily occurs in people over 60 (Christodoulou, 2012). Dementia recognition and assessment in prison is currently an overlooked issue in the United States. There are few examples of research regarding best practices for addressing dementia in corrections, including the standard protocols, policies, and procedures for screening and managing the needs of inmates with dementia. This qualitative study ...


Semantic And Structural Influences On Spatial Knowledge Acquisition, Robert B. May Jan 2018

Semantic And Structural Influences On Spatial Knowledge Acquisition, Robert B. May

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Spatial memory for the layout of large-scale environments, configural spatial memory, has typically been construed as being very structured, using something like a metric coordinate system and using environmental objects to define that coordinate system. Inside of buildings, rectangular rooms have walls at right angles that have been considered to fulfill this role. However, the influence of non-spatial factors and considerations of relatively unstructured environments have not received much attention. Semantic organization was found to improve configural spatial memory for landmark objects in rooms with walls and it was independent of the structural relations among landmark objects (Colle & Reid, 2000 ...


A Therapeutic Storybook For Adjustment And Acculturation In Middle Eastern Refugee Children, Christina E. Zawalski Jan 2018

A Therapeutic Storybook For Adjustment And Acculturation In Middle Eastern Refugee Children, Christina E. Zawalski

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The current global sociopolitical climate has resulted in the influx of refugees to the United States from all over the world. Those coming from the Middle East represent a large portion of refugees in the U.S., and children within this group make up a large percentage. The refugee process is characterized by stressful experiences in the premigration, migration, and resettlement stages. These experiences put refugee children at risk for distress and other mental health difficulties. Refugees must learn how to adjust and acculturate once in the host country, which can be a difficult task. Teachers are in a unique ...


Symbol Grounding In Social Media Communications, Andrew J. Hampton Jan 2018

Symbol Grounding In Social Media Communications, Andrew J. Hampton

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Social media data promise to inform the disaster response community, but effective mining remains elusive. To assist in the analysis of community reports on disaster from social media, I draw on an integrated model of psycholinguistic theory to investigate the patterns by which language use changes as a function of environmental influence. Using social media corpora from several disasters and non-disasters, I examine variations in patterns of lexical choice between domain independent paired antonyms with respect to an Internet-specific base rate to determine generic sentinels of breach of canonicity. I examine social media content with respect to disaster proximity and ...


Recurrence Quantification Models Of Human Conversational Grounding Processes: Informing Natural Language Human-Computer Interaction, Clayton D. Rothwell Jan 2018

Recurrence Quantification Models Of Human Conversational Grounding Processes: Informing Natural Language Human-Computer Interaction, Clayton D. Rothwell

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Human-human communication is a coordinated dance (Clark, 1996) that requires each participant to consider the other participants. The majority of this coordination centers on the conversational grounding process that develops and maintains the common ground, or shared understanding between the individuals (Clark and Schaefer, 1989). Conversational grounding is also a crucial process for human-computer interaction using language-based methods, such as spoken dialogue systems. Previous work has tied grounding processes to the performance outcomes in collaborative tasks (Reitter and Moore, 2014; Gergle et al., 2013, 2004; Clark and Krych, 2004), making it a high priority for increasing capabilities of spoken dialogue ...


Safety-Net Medical Clinic Behavioral Health Integration, Melanie K. Stephenson Jan 2018

Safety-Net Medical Clinic Behavioral Health Integration, Melanie K. Stephenson

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The purpose of the study is to obtain an improved understanding of behavioral health needs and social determinants of health among the patient population at the safety-net clinic Reach Out of Montgomery County (ROMC). The aims of the study include: 1) identify valid and reliable screening tools that are appropriate for use in primary care to measure behavioral health concerns, 2) identify valid and reliable screening tools that are appropriate for use in primary care to measure social determinants of health, 3) administer the developed survey to a representative sample of patients served by ROMC, 4) conduct statistical analysis of ...


Interface Design For The Supervisory Control Of Multiple Heterogeneous Unmanned Vehicles, Kyle Joseph Behymer Jan 2017

Interface Design For The Supervisory Control Of Multiple Heterogeneous Unmanned Vehicles, Kyle Joseph Behymer

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In order to meet the demand for enabling one operator to control multiple heterogeneous unmanned vehicles numerous automated support systems are being developed. These systems are too often focused on replacing, rather than supporting, the human decision maker. In contrast, the Intelligent Multi-UxV Planner with Adaptive Collaborative/Control Technologies (IMPACT) system was designed from a collaborative systems approach that allowed human operators to work with autonomous systems to accomplish mission tasks. Multiple cognitive task analyses were conducted with base defense experts as well as unmanned vehicles (UV) operators to inform the development of human-autonomy interfaces (HAI) that were designed to ...


Aggression And Boxing Performance: Testing The Channeling Hypothesis With Multiple Statistical Methodologies, Silas G. Martinez Jan 2017

Aggression And Boxing Performance: Testing The Channeling Hypothesis With Multiple Statistical Methodologies, Silas G. Martinez

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D. G. Winter, John, Stewart, Klohnen, and Duncan (1998) demonstrated the first use of the channeling hypothesis to show how the explicit personality trait of extraversion channeled one’s implicit achievement and affiliation personality to predict important life outcomes. Since then, various implicit and explicit measures of personality have been combined, but moderation analyses have predominantly been the “mechanism of operation” to demonstrate the channeling hypothesis (Bing, LeBreton, Davison, Migetz, & James, 2007, p. 147). The current study had two goals. The first goal was to use implicit and explicit measures of aggression to predict performance of 325 men and women ...


I Saw Something, Do I Say Something? The Role Of The Organization, Supervisor, And Coworkers In Encouraging Workers To Peer Report Others’ Counterproductive Work Behavior, Joseph William Dagosta Jan 2017

I Saw Something, Do I Say Something? The Role Of The Organization, Supervisor, And Coworkers In Encouraging Workers To Peer Report Others’ Counterproductive Work Behavior, Joseph William Dagosta

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Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) harm organizations and their members (Bennett & Robinson, 2000; Niehoff & Paul, 2000). CWBs, however, often go unnoticed by management. Peer reporting, which refers to employees notifying organizational authorities of their peers’ CWBs, can help the organization detect CWBs. Employees, however, are generally hesitant to peer report (Bowling & Lyons, 2015; Treviño & Victor, 1992). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the mechanisms by which the organization, supervisor, and the workgroup might each facilitate employees’ peer reporting of CWBs. Drawing from situational strength theory, I argue that the organizational peer reporting policies, supervisors’ encouragement to peer report, and workgroup norms regarding peer reporting each create a “strong” peer reporting situation in which employees are more likely to peer report. Furthermore, I argue that commitment to the organization, supervisor, and workgroup moderates the respective relationships of organizational policies, supervisors’ encouragement, and workgroup norms with employees’ peer reporting of CWBs. Using a sample of workers from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk; N = 450), I found that organizational commitment moderates the relationship between organizational peer reporting policies and peer reporting of CWBs targeted at the organization. My findings have important practical and theoretical implications for the peer reporting literature.


Processing Global Properties In Scene Categorization, Hanshu Zhang Jan 2017

Processing Global Properties In Scene Categorization, Hanshu Zhang

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The current research examined the role of global properties in human observers' scene perception. In Experiment 1, comparisons of four global properties ("natural", "manmade", "open", and "closed") were collected online from a wide range of subjective choices. These answers were analyzed in a pairwise comparison model to generate four standardized reference ranking scales describing the extent to which characteristics can describe scene global properties. In Experiment 2, scene images selected from the reference scales were used to test human's performance in processing global properties conjunctively. Cognitive modeling indicated that human observers were more efficient in categorizing scene images as ...


Exploring The Time-Based Resource-Sharing Model Of Working Memory Through Computational Modeling, Joseph Glavan Jan 2017

Exploring The Time-Based Resource-Sharing Model Of Working Memory Through Computational Modeling, Joseph Glavan

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Working memory is the fundamental component of cognition that allows us to temporarily maintain information needed for concurrent processing. An existing theory from the literature, the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model, posits that working memory is a serial, rapidly switching, attentional refreshing mechanism. While others have sought previously to formalize the TBRS model into a computational process model, I go further, using ACT-R to model the influence of working memory on an entire task from end to end. I leverage ACT-R's existing base-level learning mechanism, typically used to model recency and frequency effects in long-term memory, to enact the attentional ...


Multi-Gain Control: Balancing Demands For Speed And Precision, Lucas Warner Lemasters Jan 2017

Multi-Gain Control: Balancing Demands For Speed And Precision, Lucas Warner Lemasters

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Woodworth's Two-Component Theory (1899) partitioned speeded limb movements into two distinct phases: (1) a central ballistic open-loop mechanism and (2) a closed-loop feedback component. The present study investigated the implementation of multi-gain control configurations that utilized separate gain values for each movement phase. A target acquisition task using Fitts' Law (1954) was performed within a virtual environment using three control devices with three gain settings: mono-gain, dual-gain and continuous gain. The gain settings differed by the amount of gain values available to the participant. It was found that dual-gain and continuous gain configurations yielded lower movement times and higher ...


The Role Of Peripheral Vision In Configural Spatial Knowledge Acquisition, Lisa J. Douglas Jan 2017

The Role Of Peripheral Vision In Configural Spatial Knowledge Acquisition, Lisa J. Douglas

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This study investigated the importance of the peripheral visual field for acquiring configural spatial knowledge, especially knowledge about structural components like doorways, corners, and walls, but also information about objects. Although peripheral vision helps us orient our bodies in space, navigate successfully through an environment, and physically interact with objects in near physical space (Kesner & Creem-Regehr, 2012; Burgess, Jeffrey, & O’Keefe, 1999), previous research has not investigated the role of the peripheral visual field for the acquisition of spatial knowledge during navigation. All participants in this experiment viewed a virtual navigation tour through a four-room environment with objects located in each room ...


Role Of Self-Efficacy And Anxiety In Resilience Effects On Performance And Well-Being, Kathleen Renee Wylds Jan 2017

Role Of Self-Efficacy And Anxiety In Resilience Effects On Performance And Well-Being, Kathleen Renee Wylds

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The current study examined the role of motivational and affective factors in resilience effects on the outcomes performance and well-being. Prior research has examined the direct relationships between resilience and outcomes but not the variables through which resilience has beneficial effects on outcomes. The current study examined a path model that addresses the underlying mechanisms (e.g., motivational and affective variables) that explain the beneficial effects of resilience on performance and well-being. Results provided support for a revised path model and evidence of a motivational pathway, an affective pathway, and a more complex pathway that explain how resilience has beneficial ...


Self-Compassion And Its Relation To Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, Justin M. Wiseman Jan 2017

Self-Compassion And Its Relation To Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, Justin M. Wiseman

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There have been relatively few studies that have empirically explored the relationship between self-compassion and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Previous studies have found that engagement in self-injurious behaviors is closely related to being self-critical (Glassman, Weierich, Hooley, Deliberto, & Nock, 2007; Hooley, Ho, Slater, & Lockshin, 2010).Therefore, it has been suggested that higher levels of self-compassion may be associated with less engagement in NSSI. The current study explored the relationship between self-reported self-compassion and past self-reported occurrences of NSSI. This study used Neff's (2003a) 12 item Self-Compassion Scale- Short Form (SCS-SF) to measure one's level of self-compassion and a Client Information/Demographics ...


Sampling Expertise: Incorporating Goal Establishment And Goal Enactment Into Theories Of Expertise To Improve Measures Of Performance, Frank Eric Robinson Jan 2017

Sampling Expertise: Incorporating Goal Establishment And Goal Enactment Into Theories Of Expertise To Improve Measures Of Performance, Frank Eric Robinson

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Task-specific performance measures informed by incomplete theories of expertise do not capture the full range of domain-relevant behaviors, threatening content validity. Surgery is a particularly good example of a domain that has neglected cognitive accounts of performance in favor of task-specific measures of technical skill and experience-based definitions of expertise. Likewise, cognitive accounts of performance tend to neglect skilled performance, including the interaction between automaticity and cognitive control. The present study merges cognition and psychometrics in the context of a surgical task. I analyzed archival surgical performance data from a study of surgical training, including video of human cadaver procedures ...


Predicting Goal Progress And Burnout Using Goal Hierarchies, Truman J. Gore Jan 2017

Predicting Goal Progress And Burnout Using Goal Hierarchies, Truman J. Gore

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The current study examined the relationships between aspects of goal hierarchies (i.e., goal importance, goal progress, goal relatedness, goal number, goal achievement) and specifically their effects on the important outcomes of goal progress and burnout. Although goal pursuit is an important area of study in psychology, aspects of goal hierarchies are understudied, especially in relation to perceived progress and outcomes of wellbeing. The current research provided evidence that goal progress is negatively related to burnout, that the relatedness between goals of the same hierarchical level and across levels influences our perceptions of the importance of these goals, and that ...


The Effect Of Action Video Game Play On The Distribution And Resolution Of Visuospatial Attention, Andrew Thomas Fent Jan 2017

The Effect Of Action Video Game Play On The Distribution And Resolution Of Visuospatial Attention, Andrew Thomas Fent

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Previous research has found that Video Game Players, or VGPs, perform better on a variety of attention tasks (i.e. attentional blink, useful field of view, flanker compatibility, etc.) as compared to Non-Video Game Players, or NVGPs. We examined the extent of this previously observed VGP attentional advantage on a target identification task. Most VGP studies have examined the VGP advantage on tasks that primarily require detection but not identification. Identification is an important process beyond detection for encoding and later retrieving information. VGPs and NVGPs were tested on briefly flashed strings of digits subtending less than 10 degrees of ...


Changes In State Suspicion Across Time: An Examination Of Dynamic Effects, Steve Khazon Jan 2016

Changes In State Suspicion Across Time: An Examination Of Dynamic Effects, Steve Khazon

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State Information Technology (IT) suspicion is the simultaneous action of uncertainty, mal-intent, and cognitive activity about underlying information that is being electronically generated, collated, sent, analyzed, or implemented by an external agent (Bobko, Barelka, & Hirshfield, 2014). Understanding IT suspicion is important in both military and civilian contexts as both are growing increasingly reliant on automation to augment human performance (e.g., Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, & Zickuhr, 2010). The current process model of state IT suspicion describes how suspicion arises and its immediate correlates. Little is known about how suspicion changes over time and what factors influence this change. Drawing upon the ...


Detecting Insufficient Effort Responding: An Item Response Theory Approach, Tyler Douglas Barnes Jan 2016

Detecting Insufficient Effort Responding: An Item Response Theory Approach, Tyler Douglas Barnes

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Insufficient Effort Responding (IER) is prevalent enough in self-report data to cause issues with construct validity. There are many ways to detect IER, but they are less than ideal as they each detect different forms of IER. I compared an Item Response Theory (IRT) approach consisting of the lz person-fit statistic and the Person Fluctuation Parameter (PFP) to longstring, non-consecutive longstring, even-odd split, and psychological synonyms indices. I simulated 3200 samples with one of four types of random responding: consecutive responding, non-consecutive patterned responding, random responding following a normal distribution, and random responding following a uniform distribution. Also, I generated ...


Stop With The Questions Already! The Effects Of Questionnaire Length And Monetary Incentives On Insufficient Effort Responding., Anthony Gibson Jan 2016

Stop With The Questions Already! The Effects Of Questionnaire Length And Monetary Incentives On Insufficient Effort Responding., Anthony Gibson

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Insufficient Effort Responding (IER) can negatively impact self-report data quality. The purpose of the current study was to investigate questionnaire length as a predictor of IER and to examine whether the presence of a monetary incentive moderates the relationship between questionnaire length and IER. I predicted that participants who were assigned to complete longer questionnaires would engage in more IER than would respondents who were assigned to complete shorter questionnaires. I predicted that the effects of questionnaire length on IER would be minimized by the presence of a monetary incentive to respond carefully. Using a sample of undergraduate students (N ...